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• I 




BOTTICHER'S remarks on the style of TACITUS. 


Sijirti (EDitian, QTontttcti ant £i]i)ira1)(lf. 


i-i- i . H H I .'3. 

Harvard College Library 

0-: t , ■ 

W. :.. BKIUGB, of Dedham, 
ia Doc. 1898. 



Preface ....... vii. 

Table of the Times of Tacitus . ... . ix. 

life of Tacitus ...... 1 

Bemarks on the Style of Tacitus . 15 
The Germania . . . .73 

The Agricola ...... 99 

The Eirst Book of the Annals .... 131 

Notes on the Germania ..... 183 

Notes on the Agricola ..... 245 

Notes on the First Book of the Annals . 301 

Stemma of the Family of Augustus . . 359 

Index to Bemarks on the Style of Tacitus . 363 


Numerous alterations and improvements have 
been made in this Edition. The text has been 
carefully revised, and a considerable portion of 
the notes re-written. In the notes, the Editor has 
derived valuable assistance from the recent com- 
mentaries of Orelli and Eitter, as well as from 
the remarks of Wex in his edition of the Life of 

W. S. 

London, February Srd, 1855. 


53 Caius Cornelius Tacitus was perhaps bom in this year, 

as he was a few years older than the younger Pliny, who 
was bom in a.d.6i. 

54 Claudius dies on the 13th of October, and is succeeded by 


58 Quintus Veranius succeeds Aulus Didins in the command 

of Britain, and dies in the same year. 

59 Quintus Veranius is succeeded in the command of Britain 

60 by Suetonius Paulinus, fifth consular legatus, who is 
accompanied by Agricola as military tribune. 

[Agricola was at this time 32 or 23 years of age. He 
was bom on the 13th of June, a.I). 37, at Forum Julii 
(JFryus) in GauL] 

61 Expedition of Paulinus to Mona. General insurrection of 

the Britons under Boadicea. 

62 Suetonius Paulinus is succeeded by Petronius Turpilianus, 

sixth consular legatus. Agricola (aged 25) returns to 
Rome, marries Domitia Decidiana, and is a candidate 
for the quaestorship. 

63 Agricola (aged 26) quaestor in Asia. His eldest son dies 

after the birth of a daughter. Nero marries Poppaea. 

64 Petronius Turpilianus is succeeded by Trebellius Maxi- 

mus, seventh consular legatus. Britain, as far as Angle- 
sea, mostly under the Koman dominion. Agricola 
returns to Bome, and spends the rest of the 'year in 

65 Agricola (aged 28) tribune of the plebs. Piso*s conspiracy 

against Nero. Seneca and Lucan put to death. Great 
fire at Kome. Persecution of the Christians. 



66 Agricola (aged ag) is a candidate for the praetorship. 

Tacitus receives instruction from some of the most cele- 
brated rhetoricians of his time; among others, from 
Marcus Aper, Julius Secundus, and Quintilian. Death 
of Paetus Thrasea. 

67 Agricola (aged 30) is praetor. 

68 Nero put to death on the gth of June. He is succeeded by 

Galba, who entrusts to Agricola (aged 31) the investi- 
gation respecting the treasures of the temples. 

6g Galba is put to death on the 15th of January, and is suc- 
ceeded by Otho. Otho's partisans, at the plunder of 
Intemelium, kill Agricola's mother, in the beginning of 
April. Otho is put to death on the 16th of April, and 
is succeeded by Vitbllius. Vespasian is proclaimed 
emperor in Egypt and Judaea. Agricola (aged 32) 
joins Vespasian's party. Vitellius is put to death on 
the 21st of December. Vespasian acknowledged empe- 
ror by the senate, after the death of Vitellius. Mutiny 
of the soldiers in Britain against Trebellius Maximus, 
who is succeeded in the command by Vettius Bolanus, 
eighth consular legatus. 

70 Agricola (aged 33) is entrusted with the command of the 

twentieth legion in Britain. Jerusalem taken by 

71 Vettius Bolanus is succeeded by Petilius Cerealis, the 

ninth consular legatus. Tacitus begins to speak in 

73 Agricola (aged 36) returns to Bome, and becomes a patri- 


74 Agricola (aged 37) commences his government of the pro- 

vince of Aquitania. 

75 J Cerealis succeeded by Julius Frontinus, the tenth consular j 

legatus. I 

76 Frontinus subdues the Silures. Agricola (aged 39) recalled 

from Aquitania. 



77 Agricola (aged 40) consul suffectus in July, August, and 

September. He betroths his daughter, who was at that 
time scarcely fourteen, to Tacitus, and gives her to him 
in marriage after his consulship. 

78 Agricola (aged 41) succeeds Erontinus in the command of 

Britain. He conquers the Ordovices, and subdues the 
island of Mona. Tacitus is appointed yigintivir and 

79 Vespasian dies on the 23rd of June, and is succeeded by 

Titus. Agricola (aged 42) advances as far as the Sol- 
way Frith, and subdues almost the whole of England. 
Introduces civilisation among the Britons. 

80 Tacitus either aedile or tribune of the plebs. Agricola 

(aged 43) subdues the southern nations of Scotland as 
far as the Frith of Tay. 

81 Titus dies on the 15th of September, and is succeeded by 


84 Agricola (aged 47) defeats the Caledonians under Calga- 

cus, at the Grampian HiUs. The Boman fleet sails 
round the north and west coasts of Britain. Expedition 
of Domitian against the Catti. 

85 Agricola (aged 48) is recalled from Britain, and is suc- 

ceeded by Sallustius LucuUus. 

86 Appius Sabinus and the Eoman army are defeated by the 

Dacians under Decebalus. 

87 Several Boman armies are defeated in Moesia, Dacia, Ger- 

many, and Pannonia. The public voice calls for Agri- 
cola as general. Domitian sets out for Bacia, and 
remains in Moesia. 

88 Tacitus praetor. The Ludi Saeculares are performed. 

89 Unsuccessful expedition of Domitian against the Marco- 

manni and Quadi. Civica put to death. The philoso- 
phers are banished from Rome by Domitian. 

90 Agricola (aged 53) declines the province of Asia. Tacitus 

retires with his wife from Eome. 



Qi Triumph of Domitian. 

93 Death of Agricola on the 23rd of August Tacitus returns 

to Home. Helvidius the younger, Arulenus Busticus, 
and Herennius Senecio condemned to death. 

94 Second banishment of the philosophers from Home. 

96 Domitian is put to death on the 18th of September, and is 

succeeded bj Nebva. 

97 Tacitus consuL He writes and publishes his Agricola in 

this year. Nerva adopts Trajan on the 19th of Sep- 

98 Nerva dies on the ayth of January, and is succeeded by 


100 Tacitus, in conjunction with Pliny, accuses Marius Priscus, 

proconsul of Africa, of extortion in the administration 
of this province. 

101 Trajan makes war against the Dacians and defeats them, 
to and eventually reduces Dacia into the form of a Boman 
105 province. 

Tacitus appears to have lived till the time of Hadriai^, 
who succeeded Trajan a.d. 117; but he took no part in 
public affairs after his consulship. 


The time and place of the birth of Tacitus are unknown. 
He was nearly of the same age as the younger Pliny,* 
who was bom about a.d. 6i , but a little older. His gentile 
name is not sufficient evidence that he belonged to the 
Cornelia Gens ; nor is there proof of his having been 
bom at Interamna (Temi), as it is sometimes affirmed. 
Some facta relative to his biography may be collected 
from his own writings and from the letters of his friend, 
the younger Pliny. 

Cornelius Tacitus, a Roman eques, is mentioned by 
Pliny ,^ as a procurator in Gallia Belgica. Pliny died 
A.n. 79, and the procurator cannot have been the his- 
torian; but he may have been his father. In an in- 
scription of doubtful authority he is named Cornelius 
Verus Tacitus. Tacitus was first promoted by the 
emperor Vespasian,^ and he received other favours from 
his sons Titus and Domitian. C. Julius Agricola, who 
was consul a.d. 77, betrothed his daughter to Tacitus 
in that year, but the marriage did not take place until 
the following year. In the reign of Domitian, and in 
A.D. 88, Tacitus was praetor, and he assisted as one of 
the quindecemviri at the solemnity of the Ludi Seculares 

' From the Dictionary ofOreek and JRoman Biography. 
' Plin. £p, yii 30. * H. N, Tii. 16, note, ed. Hardouin. 



which were celebrated in that year, the fourteenth con- 
sulship of Domitian.^ 

Agricola died at Rome a.d. 93, but neither Tacitus 
nor the daughter of Agricola was then with him. It is 
not known where Tacitus was during the last illness of 
Agricola ; for the assumption that he ever visited either 
Britain or Germany cannot be proved. He appears to 
say that he was himself a witness of some of the atroci- 
ties of Domitian.^ In the reign of Nerva, A..D. 97, 
Tacitus was appointed consul suffectus, in the place of 
T. Virginius Rufus, who had died in that year. Tacitus 
pronounced the funeral oration of Rufus, '' and it was/' 
says Fliny " the completion of the felicity of Rufiis to 
have his panegyric pronounced by so eloquent a man."^ 
Tacitus had attained oratorical distinction when Pliny 
was commencing his career. He and Tacitus ware 
appointed in the reign of Nerva (a.d 99) to conduct the 
prosecution of Marius, proconsul of Africa, who had 
grossly misconducted himself in his province. Salvius 
Liberalis, a man of great acuteness and eloquence, was 
one of the advocates of Marius. Tacitus made a most 
eloquent and dignified reply to Liberalis. 

Tacitus and Fliny were most intimate friends. In the 
collection of the letters of Pliny, there are eleven letters 
addressed to Tacitus. In a letter to his friend Maximus,^ 
Pliny shows that he considered his friendship with 
Tacitus a great distinction, and he tells the following 
anecdote : — On one occasion, when Tacitus was a spec- 
tator at the Ludi Circenses, he fell into conversation 
with a Roman eques, who, after they had discoursed on 

'^ Annal. xi. 1 1. ^ Agricola^ c. 45. 

' Plin. Ep. ii. 1. • ix. 03. 


various literary subjects for some lime, asked Tacitus if 
he was an Italian or a provincial; to which Tacitus 
replied, " You are acquainted with me, and mj pur- 
suits." " Are 70U," rqoined the stranger, " Tacitus or 
Fliny?" The sixteenth letter of the sixth book, in 
which Plinjr describes the great eruption of Vesuvius and 
the death of his unde, is addressed to Tacitus : and for 
the purpose of enabling him to state the facts in his 
historical writings. Among other contemporaries of 
Tacitus were QuintOian, JuUus Florus, Matemus, M. 
Aper, and Vipsanius MessaJa. 

The time of the death of Tacitus is unknown, but we 
may perhaps infer that he survived Trajan, who died 
A.D. 117.9 Nothing is recorded of any children of his, 
though the emperor Tacitus claimed a descent from the 
historian, and ordered his works to be placed in all 
(public) libraries ; and ten copies to be made every year 
at the- public' expense, and deposited in the Archeia.^® 
Sidonius ApoUinaris mentions the historian as an ances- 
tor of Polemius who was a prefect of Gaul in the fifth 

The extant works of Tacitus are, the Life of Juhus 
Agricola, a treatise on the Germans, Annals, Histories, 
and a Dialogue on the Causes of the Decline of Elo- 
quence. It is not certain if Tacitus left any orations : 
no fragments are extant. 

The life of Agricola was written after the death of 
Domitian, a.d. 96, as we may probably conclude from 
the introduction, which was certainly written after 
Trajan's accession. This life is justly admired as a spe- 
cimen of biography, though it is sometimes very obscure ; 
' Hist i 1. '® Yopiscas, Tacitus Imp* c 10. 


but this is partly 0¥dng to the corruption of the text. 
It is a monument to the memory of a good man and an • 
able commander and administrator, by an affectionate 
son-in-law, who has portrayed in his peculiar manner 
and with many masterly touches, the virtues of one of the 
most illustrious of the Romans. To Englishmen this 
life is peculiarly interesting, as Britain was the scene of 
Agricola's great exploits, who carried the Roman eagles 
even to the base of the Grampian mountains. It was 
during his invasion of Caledonia that Britain was first 
circumnavigated by a Roman fleet.^^ 

The Hiatoriae were written after the death of Nerva» 
A.D. 98, and before the Annates, They comprehended 
the period from the second consulship of Galba, a.d. 68, 
to the death of Domitian, and the author designed 4o 
add the reigns of Nerva and Trajan.^^ The first four 
books plone are extant in a complete form, and they 
comprehend only the events of about one year. The 
fifl^ book is imperfect, and goes no further than the 
commencement of the siege of Jerusalem by Titus, and 
the war of CiviHs in Germany. It is not known how 
many books of the Histories there were, but it must 
have been a large work, if it was all written on the same 
scale as the first five books. 

The AnnaUs commence with the death of Augustus, 
A.D. 14, and comprise the period to the death of Nero, 
A.D. 68, a space of four and fifty years. The greater 
part of the fifth book is lost; and also the seventh, 
eighth, ninth, tenth, the beginning of the eleventh, and 
the end of the sixteenth, which is the last book. These 
lost parts comprised the whole of Caligula's reign, the 
^» Agncola, c. 38. " HisU 1 1. 


first five years of Claadias, and the two last of Nero. 
The imperfections of the Annals and the Histories are 
probably owing to the few copies which were made 
during the later empire ; for the care of the emperor 
Tacitas to have them copied seems to imply that without 
it these works might have been forgotten. If they had 
been as popular as some other works, copies would have 
been multiplied to satisfy the demand. 

The treatise entitled De Moinbw et PopuUs Germaniae 
treats of the Germanic nations^ or of those whom Tacitus 
comprehended under that name, and whose limits he 
defines by the Rhine land the Danube on the west and 
south, the Sarmatae and Daci on the east, and on the 
north-west and north by the sea. It is of no value as a 
geographical description ; the first few chapters contain 
as much of the geography of Germany as Tacitus knew. 
The main matter is the description of the political insti- 
tutions, the religion, and the habits, of the various 
tribes included under the denomination of Germani. 
The sources ejL the author's info rmation are not stated, 
but as there is no reason to supposeTEatTEe^Eadieen 
Germany, all that he could know must have been 
derived from the KomanTxpei^rons east of the Rhine 
and nortiT'ofth'e "TCmube, and from the accolmts of 
tradera*j(¥hgn^fint~ai~leaat.^^far as the Roman eagles, 
and perhaps farther. The value of the information con- 
tained in this treatise has often been discussed, and its 
credibility attacked; but we may estimate its true cha- 
racter by observing the precision of the writer as to 
those Germans who were best known to the Romans 
from being near the Rhine. That the hearsay accounts 
of more remote tribes must partake of the defects of all 


sach evidence, is obvious ; and Vre cannot easily tell 
whether Tacitus embellished^ thS^ which he lizard ob- 
scurely told. But to consider the Germany" as a fiction 
is one of those absurdities which need only be recorded, 
not refuted. 

The dialogue entitled De Oratoribus, if it is the work 
of Tacitus, and it probably is, must be his earliest work, 
for it was written in the sixth year of Vespasian.** The 
style is more easy than that of the Annals, more diffuse, 
less condensed; but there is no obvious difference 
between the style of this Dialogue and the Histories, 
nothing so striking as to make us contend for a different 
authorship. Besides this, it is nothing unusual for works 
of the same author which are writt-en at different times 
to vary greatly in style, especially if they treat of differ- 
ent matters. The old MSS. attribute this Dialogue to 
Tacitus. One of the speakers in the dialogue attributes 
the decline of eloquence at Rome to the neglect of the 
arduous study of the old Roman orators, to which 
Cicero has left his testimony; but another speaks, 
Matemus, has assigned a direct and immediate cause, 
which was the change in the political constitution. 
Oratory is not the product of any system of government, 
except one in which the popular element is strong. 

The Annals of Tacitus, the work of a mature age, 
contain the chief events of the period which they em^ 
brace, arranged under their several years. *^ There seems 
no peculiar propriety in giving the name of Annales to 
this work, simply because the events are arranged in 
the order of time. The work of livy may just as well 
be called Annals. In the Annals of Tadtos the Princeps 
*• C.17. " -4nna/.iv.7i. 


or Emperor is the centre about which events are gi'ouped, 
a mode of treating^ history which cannot be entirely 
thrown aside in a monarchical system, but which in 
feeble hands merges the history of a people in the per- 
sonality of their ruler. Thus in Tacitus, the personal 
history of Tiberius, Claudius, and JNero, fills up a large 
space. Yet the most important pubHc events, both in 
Italy and the provinces, are not omitted, though every 
thing is treated as subordinate to the exhibition of im- 
perial power. The Histories which were written before 
the Annals, are in a more diffuse style, and the treat- 
ment of the extant part is different from that of the 
Annals. Tacitus wrote the Histories as a^contemporary; 
the Annals as not a contemporary. They are two dis- 
tinct works, not parts of one ; which is clearly shown 
by the very different proportions of the two works : the 
first four books of the Histories comprise about a year, 
and the first four books of the Annals comprise fourteen 

It was his purpose in the Annals to show the general 
condition of the empire of which Rome was the centre, 
and the emperor the representative : not only to show 
the course of events, but also their causes ;^^ for this 
remark, which is made in the Histories, may be applied 
also to the Annals. But the lustory of despotism in 
any form does not convey the poUtical instruction that 
is derived from the history of a free people. Tacitus 
claims the merit of impartiality,^^ because he lived after 
the events that he describes ; but a writer who is not a 
contemporary may have passions or prejudices as well as 
one who is. In his Histories^? be states that neither to 
^ Hist. 1 4. » iliwia/.i.i. "li. 


Galba, nor to Otho, nor to ViteUius, did he owe obliga- 
tions, nor had he received from them any wrong. From 
Vespasian and his sons, Titus and Domitian, he had 
received favours ; yet, in the commencement of his life 
of Agricola, he has recorded the horrors of Domitian's 
reign ; nor can we suppose that in the lost books of the 
Histories, he allowed the tyrant to escape without 
merited chastisement. 

The history of the empire presents the spectacle of 
a state without any political organisation, by which the 
tyranny of a ruler could be checked when it became 
insupportable. The only means were assassination , 
and the only power that either the emperor could use 
to maintain himself, or a conspirator could employ to seize 
the power or secure it for another, was the soldiery. 
From this alternate subjection to imperial tyranny and 
military violence, there were no means of escape, nor 
does Tacitus ever give even the most distant hint that 
the restoration of the republic was either possible or 
desirable; or that there were any means ofpubhc 
security, except in the accident of an able emperor to 
whom a revolution might give the supreme power. Yet 
this empire, a prey to the vices of its rulers, and to 
intestine commotion, had its favourable side. The 
civilised world obeyed a revolution which -was accepted 
in Rome, and the provinces were at peace with one 
another under this despotic yoke. France did not 
invade Italy nor Spain; Greece was not invaded by 
barbarians from the north ; Asia Minor and Syria were 
protected from the worse than Roman despotism, the 
despotism of Asia ; and Egypt and the north of Africa 
enjoyed protection against invaders, even though they 


sometimes felt the rapacity of a goverDor. The political 
condition of the Roman empire mider the Caesars is a 
peculiar phase of European history. Tacitus has fur- 
nished some materials for it ; but his method excluded 
a large and comprehensive view of the period which is 
comprised within his Annals. The treatment in the 
Histories has a wider range. The general review of the 
condition of the empire at the time of Nero's death is 
a rapid, but comprehensive sketch.^^ 

The moral dignity of Tacitus is impressed upon his 
works; the consciousness of a love of truth, of the 
integrity of his purp ose? His great power is in the 
knowledge of the human mind, his insight into the 
motives of human conduct ; and he found materials for 
this study in^tKF history of the emperors, and particu- 
larly Tiberius, the arch-hypocrite, and perhaps half- mad- 
man. We know men's intellectual powers, because 
they seek to display them: their moral character is 
veiled under silence and reserve, which are sometimes 
diffidence, but more frequently dissimulation. But 
dissimulation alone is not a sufficient cloak ; it merely 
seeks to hide and cover, and, as the attempt to 
conceal excites suspicion, it is necessary to divert the 
vigilance of this active inquisitor. The dissembler, 
therefore, assumes the garb of goodness ; and thus he 
is hypocrite complete. The hypocrite is a better 
citizen than the shameless man, because by his hypo- 
crisy he acknowledges the supremacy of goodness, while 
the shameless man rebels ageunst it. The hypocritical 
is the common character, or society could not exist. 
In the Annals of Tacitus we have all characters; but 

" i. 1, etc 


the hypocritical prevails in' a despotic government, and 
a state of loose positive morality. There may be great 
immorality and also great shamelessness, bat then 
society is near its dissolation. Under the empire there 
vras fear, for the government was despotic ; but there 
was not wiiversal shamelessness, at least under Tibe- 
rius : there was an outward respect paid to virtue. The 
reign of Tiberius was the reign of hypocrisy in all its 
forms, and the emperor himself was the great adept in 
the science ; affectation in Tiberius of unwillingness to 
exercise power, a lesson that he learnt from Augustus, 
and a show of regard to decency ; flattery and servility 
on the part of the great, sometimes under the form .of 
freedom of speech. To penetrate such a cloud of de- 
ception, we must attend even to the most insignificant 
external signs; for a man's nature will show itself, be 
he ever so cautious and cunning. In detecting these 
slight indications of character lies the great power of 
Tacitus : he penetrates to the hidden thoughts through 
the smallest avenue. But the possession of such a 
power implies something of a suspicious temper, and 
also cherishes it ; and thus Tacitus sometimes discovers 
a hidden cause, where an open one seems to offer a 
sufficient explanation. Tacitus employed this power in 
the history of Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. 
Suetonius tells us of a man's vices simply and barely ; 
Tacitus discovers what a man tries to conceal. His 
Annals are filled with dramatic scenes and striking 
catastrophes. He laboured to produce effect by the 
exhibition of great personages on Ih'e stage ; but this 
is not the business of an historian. The real matter of 
history is a whole people ; and their activity or suffering} 


mainly as affected hj systems of government, is that 
which the histomn has to contemplate. This is not the 
method of Ta^EiSTm iSs Annals ; his treatment is di- 
rectly biogn^ihicftU only indirectly political. His method 
is inferior to that of Thucydides, and even of Polybius, 
but it is a^method almost necessitated by the existence 
of political power in the bands of an individual, and 
modem historians, except within the present centoiy^ 
have generally foUowed in the same track from the 
same cause. 

Tacitus VnftWTmfj^ing nf Q>iinflii^<ipjjy^ which was his 

misfortune, not his fault. His practical morality was 
the Stoical, the only one that could give, consolation in 
the age m which he lived. The highest example of 
Stoical morality among the Romans is the emperor 
Aurelius, whose golden book is the noblest monument 
that a Roman has left behind him. Great and good 
men were not wanting under the worst emperors, and 
Tacitus has immortalised their names. Germanicus 
Caesar, a humane man, and his intrepid wife, lived 
under Tiberius; Corbulo, an honest and able soldier, 
fell a victim to his fidelity to Nero. The memory of 
Agrioola, and his virtues, greater than his talents, has 
been perpetuated by the affection of his son-in-law ; and 
his prediction that Agricola will survive to future gene- 
rations is accomplished. Thrasea Paetus and Helvidius 
Priscus were modeb of virtue ; and Arria, the wife of 
Paetus, remembered the virtues of her mother. The 
jurists of Rome under the empire never forgot the bright 
example of the Scaevolae of the republic : it is strange, 
though true, that the- great lawyers of Rome were among 
the best men and the best citizens that she produced. 


As to the mass of the people we learn little from Ta- 
citus: they have only become matter for history in 
recent days. The saperficial suppose, that when rulers 
are vicious the people are so too ; but the mass of the 
people are in all ages the most virtuous, if not for other 
reasons, they are so because labour is the condition ot 
their existence. The Satires of Juvenal touch the 
wealthy and the great, whose vices are the result of 
idleness and the command of money. 

Tacitus had not the belief in a moral government of 
the world which Aurelius had ; or if he had this belief, 
he has not expressed it distinctly. He loved virtue, he • 
abhorred vice ; but he has not shown that the constitu- 
tion of things has an order impressed upon it by the 
law of its existence, which implies a law-giver. His 
theology looks something like the Epicurean, as exhi- 
bited by Lucretius. A belief in existence independent 
of a coporeal form, or a life after death, is rather a hope 
with him than a conviction. ^9 

The style of Tacitus is peculiar, though it bears some 
resemblance to Sallust's. In the Annals ^t is con cige, 
vigorous, an d pregnant w ith meaning; laboured, but 
elaboraterh^with art, and stripped of every superfluity. 
A single word sometimes gives effect to a sentence, 
and if the meaning of the word is missed, thq^ sense of 
the writer is not reached. He leaves something for the 
reader to fill up, and does not overpower him with 
words. The words that he does use are all intended to 
have a meaning. Such a work is probably the result of 
many n*anscriptions by the author ; if it was produced 

^' Compare Agricota, c,^. Annals, iii. 18, yi.22, and the am- 
biguous or corrupt passage, HisLi, 4. 


at once in its present form, the author must have prac- 
tised hidtiself till he could write in no other way. Those 
who have studied Tacitus much, end with admiring a 
form of expreB|ion which is at first harsh and almost 
repulsive. One might conjecture that Tacitus, when he 
wrote his Annals, had hj much lahour acquired the art 
of writing with difficulty. 

The materials which Tacitus had for his historical 
writings were ahundant : public documents ; memoirs, 
as thosa of Agrippina ; histories, as those of Fabius 
Rusticus and Vipsanius Messala ; the Fasti, Orationes 
Prindpum, and the Acta of the Senate ; the conversa- 
tion of his Mends, and his own experience. It is not 
his practice to give authorities textually, a method 
which adds to the value of a history, but impairs its 
effect simply as a work of art. He who would erect an 
historical monument to his own fame will follow the 
method of Tacitus, compress his< own researches into a 
narrow compass, and give them a form which is stamped 
with the individuality of the author. Time will confer 
on him the authority which the rigid critic only allows 
to real evidence. That Tacitus, in his Annals, purposely 
umitted everything that could impair the effect of his 
work as a composition, is evident. The Annals are not 
longer than an epitome would be of a more diffuse 
history; but they differ altogether from those worthless 
literary labours. In the Annals Tacitus is generally 
brief and rapid in his sketches; but he is sometimes 
minute, and almost tedious^when he comes to work out 
a dramatic scene. Nor does he altogether neglect his 
rhetorical art when he has an opportunity for displaying 
it ; a Roman historian could never forget that a Roman 


was fto orator. The condensed sl^^le of Tadtns some- 
times makes him obscure, but it is a kind of obscurity 
that is dispelled by careful reading. Yet a man must 
read car^iUy and often, in order to understand him; 
and we cannot suppose that Tacitus was ev^ a popular 
wrii^. His real admirers will perhaps always be few : 
his readers fewer still. Montaigne read the history of 
Tacitus from the beginning to the end, and he has 
given an opinion of Tacitus in his peculiar way ; and 
his opinion is worth more than that of most people.^^^ 
Montaigne justly commends Tacitus for not omitting to 
state rumours, reports, opinions ; for that which is 
generally believed at any time is an historical fact* 
though it may bie &ct in no other sense. 

^ Montaigne's Essays, iii. ch.8y ^ Of the Art of Discoursing.'* 





Tacitus generally preserved in his language the 
usage of former writers, and chiefly of the historians; 
and only departed from it in such a degree as to improve 
and increase certain peculiarities which the ancient wri- 
ters sometimes display in single instances, and in which 
they too have mostly followed the language of the poets. 
It is true, he adopted the usage of his age, and in-* 
dulged his own peculiar genius in new constructions, 
and in the formation of compound words ; but he never 
in these instances transgressed the laws of his native 
tongue ; like a great legislator, who best provides for 
the common welfare by retaining on the one hand the 
customs of antiquity, while on the other hand he also 
employs his own genius in inventing laws which are 
better and more suited to the demands of his age. 

There are indeed many passages in his writings, 
which are rendered obscure by a conciseness almost 
intricate and abrupt : — ^many which, departing from the 
common mode of speech, call for much attention in the 


reader. But just as the milk-like exuberance of Livy 
and the wonderful clearness of Cicero delight the minds 
of their readers, and gratify them with a pleasure which 
is presented, as it were, spontaneously and obtained by no 
great labour ; so the jjieatyjafjacit usy obsc ure indeed, 
hut never unpleasing, never impenetrable to the edge 
of genius, — whilst it calls forth all the reader's strength, 
and never suffers his mind to be inactive, hut always 
engages him more and more in new eSbrts to imbibe 
deeply the loftiest and most beautiful sentiments, — fills 
and pervades with a joy assuredly not inferior, nay, im- 
perishable, the mindft^ those who come to the perusal 
of the works of Tacitus, not as to thickets bristling with 
thorns, but as to a consecrated grove, glimmering with 
a doubtful but holy lights ~" 

Now the laws which Tacitus has followed in the com- 
position of his writings, and the sources from which 
chiefly all those things proceed which constitute the 
peculiarity of his style, ,may be most conveniently re- 
ferred to variety, which we may also call copiousness, — 
to brevity, on which the force of language depends, — and 
to the poetical complexion pf his narrative,^^ This three- 
fold division, therefore, we shall carry out in such a 
manner as, by observing some certain order, to enume- 
rate all the peculiarities of the style of Tacitus, either 
as examples of the variety, or of the brevity, or of the 
poetical complexion, by which his style is marked ; but 
with this restriction, that many peculiarities cannot be 
described in words and brought under rules, and we 

'* But it must be observed, that, in many passages, all these 
qualities are united ; so that in bis very brevity there appears at 
the same time variety and a poetical complexion. 


think it sufficient to have collected here examples of 
each kind, and thus to have pointed out to the students 
of Tacitus the road hy which they may arrive at a fuller 
knowledge of that writer. 



Of all writers Tacitus has taken most pains to vary 
both single words and the composition of sentences. 
In this quality he was preceded chiefly by livy and 
Sallust. And the care of Idvy in this respect indicates 
copiousness and exuberance ; but that of Sallust an af- 
fectation of antiquity. The reason of this peculiarity 
Tacitus himself plainly enough declares. For he says 
that " his labour was in a restricted space and inglo- 
rious ;" — ^that " the positions of nations, the vicissitudes 
of battles, the triumphant deaths of generals, interest 
and re&esh the minds of readers ; but he had to string 
together cruel mandates, perpetual accusations, treache- 
rous friendships, the ruin of innocent men, and causes 
which had the same issue, things strikingly similar even 
to satiety,"^ 

It is not, therefore, to be wondered at that in coUect- 

* Annals iv. 3a, 33. — ** Nobis in arto et inglorins labor." — " Situs 
gentium, varietates praeliorom, clari dacnm exitas retinent ac re- 
dintegrant legentium animum: nos saeva jnssa, continuas accnsa- 
tiones, fallaccs amicitias, pemiciem iunocentiam, et easdem exitu 
caosas conjangimus, obyia rerum similitudine et aatietate.^* 


ing the memorials of past events, he should have taken 
pams to acquire that variety which presented itself 
spontaneouslj to the writers of the old republic, in order 
to avoid burthening and wearying the minds of his read- 
ers by expressing in the same words events perpetually 
recurring. As to the fact, that for this very end he 
used certain ancient forms and words, and interspersed 
them in his narrative, we know that though he retained 
as much of all ancient things as was proper and becom- 
ing, yet he did not despise the more polished style of his 
own age.^ 

The following are examples of his variety. 

I. His modbs of writing words are various. 

a. Inrumpere and irrumpere, adstitit and astitit, adli- 
cere and allicere, adpellere and appelleres coUoqui, colligere, 
and ccnloqui, conlectusi offundere and ohfunderes accete- 
rare, accoUre, accursus and adcelerare, adcoUre, ad- 

b. Cotidie and qvjotidtes promiscus, promisee and pro- 
fmcuus, promiscue ; abisse and ahiisse, epistula and epi- 
Btolai volguSy volnus, voltus, convolstts, revolsus, mavoltis, 
and vulgus, vulnus, &c. ; and also in some places saevotn, 
pravom, alvom, captwom, donativom avonculo, for the 
common saevum, pravum, &c. ; tegumen, tegimen, and 
tegmen; balneae, {balnea) and balineaei claudere and 
cludere; inclutus and inclitiLS; quotiens, totiena, viciens, 
septtuzgiens, and qtboties, tottes, &c. ; trammittere, trans ' 
nature, and tramittere, tranatare ; vinculum and vinclum^ 

-* See the Dialogas de Oratoribus, c. 22. — " Variet compositio- 
nem; nee omnes clausalas nno et eodem modo determinet.** 
And c. 18.—" Non esse nnnm eloquentiffi yaltum/' &c. 


JSercuU and JTerc^; Ubido and (once) hAidoj aUissumw, 
cptumus, optumates, proxumius (these example^ are found 
each onlj once in Tadtas), and altiasimtis, &c., monimen" 
turn and monumentum; decumus and decimus, &c. ; wrgere 
and urgwre, intellegere and mtdUgere, oreretur and on- 
retuTf poteretur, and potiretur, detractare and detrectare. 

II. Words arb yariouslt Inflbctbd. 

a. Tigranen, Tigrcmem, Lirm, Turesim; the acca« 
sative pluial ending in ts of participles and adjectives 
chiefly, less frequentiy of substantives, is interchanged 
with the common form, as tmminentis, omnis, iris, namsi 
—the genitive which ends in um with the common ter- 
mination in orvms deum (very rarely deorum), Uberum^ 
poaterum (Annal. iii. 72), quindecimvirum (Annal vi. 
12): parentum and parentium. By a poetical usage 
received from the writers of the Silver Age, we read in 
Annal iv. 41 salutantum for scdutantium, and several 
examples of the same kind occur repeatedly. Cat, Cnd, 
CueaelU, patulei, BvhelU^ Pacari, but Tiberii, Pompeii, 
&c. ; dit die, dU, dUs and dek ; qu3m8, and not less fre- 
quentiy quia. — ^The dative ending in u is very frequent 
in Tacitus, as well as the common termination, as luxu, 
nuru, metu, decursu, crudatu. Caesar, who uses that 
form more frequentiy, generally gives nothing else but 
magistratu, equitaiu, exerdtu, 

b. Heteroclite and defective words : pkbes, plebei 
(gen. and dat.), and plebs^ plebis, pUhi (so in Cicero, 
Idvy, and other former writers) : juventa, senecta, (seni- 
um), poetical words, and fuvenius, senectus (after Idvy's 
example) ; but juventus in Tacitus always means 
youths, juventa no less constantly the age of youths 


Douns are both of the first and fifth declension in 
the nominative (as is usual), in the accusative, and in 
the ablative cases : materia and materies, mollitia and 
molltties, duritta and durities (so also in Cicero), with an 
obsolete genitive, Annal. iii. 34, multa duritie veterum 
in melius et laetius mutata, unless it is better to take 
duritie for the ablative, with ex understood. — ObUvio 
and (Hist. iv. 9) oblivhim (the plural oblivia occurs fre- 
quently in the poets), ohsidio and ohsidmrn (so Varro, 
Flautus, Sallust), which in Tacitus indeed is the same 
as chaes, Annal. xi. 10, Meherdaten — ohsidio nobis da- 
tum. So he uses consortium for the common consortia 
(as Liv« iv. 5); alimonium, Annal. xi. 16, after Varro's 
example, but Plautus, Suetonius, Gellius, Apuleius, use 
aUmonia, ae. — Eventus and (what is not an uncommon 
word with Cicero) eoentum^ Annal. iv. ^^, plures, alio- 
rum eventis docentur, praetextu and (Hist. ii. 100 ; iii. 
80 ; as in Seneca and Suetonius) praetexto,' — VologeseSf 
genitive Vologesis and Vologesi, dative Vologeso, accusa- 
tive Vologesen. ablative Velogese. — Add to these decus 
and decor (as in the writers of the same age), sonos and 
(the poetical form) sonor, honos, and honor; satietas and 
(Sallust) satias; semis and (Sallust, Livy) secuss munera 
and munia (and this frequently) ; muri and momia (com- 
pare Hist. iii. 30, near the end) ; gratia and gratesj exa- 
nimus, exanimiss semermus, semermis ; inermus, iner^ 
miss claritvdo, claritasi firmitudo^firmitas, 

c. Heterogeneous words : hci and loca, where they 
refer to a country, are used indifferently by Tacitus ; 
other writers less frequently use hci. In Annal. xv. 32, 
hci are the seats in a theatre ; on the other hand, Livy 
and Vellius call them hca. Arguments, which are 


treated of in a debate or speech, and also passages or 
sentences of speeches or books are called by all writers, 
and Tacitus likewise, loci. Some names of cities ending 
in a are both feminine and neater ; Artaxata, Hieroso- 
lyma, and others. 

III. The following examples will prove how great is 
ihe variety and copiousness of Tacitus in thb actual 


a. The word auris is used by no writer so often and 
so variously: for he gives aures praebere, adire, perstrm" 
gere, advertere, mbuere, vitare, poUtiere, obstruere, verbe- 
rare, offendere; — cid aures conferre, pervenirei auribua 
obtemperare, aurtbus non satis competere, aures respuunt, 
agnoscunt aliquid; — diversitas, fastidium aurium: ora- 
tio auribus judicum accommodataj diversissimarum 
aurium copia; — cognitae populi aures; aures adreC" 
tiores, trepidae, lentae, promptae, pronae, superbae, 
aequae, apertae, ita formatae. — Two reasons may be 
given why Tacitus so often used this word : first, be- 
cause he was an orator, on which account most examples 
of it are furnished by his Dialogue concerning Orators ; 
and therefore Cicero also and Quintilian often use this 
word ; secondly, because in describing times which, 
to use his own words, had destroyed by prosecutions 
the intercourse of speaking and hearing, and recalled 
the recollection of the well-known ear^* of the tyrant 
Dionysius, he was able, by the use of this mode of 
speech, to express with the greatest propriety and effect 

^ A combination of passages, by which Dionysins is said to have 
been able to overhear the words of his captives as he sat in his 


many things which belonged to the wicked arts of ty- 
ranny and slavery. 

b. There is generally a variety of the saine kind in 
describing bidden and secret things. Thus, to pcdam are 
opposed secreto, intus, domi, per accidtum, per occulta, m 
occulto, privatim, furtim, secretis, criminatumibus, occuUia, 
nunUiSy inter aecreta conviviu voto: — Annal. xvi. 7. 
mortem Poppaeae ut palam trntem^ ita recordantHms 
laetam: Hist. i. 10, palam laudaresi secreta male 
audiebant'y — propalam — aecretia nuntiis, secretis pro- 

c. Since Tacitus had to mention frequent deaths, he 
has in these cases also used very great variety ; relin-' 
guendae vitae certua ; finia aponte aumptua, qiuieaita mora/ 
— auo ictu mortem invenire, finem vitae aibi ponere, «w- 
mere eositium, voluntario exitu cadere, aua manu cadere, 
mortem aponte aumere^ ae vita pHvare, ae ipaum interfi^ 
cere (and interfectue also is used in a rather unusual 
way of voluntary death in Annal. i. 2, interfecto Antonio : 
compare Hist. i. 53, occiao Nerone)^ voluntate exatingui, 
vim vitae auae adferre, vitam abatinentia finire, egeatate 

' dhi perimi, venenum haurire, gladio incumbere, aeniH 
manu ferrum tentare; — venaa, hrackia exaolvere, reaoU 
vere, abrumpere, interacindere, ahacindere, interrumpere, 
inddere, aperire ruraum; levem ictum venia inferres^^ 
dejungi, exatingui, ohire, concedere, oppetere, Jinire, fato 

fungi, fato obire, fato concedere, morte fato propera 
auferri, mortem ohire, mortalitatem explere, finem vitae 
implere, aupremum diem explere, concedere vita, cedere 
vita, vitam finire ; — mora (mortea), dbitua, eocceaaua, 

finia; Dial. iS,fatalia et meua diea. 

d. Propinqua veapera, flexo in veaperam dte, veapera- 


scenU dU, inumbranie vespera, praecqfUi in oocamm die 
extremo die, aero diei, obscuro diei. 

e. Those phrases also are changed* which it is the 
usual custom not to alter; as aqua et igni interdicere (An- 
nal. iii. 38. iv. ai), aqua et igni arceri (Annal. iii. 50), 
aqua atque igni prohiberi (Annal. xvi. 12). 

f . Particles are varied more frequentlj than in other 
writers : haud and non, haudquaquam, nequaquams dein, 
deindes exin, exinde ; prom, promde,' modo — mode and 
interim — quandoque, modo — nunc, modo — ecce nunc ; erga 
and with the same signification contra, adversua, in; 
pence and ad, in, apud; juxta and ad, apud, — ^They 
serve for a transition : hie atque, (ac, et) tcdibua, hie et 
pluribus, ceterum, dehmc, kinc, ad hoc, ad haec (besides) 
ac, et, inter quae, interea, per idem tempue, sub idem 
tempue, interim, aimul, proinde, exinde, deinde, igitur 
(seldom itaque) ergo, at, aJt Hercule (HercU). 

rV. Tacitus is also remarkable for great copiousness 
and variety of words ; because, besides the words re- 
ceived in common use, he likewise frequently uses such 
as are found only in single passages in the writers of the 
former age ; because too he adopted those words with 
which the poets of every age, and the writers of his own 
time, enriched the Latin tongue: and lastly, because he 
himself discovered and composed many new words ; as 
centurionattu, exstimulator, instigatrix, inturbidua, guin- 
quiplicare, praepoaae, provivere, pervigere, auperatagnare, 
auperurgere. And he followed the same plan in thb 
MKANiNOs OF WORDS, uot ouly Combining the dif- 
ferent senses which they had at different times, but 
also referring them according to his own taste to other 


things, which bor^ some degree of affinity to the things 
which other writers had used those words to express. 
Of this I will give the following examples : — 

a. As in Cicero we read adducere habenas, in Seneca 
adducere vultum ad tristitiam, in Quintilian adducta 
frons; so in Tacitas, with a slight change in the mean- 
ing of the word, Annal. xii. 7, adductum (i. e. severum, 
rigidum) et quasi virile servitium; xiv. 4, familiaritate 
juveniU — et rurstis addvctus : and Tacitus alone appears 
thus to have used the adverb, adductius (regnari, irnpe^ 
ritare), in Germ. 34, and Hist. iii. 7. 

b. Expedire, 1) As in its common use, is the same as 
praeparare, parare, as arma, cUimenta, iter, concilium; 
Annal. xiv. ^5, qui me non tantum praevisa, aed svhita 
expedire docuisti, concerning facility of speech. 2) 
Then in the same sense as exponere : examples of this 
meaning are furnished hj Terence, Virgil, and other 
poets; Annal. iv. 1, nunc, originem, mores — expediam, 
and so frequently. 3) Tacitus alone appears to have 
used it absolutely, for expeditumem suscipere ; Hist. i. 
10, nimiae voluptates cum vacaret; quotiens expedierat 
magnae vtrtutes/ chap. 88, multos — secum expedire juhetj 
but exactly in the same way, ducere is used for ducere 
exercitum not only by Tacitus, but much oftener by 

c. Extemus, besides its common use, in which it 
simply applies to foreign nations, as Annal. xi. 16, ire 
externum ad imperium, is also in Tacitus synonymous 
with hostUis; Hist. iv. 32, t^ dbsisteret hello, neve externa 
armisfalsis velaret; iii. 5, ne inter discordias (Romano- 
rum) ^jctema molirentur. In the same manner diversus 
is used by Tacitus of things relating to enemies and 


opposing parties, as Annal. xiv. 30, stabat pro Utore cU" 
versa (the hostile) aciea; Hist. iii. 5, ne majare ex 
diverso mercede (received from their adversaries) ju8 
fasque exuerent; and dwersus is generally synonymous, 
with cdienus, abhorrens ab aUqua re : Annal. ii. 2, dt- 
veraus a majorum institutie; vi. 33, diversa induere 
(espouse different sides) ; but thus Livy also speaks of 
diverei auctores. 

V. In thb Grammatical Construction of 
Words the very great variety of the style of Tacitus 
is discovered. 

a. The singular and plural numbers are interchanged: 
Tniles, eques (u^ed also of those who are of equestrian 
rank), veteranue, legionarius and mUites, equites, &c., 
and oftener indeed than in former writers: Annal. 
vi. 35, cwm Parthus — distraheret turmas, Sarmatae'^ 
contis gladiisque ruerenU Hist. iii. 59, Samnts Pelig-' 
nusque et Mcarsi. The plural, used for the sake of ma- 
jesty, is often joined with the singular: Annal. iv. 11, 
ut peterem ab itSy quorum in manua cura nostra venerit 
&c., Agr. 43, nohia nihil comperti affirmare ausim, 

b. Different cases are joined together: ^nnal. xii. 
29, legionem — pro ripa cbmponeretj svbsidio victis et 
terrorem adversus victoresi Hist. i. 53, corpore ingens, 
animi immodicuss Annal. xv. 59, nomen mulieris Arria 
Galla, priori marito DomAius Silua: and the same 
cases with different significations : Ger. 35, ocddere 
aolent, non disciplina et severitate, aed impetu et irat 
Hist. ii. 22, molarea ingenti pondcre ac fragore provol- 
vunti Agr. 6, ludoa et inania honoris moderationia atque 
abundantiae duxitf i. e. that moderation should be 




observed in their celebration, and, in fact, that they 
should only be expected from the wealthy. [A difilbrent 
reading of this passage is given in the text. — ^Ed.] 

c. The dative, accusative, gonitive, and prepositions 
are used in the same kind of construction : promptus 
rei, in rem, ad rem; vrrumpere terram, m terram, ad 
terrami Annal. xiv. 38, cujus adveraa pravitati tpsius, 
proapera ad foriutum, ret publicae referdnU, unless you 
prefer taking this as a zeugma ; xii. 55, vim cultoribus 
et oppidania ac pUrumque in mercatores — audebant ; 
Annal. iv. 1, ^t obtegens, in alios criminator; xiii. 21, 
ultionem in delcUores et praemia amicis obtinuit, (See 
below, on the Brevity of the style of Tacitus, III. 1.) 

d. There is the greatest variety in the mode of com- 
parison. 1) The usual construction quo — tanto, Quanta, 
tanto, scite magis quam probe, avidvue quam conmUhia. 
2) The positive, or other words which have its force, 
is used for the comparative in almost the same manner 
as we read in Agr. 4, vehemmtius quam caute : An- 
nal. i. 68, quanto inopina, tanto majora offundunturs 
c. 74, quantoque incautiw efferverat, paenitentia patiens 
tulit (compare livy i. 25, Bomani — HoraUum accipiunt 
eo majore cum gaudio, quo prope metum res fuerat) ; 
iv. 67, quanto intentus olim — tanto resolutus. Compare 
Livy xxi. 48, quantum eUUus — tantum anxius, 3) Tanto 
is transposed; AnnaL i. 81, spedosa verbis — quantogue 
majore libertatis imagine tegebantur, tanto eruptura ad 
infensius servitium, 4) Tanto or eo is omitted : Annal. ii. 
5, quanto acriora — studia miUtum et aversa (see No. 2) 
patrui voluntas, eelerandae victoriae intentior : Hist. iii. 
SSj quanto quis clarior, minus fidus. Compare Livy 
^Kv. 38, qw> audadus erat (consilium) magis placdfot. 


5) Plura is omitted: Annal. iii. 5, tanto plura decora max 
tribui par fuiase, quanta prima firs negamsset, 6) Eo- 
dem actu is pat for tanto : Hist. i. is, ^' in dies quanto 
potentior, eodem actu invisior erat. 7) Quam is used alone, 
meaning more than, magia or potiuu being omitted : Hist, 
iii. 60, praedae quam periculorum socius ; Annal. iv. 61, 
Claris majorSms quam veiustis. Compare Livy vii. 8, 
multiplex quam pro numero damnum est, 8) Also the 
more uncommon construction, Annal. iii. 8, quern haud 
frcUris interitu trucem, quam — aequiorem sUn, sperabat, 
put for non tam — quam, or tantem abest ut — ut, 

e. A^ectives and genitive cases are mixed together: 
Annal. ii. 3, Armmia — inter Parthorum et Bomanas opes 
infida : xii. 14, ex quis Izates Adiabeno, mox Aabarus 
Arabum cum exercitu abscedunt, 

f. Verbs are variously and indeed rather uncommonly 
constructed : fungi officiis and officia, potiri flagitii, ho* 
norilmSy regiam (by archaism), adipisci cUiquid and re- 
rum, dominationis (so in Tacitus alone); pi*aesidere 
alicui rei and (what there seems to be no example of in 
other writers) MedoSy Pannoniam .'-—fubere alicui tri- 
butum; Germanos — non juberi, non regi; Annal. xi. 32, 
jussit ut Britannicus et Octavia — pergerent; xiii. 15, 
Britannico jussit exsurgeret; chap. 40, qu^ms jusserat 
ut — resisterent. Compare Terence, Andria, ii. 5, 1, me 
jussit observarem ; Cicero also, Livy, and others some* 
times join this verb with the dative. So with many 
verbs is joined the infinitive and ut, ne, quod; also the 
preposition ad, and the particle ut, are interchanged, e.g. 
Annal. ii. 62, haud leve decus Drusus quaesivit illiciens 
Germanos ad discordias^ utgue fracto jam Maroboduo 
usque in exitium insisteretur. — The historical present 


and perfect are joined together: Annal.u. 7, Caesi 
jvbet; ipse — aex legiones eo duxit; c. 20. Seio Tube- 
roni legato tradit equitem campumque; peditum cudem 
ita inatruxit ut, &c. ; i. 39, perduci ad se Pkmcum impe- 
rat, recepitque in tribunal, — " There are those who as- 
cribe sach things to negligence in the author. But he 
seems to me to have thus adjusted them designedly, 
like a skilful workman, so as to distinguish wisely and 
with a polished taste what words would flow with a 
more animated, and what with a more tranquil course." 
(Walther on the Annals, ii. 7.) — In the same way he places 
together the historical present, the historical infinitive, 
and the perfect: Annal. iii. 20, Eodem anno Tacfarinas 
— bellum in Africa renovat, vagis primwn populationi" 
bus, — dein vicos exscindere, trahere graves praedas, pos^ 
tremo — cohortem Eomanam circumsedit ; xii. 51, con- 
junx gravida — toleravit; post — uhi quati uterus et 
viscera vibrantury orare ut, &c. ; zv. 27, simul consilio 
terrorem adjicere^ et megistanas Armenios — peUit sedi- 
bus, &c. 

g. There is great variety in the syntax of particles: 
Annal. i. 2, per odes aut proscriptions cadere; ii. 70, 
ea Oermanico hand minus ira quam per metum accepta ; 
Annal. xi. 32, t^^ quis reperiebatur in publico aut per la- 
tebras; iv. 51, nox aliis in audaciam, aliis ad formidinem 
opportuna, — Germ. 20, sororum Jiliis idem apud avuncu^ 
lum qui ad patrem honor: Anndi. vi. 22, tristia in bonos, 
laeta apud deteriores, esse, 

VI. Constructions of different kinds are 
OFTEN MINGLED TOGETHER : and after heginning vdth 
some one form of speech, he passes abruptly, and without 


regarding the law of unifonmty, to another. Thus very 
often the passive and active voices are mixed up together : 
Annal. vi. 44, nikU ommum quo ambiguos illiceret, 
prompU firmarmtur ; iv. 44, Alhim iranscendit, longvus- 
penetrata Germania quam quisqtiam priorum. Compare 
lAvj xii. 6, qiiae Punka religione servata fides ab Han- 
ntbale est, atque m vmcula omnes conjecit — ^The accusa- 
tive, the accusative with the infinitive, the finite tenses 
of the verh and particles are mingled together : AnnaJ. 
XV. 50, dura scelera principis et finem adesse imperio, 
deUgendumqae qui — succurreret inter se — jaciunt ; Hist. iv. 
4, prompsft sententiam ut honorificam in honum pinci' 
pern, ita falsa aberant, (Compare Annal. iii. 30, fato 
potentiae — an satias capit). Annal. iv. 38, quod alii 
modestiam, mulfi, quia diffideret, quidam ut degeneris 
animi interpretahantur. Compare Sailust's Catiline, 10, 
avaritia — superbiam, crudelitatem, deos, neglegere, omnia 
venalia habere edocuit. — ^The participle, gerund, finite 
tenses of the verh, and particles are placed together : 
Annal. i. 62, quod Ttberio haud probatum, seu cuncta 
Germanid in deterius trahenti, sive^-credebat ; iii. 31, 
absentiam^^meditans, sive ut'—impleret; xiii. 11, ora-^ 
Oombus, quas Seneca testificando quam honesta praedpe- 
ret vel jactandi ingenii — vulgabat; c. 47, socors in^ 
genvum ejus in eontrarvam trahens calUdumque et simU' 
laiorem interpretando. — He passes from what is called 
the ohlique narration to the direct (as Livy i. 13, 47, 
57) : Annal. iv. 40, ad ea Tiberius — principum diver-' 
8am esse sortem; falleris enim Sejane, &c. ; Hist. iii. 2, 
ad ea Antonius Primus — -festinationem ipsis utilem, — 
** Duae tunc Pannonicae ac Moesicae aloe perrupere 
hostem^ &c. See also the heads Syllepsis and Zeugma, 
in the remarks on the Brevity of his Style, V . 


VII. In thb position of words, Tacitus indulges 
in variety above other writers, following chiefly the 
practice of his own age, and he even sometimes inverts 
those phrases which other writers are wont to preserve 
constantly in a certain order, as, Annal. xi. 35, constdto 
senattis (see above. III. e). 

a. Cognomens, or agnomens, are even placed bb- 
FOBS names ; and in the same way, a term signifying the 
dignity and ofGlce with which any one is endowed, is 
expressed before the name itself, as Agrippa Postumus 
and Poatumm Agrippa^ M. Annaeus Lucanus and Lu- 
canua Annaeus, Astnius Pollio and Pollio Asinius (thus 
Cicero also has Pollio Asinius), Antonius Primus and 
Primus Antonius 'y-^ictator Gaescar and Caesar dictator 
(as in Cicero, rex DeiotaruSf in Livy, rex Prusias); tm- 
perator Augustus, Augustus imperator ; but when this dig- 
nity was perpetual, from the age of Julius Caesar down- 
wards, the title of imperator (as before, in general, that 
of dictator) used to be placed before the proper name. 
Compare Suetonius, Caesar, 76, honores nimios recepit 
— praenomen imperatoris. — So, besides the common 
arrangement, praetor Antistius, procurator Marius, augur 
Lentulus (as in Livy we have consul Aemilius, consul 
Sulpidus). Add to these, tribunus plehis and plehei, 
and plehis (j)lebei) tribunus. 

b. Together with the common order of the particles 
we find an anastrophe of the prepositions and con- 
junctions after the manner of the poets, which is admit- 
ted also, though less often, by other writers, chiefly of 
the Silver Age : Amistam et Lupiam amnes inter, 
di^ectas inter et vix pervias arenas, sedes inter Vestalium ; 
— praeturam intra stetit, unum intra damnum: and 


thus are used super, extra, ultra, contra, penes, propter, 
juxta, apud, ad, and ah — ^AnnaL v. 9, vanescente quam- 
QUAM, pkbis ira (so Cicero) ; Anna!, i. 5, acrtbus nam- 
QUB custodiis domum — sepserat (so Livy very often) ; 
Annal. ii. 15, classem quiffb (Cicero); Hist. ii. 17. 
irritabat quin etiam (Capitolinus) ; Dial. 6, illis quin 
IMMO (in other writers very rare, and everywhere hav- 
ing the first place) ; Annal. xi. 30, frueretur immo its 
(Plautus) : Germ. 30, durant siquidbm coUes (Pliny 
the elder)* 

c. With the remarks we have made ahove (VI.) on 
the mixture of constructions, may he compared the 
Synchysis, which Quintilian calls a mixture of words, 
and of which Livy likewise furnishes not a few exam- 
ples : Annal. i. 10, Pompeiaiuxrum gratiam partium; 
xii. 65, seu Brttannicus rerum seu Nero potiretvr; 
xiv. 2, tradit Cluvius ardore retinendae Agrippinam 
potentiae eo usque provectam, ut, &c.; c. 4., pluribus 
sermonUnis, modo familiaritate juvemli Nero et rvrsus 
adductus — tracto in hngum convictUy prosequitur abeun^ 
tern ; iii. 42, inconditam miUtitudinem adhuc disjecit, 
that is, inconditam adhuc. You may also refer Tmesis 
to this head : Annal. xiii. 50, acri etiam populi Bomani 
turn libertaie ; Dial. 31, neque enxm dum carte et scientia 
&c., that is, nondum enim ; Hist. i. 20, at illis vix decu* 
mae super portiones erant. 



All agree without any hesitation, that the peculiar 
character of Tacitus's style is seen most in the concise 
hrevity of his language ; and those who have looked 
into it more closely, till they have even explored all the 
inmost recesses of his sometimes ahrupt diction, prefer 
Tacitus to all other writers for this very reason, and ad- 
mire the divine aspect of his genius, which, the nearer 
they approach it, and the more intently they hang upon 
its contemplation, so much the more deeply penetrates 
the minds of the beholders. But if you ask whence 
proceeds and what means that taciturn brevity, and 
wherefore it is that you are sometimes moved by it in 
the inmost comer of your heart, seek the answer from 
actual life, both that of Tacitus and your own. Many 
were then (as now they are, if we would honestly confess 
it)* the faults, the vices, the crimes of men, with but 
rare examples of substantial well-tried virtue, great were 
envy and the ignorance of right, many were the mocke- 
ries that were made of the affairs of men, and the empty 
dissensions of the populace ; while but very few then, as 
in our own time even by no means all, were seeking 
better and higher things. And as it by no means be- 
comes us, who are blest with the hopes and consolations 
of the Christian faith, to mourn over those things which 
are faulty in our own age with the same grief as that 
with which we behold a Roman, who accounted nothing 



to be loftier and grander than the hereditary glory and 
majesty of his country, mourning over the common cor- 
ruption of all things, and over the republic falling head- 
long to ruin ; so we surely cannot blame in Tacitus that 
kind of bitter pleasure, and that indignant sparing of 
words, by which, — ^that he might not, like Suetonius, im- 
pose too heavy a burthen on his own and his reader^s 
sense of shame by narrating everything at length with 
a disgusting loquacity, — he has generally conveyed a 
deeper meaning than his words express.^ 

I. And first, in the very collocation of his 
WORDS there is a certain force and brevity; non is 
sometimes separated from its verb and placed first, to 
increase the force of the sentence, as Annal. vi. 32, 
sed nm Tiberius omisit incepta; chap. 38, non enm 
Tiberium, quanquam triennio post caedem Sejant — 
tempus, preces, satias mitigahant : Hist. ii. 70, at non 
Vitellius flexit oculos. — Frequently a word is placed first 
to imply tacitly the converse of what is stated, as An- 
nal. iii. 2, miserat duas praetorias cokortes Caesar, but 
did not come himself. Not unfirequently some particle 
is implied in the word which is put first, as Annal. ii. 
39, vtvere (adhuc) Agrippam; chap. 40, postremo dat 
negotium Sallustio (tandem certus consilii). 

^ The most important passage for discoyering the feelings from 
which this peculiarity of the style of Tacitus proceeded, is that in the 
Germania (33), where, with as deep emotion as he has ever shown, 
he B&jB maneat quaeso duretque gentibus, &c Compare also Annal. 
iii. 55, at the end, and Agric. 2, 3; dedimus profecto grande pad' 
entiae documentum — adempto per inquisitionea et loquendi audien- 
dique commercio, &c,—prope adJpsos exactae aetatia terminos per 
tUeniium venimus, 




II. The force of the language often depends on sinolb 


a. On Frequent ATivBS. which are repeatedly used 
by Tacitus (and Sallust) : some indeed he alone em- 
ploys, as infensare, redemptare; in contemporary au- 
thors also, and the writers of a later age, we find 
appellitaref assultaref auctitare, despectare, suspectare 
(i. e. suspectum habere), emptitare, mansitare, praeten* 
tare. Bui it must be well observed, that it is not always 
the force of the language which depends on these words ; 
but that they also often express an attempt, and that a 
vain one (as loqui coeptare)^ and in this way also assist 
the brevity of the style. 

b. On single words put absolutely : Hist. iii. SS» 
Latium (i.e. jus Latii) extemia dilargiri; Annal. ii. 32, 
saxo (Tarpeio) dejectits est (compare iv. 29, robur et 
saxum aut pariddarum poenaa mmitari). — Agr. 22, 
Tiec — unquam per alios gesta avtdus intercepit, that is, 
through greediness of praise and glory. Hist. v. 1, oc- 
cupare principem adhuc vacuum, that is, not yet engaged 
by another, whose favour does not yet incline to any 
one ; so we have mulier vacua, Annal. xiii. 44, vacutia 
adulter, xi. 12. — Hist. i. 76, ne Aqmtania quidem — 
diu mansit, that is^ continued faithM. Annal. ii. 33, 
excessit Fronto (that is, went beyond, or digressed from, 
the subject before the senate), et postuhmt, &c. (Com- 
pare Quintil. iii. 9, 4, egressiOy vel, quod usitatius esse 
coepit, excessus). Dial. 21, videtur mihi inter Menenioa 
— studuissey after the manner of the Silver Age, in 
which studere is used absolutely for the study of the art 
of rhetoric. 

c. On the meaning of the words themselves : as ex* 


amples of which we may adduce timari, introspicere, 
dispicere, gliscere {adolescere, crescere, augeri, and augere 
with a passive signification), saevua, cUrox, ferox, trux, 
truculerUus, grandis^ mgens, enormia, all which words he 
uses oftener than other writers. 

III. Bt an unusual mode of using number, 
guage is rendered more effective and concise. 

a. The plural, chiefly of those nouns which are 
called abstract, expresses various kinds and modes of ac- 
tion : Annal. i. 74, formam vitae tniit, quam postea ceU" 
Irem miseriae temporum et audaciae hominum fecerunt; 
ziv. 4, ferendas parentitan iracundiaa; Germ. 2, ipioa 
Germanos mdigenas crediderim, minimeque aUarum 
gentium adventUms et hospitiis mixtos. 

b. There is a peculiar force and brevity in the use of 
the Genitive (concerning the Nominative put abso- 
lutely see below under ellipsis, b. a dolor, ira) : Annal. 
XV. 36, non kmgam sui absentiam et cuncta in repubUca 
perinde immota ac prospera fore (sui refers to Nero, 
whose great idea of his own importance is plain from 
all accounts) ; xi. 24, conditor nostri Bomulus ; ii. 54, 
nostri origo (a Roman is speaking) . — ^The genitive plural 
expresses custom: Annal ii. 1, Phraatea — cuncta vene^ 
rantium officia ad Auguatum verterat (which are wont to 
be offered by those who reverence their prince) ; vi. 40, 
aupplida civium ejffugit (by which citizens are wont to 
be affected).— -To express the dispositions and peculiari- 
ties of men, the genitive is used more frequently than 
in other authors, and in a still more unusual way in the 
plural number: Annal. iv. 31, Tiberiua compoaitua aUaa 



et vdut eluctantmm verborum, — ^The partitive genitive is 
used more extensively than in other writers, and its use 
increases the force and perspicuity of the narrative ; the 
same remark applies to the genitive joined with pro- 
nouns. Annal. xii. 17) navium quasdam circumvenere 
harhari praefecto cokortis et plerisque centurionum inter- 
fectis; chap. 18, Romanorum nemo id auctoritatis aderat, 
ut, &c. So we find id temporise solitudinis, honoris 
Hist. iv. 23, neque ungiuxm id malorvim — ut, &c. — 
Ingens rerum, praecipuus circumveniendi, primus luen- 
dae poeiiae. (See helow where Graecisms are treated 
of). — The genitive which is called objective is joined 
with the subjective : Hist. iii. 10, ut proditionis ira mi" 
litum; Annal. xii. 26, Britannid fortunae maeror 
(Cic. canum aduUztio dominorum). To this class be- 
longs that very difficult passage, Annal. xiv. 61, itur 
etiam in prindpis laudes repetitum venerantium; by 
those who reverenced the prince on account of his 
wife's restoration ; compare xi. 23, et studiis diversis 
apud prtncipem certabatur asaeverantium, non adto ae- 
gram Italiam, ut, &c. Compare On thb Poetical 
Complexion op thb Sttlb op Tacitus, III. a. — The 
genitive of the passive participle in endue, joined with the 
same case of the substantive (or of the gerund with the 
case which belongs to the verb), the word causa being 
oiqitted, — is used by no writer oftener than by Ta- 
citus, in his strong desire of brevity, to express the 
end which any one pursues : Annal. ii. 59, Aegyptvm 
prqfidscitur cognoscendae antiquitatis ; iv. 2, neque sena- 
torio ambitu abstinebat clientes suos honoribus aut pro- 
vinciis omandi, — Of the same kind are genitives joined 
with substantives : Hist. iii. 40, agendi tempera consul' 
tanto consumpsit: chap. 50, SUvanum socordem beUo et 


dies rerum verbis <erewf«m;, Annal. i. 58, non hie mihi 
primus erga populum Romanum fidei et constantiae (sc. 
ostentandae) dies. 

c. Very similar is the use of the Dativb, which Ta- 
citus has employed more frequently than any othefr 
xmter, and in a more varied manner, to express an end 
and advantage, and that too in such a way that in this 
mode of speaking also he has respect to hrevity : as it is 
commonly said triumvir reipvblicae constituendae, dim- 
dendis agris, comitia regi creando, so Annal. vi. 37, cum 
ille equum placando amni adomasset ; chap. 43, uhi data 
fides reddendae dominaiioni venisse, allevatur animum; 

Hist. iii. 20, num — cetera expugnandis urbihus (utilia) 
attulissent ; Annal. xiv. 3, additurum — defunctae tem- 
plum et aras et cetera ostentandae pietati (compare Livy 
XXX. 6, quae restinguendo igni forent portantes) ; — Annal. 
ii. 57, amid accendendis offensionibus callidi; Annal. 
xiv. 59, repertus est — nudus exerdfando corpori. — An- 
nal. xii. 46, diem hcumque foederi accepit ; i. 51, incessit 
itvneri et proelio. To the same class belong obtentui, 
ostentui, irrisui, derisui, usuij metui, despectui, potui, 
victuiy vestitui, indutui, visui, venatui esse, which are for 
the most part rare in other writers. For the rest, see 
below, where Graecisms are treated of. 

d. The Accusative is often joined with verbs which 
express motion without a preposition, after the manner 
of the Greeks and of the poets, as ripam accedere (Ci- 
cero), oppidum vrrumpere (Caesar, Sallust), incvrsare 
Germaniam (Livy), involare castra (Cicero, rostra ad- 
Vplare), advolvi genua (Sallust), inddere locum, inddere 
aliquem (in aliquem), adventare propinqua Seleudae, 
Annal. vi. 44, propinquare campos (Sallust), ehiti ag^ 
gerem (Livy), escendere suggestum (Cicero, Livy, and 


others), evadere angustiaa (Livy), elabi pugnaniy egrecU 
tmtoria (Sallast), exire Ivbricum juventae, — ^This remark 
applies to the following passages which depart from coni' 
mon usage : Hist. iv. 76, Oermanos — non juberi, non 
regi; i. 16, gentibuSy quae regnanhir (Pliny the elder * 
Annal. iii. 39, is proximum exercitum praesidebat ; Germ. 
43, vertices montium — insederunt; Annal. xi. 20, in- 
signta triumphi indulgere, i. e. concedere ; as if it were 
to indulge any one with them, and so to yield them 
(Juvenal, se indtUgere, i. e. perrmttere alicui) ; similarly 
Tacitus uses propugnare, poiiri, fwngi, vesci, diaserere^ 
fremere aliquam rem; hut he likewise has sometimes 
used prepositions, where the common language em- 
ploys the accusative, that thus he might add force to the 
narrative: Hist. ix. 48, ea de caede quam verisstme 
expediam ; Germ. 34, reverentius visum de actis deorum 
credere quam scire. Concerning the ablative of sub- 
stantives put absolutely, see below, wh^re the participle 
is treated of. 

e. Brevity is promoted by Adjbctivbs, which, when 
joined to substantives, have the force of genitives, or of 
other constructions, chiefly in expressing those things 
which belong to lands, cities, or men ; Annal. iii. 43, 
Treviricus tumuUus ; iv. 20, promndalia uxorum crimma ; 
XV. 23, Actiaca religio; iv. 3, municipaUs adulter; Hist, 
iv. 15, Caianae (Caii imperatoris) expeditiones ; Annal. 
i. 6, novercaUa odia; chap. 7, uoconus ambitus; senilis 
adoptio; 33, muliebres ojffensiones; iv. 2, seriatorius 
an^itu^, objectively, as chap. 62, municipalis amhitio: 
xii. 51, metus kostilis; ii. 44, vacui extemo metu: Dial. 
29, histrionalia favor. No one has oftener used this 
manner^ of speaking ; but many similar examples are 


also found in the older writers, as in Cicero, pro Lege 
Manilia, 2ii. Ostiense incommodum ; Caes. B. C. ii. 33, 
Corfinienais ignamima ; Cic. Fam. ii. 17, metus Parthicua, 

f. Thb Infinitive is very frequently used by Taci- 
tus for the sake of this same brevity and force. The 
infinitive which is called historical is used oftener than 
by other writers (as Livy and Sallust ; see. On thb 
Variety, &c., V. f.) ; and it is joined also with particles, 
and not only with demonstrative particles, as is the custom 
of other writers, but even with copulatives : Hist. iii. 10, 
vbi crudescere seditio et a convidts ac probris ad tela et 
manus, ttxinsibant injici catenas Flaviano jubet. Annal. 
xi. 34, jam erat in aspectu Messalhna — cum obstrepere 
cuxu8ator, &c. Sometimes it includes in itself velle and 
posse y or solere: Hist. v. 15, Civilis instare fortunate 
Cerialts abolere (sc. volebat) ignominiam ; Germ. 7, in 
proximo pignora, unde feminarum ululatw audiri, unde 
vagitus infantium (sc. poterat). Compare the similar 
use of the indicative, subjunctive, and participle, below, 
h. i. — By no writer is the infinite more often joined with 
verbs which are commonly constructed with the particles 
ut, ne, quominus, quod, or in some other manner. Thus 
we find used in the older writers also, but less frequently, 
hortari, impellere, praecipere, permittere, postuUare, impe- 
rare, monere, maturarcy prohibere, instare, emhescere, 
consentire, destinare, pergere, as Annal. xi. 4 (livy and 
others), pergitque — addere reos equites Bomanorum; 
chap. 34, instabat — Narcissw aperire ambages. A si- 
milar use of the following words is adopted by the 
poets: suadere, incumbere, mandare, crave, urgere, cm^ 
biri, accingi, arcere, persistere, dare, adigere, deesse, as 


Hist. iii. 58, nee deercU ipse voUu, voce, lacrimts rmseri^ 
cordiam elicere (but the common construction is, Anual. 
xiv, 39, nee defuU Polyclitue quominus — incederet), 
Tacitus alone appears thus to have used percellere, per^ 
pellere, aemulari, censere, nuntiare, denuntiare, scribere 
(i. e. nuntio» scripto imperare), impetrare, illicere, indu^ 
cere (i. e. permovere), componere, pangere, ohsiatere 
(Germ. 34, ohetiiit Oceanus (r^) in ee simul atque in 
HercuUm inquirt), illacrimare (Annal. ii. 71, illacrt^ 
mabunt (r^) quondam Jhrentum — muliehri fraude cc- 
cidiase). See On thb Fobtical Complexion, &c. IIL 
c. y. To the verbs deferre and incusare, the infinitive 
is joined in the place of a genitive or of the particle 
quod; Annal. ii. 27, Ltbo JDrusue defertur moliri res 
novae; iii. 38, neque minus RkoemeUdcen — incuscms 
popularium injurias inultas sinere (compare below. On 
Grascisms). On the other hand, quod and ut are some- 
limes employed in a more unusual manner for the accu- 
sative with the infinitive : creditum quod — voluisset ; 
quibus jusserat ut — resisterenU See above, d. near the 

g. The Indicativb is often, even in the ohUqua oratio, 
joined to the particle dum, as Annal ii. 81, Piso orttvit 
uti traditis armis maneret in castello, dum Caesar cut 
Syriam permitteret consulitur. Former writers have 
seldom spoken thus ; and so in general the indicative is 
found more frequently in Tacitus than in other historical 
writers, when sentences are inserted in the ohligua oratie 
as if they proceeded from the mind of the writer himself, 
as Hist. iv. 16, se cum cohorte, cut praeercU, — tumuUum 
compressurum. — No one, moreover, has oftener used 
the indicative for the subjunctive, in that kind of sen- 



tences which indicate that what is implied in the 
condition had almost happened, as we have it in Livy, 
who not mifrequently speaks thus: iii. 19, nunc nisi La" 
Uni — carma sumpstasent — deleti eramus, we were lost. 
Generally nisi, more rarely si, joined with the pluper- 
fect, and sometimes with the imperfect, begins the con- 
dition ; and the idea which is limited by it oftener pre- 
cedes than follows in the imperfect, the pluperfect, and 
sometimes the perfect: Annal. xi. 10, reciperare Anne- 
niam avebat, ni a Vibio Marso — cohibitus foret; i. 63, 
trtidebanturque in paludem — ni Caesar — legumes in- 
struxisset: Hist. i. 16, si immensum imperii corpus 
stare — sine rectore posset, dignus eram, a quo res publica 
inciperet. — ^Annal. xi. 37, «i caedem ejus — properavis- 
setf verterat pemicies in accusatorem (thus Cicero, prae' 
clare viceramus nisi — Lepidus recepisset Antonium). 
— Hist. i. 64, props in proelium exarsere, ni Valens — 
admanuisset (thus Livy ii. 1 o, pons iter paene hostibus 
dedit, ni units vir fuisset). Instances conformed to the 
^mmon usage of the language are less frequent in Ta- 

To the same class belongs the Enallage of the 
Imperfect for the Pluperfect, which is also used 
by the older writers, as Annal. xii. 37, si statim deditus 
traderer (traditus essem, fuissem), neque mea fortuna 
neque tua gloria inclaruisset. Compare Hist. i. 48 Piso 
(interfectus) unum et tricesimum aetatis qnnum explebat. 
In the USE of tenses in general there is great force. 
The historical present is very frequently used (take as 
an example of all the rest, Annal. i. 21) : following the 
writers of the former age, chiefly the poets, he uses 
the perfect with the force of the Greek aorist. 1 ) To 


express custom; Agr. 9, hand semper errat fama; aU- 
quando et elegit 2) In the place of the pluperfect: 
Hist. i. 53, hunc juvenem GaJha — kgioni prtiepoauU ; 
mox — ut peculatorem flagitari juseit (praeposuerat, ju»- 
serat olim). 3) The infinitiye present for the infinitive 
future : Annal. ii. 34, Lucius Fiso — abire se et cedere 
urhe — testabatvr, 4) The perfect for the infinitive fu- 
ture : iv. 28, non enim se caedem prindpis — una socio 
cogitasse (he would not have thought of it), and Cicero 
furnishes a very similar example, Fhil. ii. 3. 

h. The Subjunctive has not unfirequently a preg*- 
nant sense, involving posse, velle, opus esse (compare the 
remarks on the historical infinitive and the participle). 
We find examples of the same thing in Cicero, Livy, 
and others : Agr. 17, cum Cerialis quidem cdterius svC" 
cessoris curam famamque obruisset (ohrui potuisset), 
sustinuit quoque mckm Julius Frontinus; Annal. i. 11, 
Tiberioqtie etiam in rehus quas non occuleret (occulere 
vellet) — obscura verba; Agr. 22, ex iracundia rdhil 
supererat; secretum et silentium ejus non timeres (noil 
erat causa cur timeres). To which the common phrase 
turn cemeres, crederes, approaches very nearly. There 
is a similar hut less frequent use of the indicative : An- 
na!, iv. 34, si dubitatione Augusti movemur (nos moveri 
fas est), quanto validius est, quod, &c. ; ii. 34, Lucius 
Piso — ahire se et cedere urbe (cessurum), victurum in 
aliquo abdito et Umginquo rure testahatur ; simul curiam 
relinquebat, i. e. in eo erat ut relinqueret. Compare 
Hist. i. 46, militare otium redimebant, 

i. The Participle does much to increase force of 
language and concise hrevity of style, and its use is more 
varied in Tacitus than in other writers. 


a. (The perfect participle of deponent verbs is put inde- 
finitively (aopitrrwc), for the present participle, as ratus, 
zferitus, and others are even in the ordinary language; 
Hist. ii. 96, in hunc modum etiam Vitelliua apud rmlitea 
disseruU praetarianos nujper exauctoratos insectatus; and 
also, as Livy had used it before, for th^ future passive 
participle, which has the force of a presient participle : An- 
nal. xvi. 21, Nero virtutem ipsam exscmdere concupivit 
tnterfecto (interficiendo) Thrasea Paeto. — ^The present 
participle not unirequently expresses an attempt (compare 
the remarks on the subjunctive and historical infinitive) 
Hist. ii. 18, retvnenti dud tela intentaare. It is used for the 
infinitive: Annal. xiii. 50, sublatis portoriia aequens (thus 
Cicero uses conseqtiens, but with esse added) ut tribu- 
torum abolitto expostularetur. Likewise for a substantive ; 
Annal. iii. 40, disserebant de — superbia praesidentium, 
i. e. praesidum. Compare Sen. Clem. 19, mhil magia deco- 
rum regenti, <jmm dementia. There is a similar brevity 
(fipayyXoyla) in the use of the future participle active : 
Annal. vi. 3, incusabatur fadle toleraturus exdUam de- 
lecta Lesbo (quod facile toleraturus esset) : Hist. ii. 74, 
ceterae — legiones secuturae sperahantur (sperabantur 
fore ut sequerentur). — ^The perfect passive participle is 
used for the finite tenses of the verb : Annal. vi. 32, 
cupibam id Tiberio, i. e. cupiebat ; and so it takes the 
place of a substantive (as in Plautus); Annal. iv. 3, 
nepotes adulti moram capitis afferebant — The neuter 
of the future passive participle is joined with the verb 
habere, after the manner of the Silver Age (like the 
perfect participle, oratam te habeOf and as we read in 
Cicero, aedem tuendam habere): dicendum, responden- 
dum, nubendum habere. 


P) Oftener and still more boldly than other writers, 
he uses the perfect passive participle in the place of an 
abstract substantive, when it refers even to inanimate ob- 
jects : Annal. i. 8, cum occism dictator Caesar — ^Icherri- 
mumfacmiLS vtderetur ; Annal. vi. 27, genus tilt decorurriy 
vivida senectus; et non permtssa provincia dignatwnem 
addiderat. Compare Livy, xxvii. 37, liberatas religione 
mentes turbavit rursus nuntiatum, Frusinone infantem 
natum esse quadrimo parem. 

y) Adjectives ending in His are expressed by perfect 
passive participles ; in the same way adjectives which 
indicate a certain ease and perpetuity are expressed by 
future active participles, and others also by future passive 
participles: Agr. 18, mhU arduum aut invictum credere 
(so Sallust); Annal. i. 28, noctem minacem et in scelvs 
erupturam fors lemvit; iv. 38, pulcherrimae effigies et 
mansurae (lasting, enduring) ; Dial. 22, Jirmus sane 
paries et duraturus; Annal. ii. 38, (so livy, the poets, 
and the writers of the Silver Age), qnamvis domus Hor- 
tensii pudendam ad inopiam delaberetur (foedam, tur- 
pem; but it is easily perceived that the participle is 
more forcible) ; Hist. iii. 84, pudenda kUebra semet oc» 

^) Ablatives which are called absolute are used in an 
unusual way, and generally elliptically : but examples 
of the same thing are not wanting in the older writers. 
The most uncommon case is that of the future active 
participle employed in this way : Hist. ii. 32, irrupturis 
tarn infestis natiomhus. Very often the participle of ^ the 
substantive verb (<S(v)imu8t be supplied as it were in 
thought, when a substantive is found (put absolutely) 
joined with an adjective or with a pronoun : Hist. iii. 


26, incipere oppugnatioMm — arduum, et nutto juxta 
subsidio anceps ; Annal. xi. 23, suffecisse oUm incUgenaa 
canaangumeis popuHs, that is, when yet the nations of 
Italy were of the same race as the Romans ; Livj xxxvL 
6, labante — diaciplina et muUorum eo statu, qui dhUur^ 
nus esse non posset. The ellipsis is harsher when the 
adjective or substantive is used alone in this manner : 
Annal. i. 6, juxta pericuhso fiesta seu vera promeret, i. e. 
cum juxta periculosum esset (as Livy ; so dubio, incerto, 
sereno) : Annal. iv. 5, miiio ab Syria (in other passages 
we read, initio — orto ; as, Hist. iii. 44, initio — a prima 
Adjfutrice legume orto); iii. 28, dedU jura, quia pace et 
principe uteremur; i. 59, aUis gentHms ignorantia tm- 
perii Momani ineocperta esse suppUcia. Compare Caesar 
B. C. ii. 23, Caesaris naves ejus fuga se receperunt. 
Lake this is the use of the ablative of substantives in the 
place of an adverb, as in the older writers also casu, con- 
sensu, nomine, ratume, judicio (as if adkUnto were to be 
added), and similar words are found : Annal. i. 59, non 
enim se proditione — sed palam — helium tractare ; Dial. 
25, solum inter hos arbitror Brutum non malignitate nee 
invidia, sed simpHciter et ingenue judicium animi svi 
detexisse; Annal. xiv. 5, Acerronm imprudentia (cum 
imprudenter ageret) — navdlibus telis conficitur, which 
serve, as it were, for a transition to that use of the abla- 
tive, in which, oftener than in other writers, it is used by 
itself, without the participle which is commonly joined 
with it (ductus, commotus), to express a reason ; Annal. 
i- 57> juvenis conscientia cunctabatur ; Hist. i. 63, non 
ob praedam out spoUandi cupidine, sed furore et rabie ; 
Annal. xii. 10, non se foederis ignaros, nee defectione 
a famiUa Arsacidarum venire. The perfect passive 


participle is put abscdutely, the pubstantive being omit- 
ted, much oftener in Tacitus than in the older writers ; 
Anna], i. 35, strictum ohtulit gladium addito acutiorem 
esse. Thus adjectOf cognitOj intellecto, comperto, audita, 
explorato, nuntiato, quaesito, pensitato, praedicto, ere- 
dito, distincto, repetito, certato, disceptato, exspectaio, 
interdicto, are found in this writer, and what is veiy 
rare in other authors, even without the addition of 
any words to hold the place of the object : Annal. xv. 
14, et mtUtum invicem disceptatOp Monohazus — testis — 

k. The Supine, which no writer uses more fre- 
quently than Tacitus, is used both in the accusative 
and ablative for the sake of brevity: for example: 
ulturnj perditum, raptum, Ulusum ire, oppugruUum ve^ 
nire ; — pudet dicta, appears to be used by Tacitus alone. 
— Missu, admomtu alicujus, and similar phrases, are 
not without example in former writers. 

1. Great power lies in the use of Prepositions, when 
they are put, according to a rather unfrequent usage, 
for a simple case (sometimes, but not so often, the ge- 
nitive or another case is used, contrary to the common 
mode of speech, in place of a preposition, as. Hist. i. 46, 
ne volgi largkione (in vulgus) centurionum animos aver' 
teret). For example, Annal. xii. 25, adaptio in Domt- 
tium—festinattar; xi. 25, isque illi finis inscitiae erga 
domum suam fvxt (in things relating to his house) ; 
Hist ii. pfi, in omne fas nefasque avidi aut venales; 
Anoal. iii. 24, Silamis in nepti Augusti adulter; xv. 
44, in crimine incendii — convuiti sunt; 1. 12, addidit 
koidem de Augusta ; Hist. i. 67, de caede Oalbae igna* 
nari; Annal. iii. 39, forma hand dissimili in dominum 


erat; Agr. 12, nee altud pro nobis uUUus. Com- 
pare On thb Varibtt of the Sttlb or Taci- 
tus » V. c. and On thb Poetical Complbxion, &c. 
m. d. y. 

IV. Frequently in Thb Composition op a Sbn- 
tbncb a deeper sense lies hid, when the form of expres- 
sion not being perfect and precise, and the ordinary con- 
nection of words being neglected, the feeling alone with 
which the soul of the writer is mo^ed, and the thought 
which he has conceived in his mind, are expressed by a 
structure of the sentence which is called Pregnant. 
There are indeed such passages in the writers of the 
former age also, chiefly in livy ; but not so used as to 
form an essential feature of their style. Hist, iii; 49, 
primus Antonius nequaqttam pari innocenUa post Cre- 
nunuim (insensam) agebat ; Annal. iv. 40, posse ipsam 
IJiinam stattiere, nubendum post Drusum (mortuum), an 
in penaiibus isdem tokrandum haberet; Annal. i. 39, 
jus legationis (violatum) aigtie ipsias Planci — casum — 
Jacunde miseratur; Agr. 18, qui classem, qui navis, qui 
mare exspectahant, that is, the violence of the sea, and 
the aid to be gained from thence ; Annal. ii. 40, offerant 
pecuniam^Jidem atque pericula polUceaniur; that is, to 
share the danger ; Hist. iv. 59, ceteros, ut quisque fia^ 
ffiUum navaverat (that is, had exerted himself in per- 
petrating wickedness, as in Cicero we have navare rem^ 
publioam) praemiis attolUt, — The prepositions in and 
ad are often used to form a pregnant sense ; Annal. i. 
55, dissidere hosteni in Armimum ac Segestem, that is, 
they quarrelled to such a degree, that some went over to 
the side of Arminius, and others to that of Segestes ; 


chap. 57, uxor Arminii — neque vkta in lacrimas (that 
is, so as to shed tears), neque voce supplex ; iii. 19, 
ceteris ad dicendum testimonium exterritis, that is, so as 
to utter their testimony. Compare lAvj ii. 40, CoTto- 
lq,nus — constematus ah sede sua cum ferret matri obviae 
compleamm ; and vii. 42 > multitudinem ad arma conster^ 
natum esse. 

Y. Nearly allied to these examples are the forms of 
speech to ^hich the Greek Grammarians have applied 
the terms (rvWriypig and ^evyfia, in which words that 
refer to different kinds of things, or to different persons, 
are joined together, and included in one and the same 
kind of construction. Compare On the Variett, &c. 
V. b. near the end. 

a. The term Syllepsis I would apply chiefly to those 
passages in which things of an entirely different nature 
are mentioned in connection with each other : as, donee 
ira et dies permansit ; quia dissimulationem nox et lascivia 
exemerat; vhi imcte ac Uzetitia incaluisse videt; mixticopiis 
et laetitia; Oermarda a Sarmatis Dacisque mutuo metu 
aut montihus separatur ; tribuni cam terrors et armatorum 
catervis volitabant. In all these cases some affection of 
the mind is so connected with things not pertaining to 
the mind, that on account of this very difference between 
the two notions, you would expect them to be differently 
expressed, either by the use of words which properly 
belong to each, or at least by some variation in the 
construction of the sentence. To this head I would 
also refer those passages where the preposition in joined 
with an accusative includes at the same time the ablative 
or some other sense ; Germ. 46, in medium relinquam. 


i. e. in dubium vocatum relinquam in medio ; Annal. iv. 
25, aderant semisomnos in barbaros, i. e. aderant et 
irruebant (see below. On thb Poetical Complsxion, 
&c. III. c. y.); and moreover, those in which the 
same word refers to different things, all of which might 
be joined with it according to the usage of the language; 
as, Hist. III. 41, ut — Gallias et exercitus et OermO' 
niae gentes novumqae bellum cieret. Compare also Hist, 
ii. 56, in omne fas nefasque avidi, that is, greedj of 
all tbings, whether it were right or wrong to desire them. 
b. The term Zbugma applies to those cases in which 
a verb that only suits the words immediately preceding 
it, and not also those which are more remote, is yet 
made to embrace the latter as well as the former with- 
in the same kind of construction, some similar verb 
being, as it were, implied in the one used : Annal. vi. 
21, turn complexus eum Tiberius praescium periculorum 
(esse fatetur) et incolumem fore gratatur ; chap. 24, 
ut» quemadmodum nurum fiUamque fratris et nepotes 
(^interfecisset) domumque omnem caedibus complevisset, 
ita, &c. ; Germ. 2, qvoniam qui prim Bhenum trans- 
gressi ac nunc Tungri (vocentur), tunc Germani vocati 
sint; chap. 36, iia qui olim bond aequique Cherusci (yo- 
cabantur) nunc inertes ac stulti vocaniur ; Annal. i. 58, 
quia Romanis Germanisque idem conducere (putabam) 
et pacem quam bellum probaham ; xiii. ^Q, deesse nobis 
(potest) terra in qua vivamus, in qua moriamur non 
potest ; Hist. i. 8, vir facundus et pads artibus (exper- 
tus), bellis ineocpertus. But the zeugma is not always 
in the verb, but sometimes also in a word joined to it; 
as, Annal. ii. 73, et erant qui {Germanici) formam, 
aetatem, germs mortis, ob propinquitatem etiam locorum, 


in quibus interiit, magni AUxandri (.formae, aetati, et) 
fatia adaequarent, 

VI. The figure which is properly called Ellipsis is 
met with extensively in Tacitas, and has very great 
power in augmenting the hrevity and conciseness of his 
language. In the plays of the comedians also, and in 
the letters of Cicero, this form of expression is often 
met with. A few examples of each case of it will suffice. 

a. Nouns are omitted: Papia Poppaea (lex), Std- 
picia (gens), postero (die), octingentesimo post Romam 
conditam (anno), ad duodecimum (lapidem), laitreatae 
(litterae)* Piraeeus Atticae orae (portus), Apicata Sejant 
(uxor), pretium est (operae). Also Pronouns : the 
substantive pronoun, Annal. i. 35, si velUt imperium, 
promptos (se) ostentavere: the demonstrative pronoun; 
iv. 60, gnarus praeferoce:in (eum esse) : the relative pro- 
noun ; Annal. vi. 7, Sejus Qaadratus (cujus), originetn 
non repperi; chap. 36, qats neque boni inUlUctus ne- 
que mali curaj sed (qui) mercede aluntur. There are 
examples also in older writers of the omission of the 
relative in those phrases which are placed in apposition 
with the principal sentence, either to afford an explana«< 
tion, or to express the intention : Annal. vi. 10, X. 
Piso pontifex (quod), rarum in tanta claritudine, fato 
obiit; i. 3, Augustus, subsidia dominaiioni (quae es- 
sent), Claudium Marcellum — Marcum Agrippam — extulit, 

b. Verbs are omitted. 

a. The infinitive of tbb Substantivb Verb; and 
in several passages this construction is such that the 
accusative or nominative appears to be simply joined 
with the verb on which the accusative with the infinitive 


depends : Hist. ii. 82, sufficere videbarUur adversus Fi- 
teUwm pars copuxrum et dux Mucianua et Veapastam 
nomen ac nihil arduum fatis (to nihil arduum esse) ; 
Annal. i. 73, deorum injurias dis curae. But even the 
indicative and subjunctive moods of this verb are omitted 
oftener than in former writers : and the indicative chiefly 
in those passages which express the more vehement 
emotions of the mind : Annal. ii. 82, at Romas , post" 
quam Germanici valetudo percrebruit — dolor, ira; Hist, 
ii. 29, ut vero deformis et flens et propter spem incolumis 
Valens processtt, gaudium, miseratio, favor ; iv. 46, ut 
vero hue illuc diatrahi coepere, metus per omnea et praC" 
ciptta Germaniei miUtis formido. — Annal. i. 65, cum — 
apud Romanos invalidi ignes, inteiruptae voces (essent), 
atque ipsi passim adjacerent vallo, 


SB coNFBRRB, are omitted: as, Annal. xiii. 4i^Artaxata 
— solo Oitquata sunt, quia nee teneri (poterant), sine 
valido praesidio — nee id nobis virimn erat, &c. ; Agr. 
19, nihil per libertos servosque pubUcae rei (actum) ; An- 
nal. i. 47, quos' igitur cmteferret} ac (verendum) ne 
posipositicontumelia incenderentur ; xiv. 8, anxia Agrippina 
quod netmafilio (veniret) ac ne Agerinus quidem (rediret). 

y. Verj often vbrbs of sbnsb and speech are 
omitted: as, Agr. 33, excepere orcUionem — atacres; jam' 
que agmina et armorum fulgores audentissimi cujusque 
procursu (conspiciebantur) ; Annal. i. 7, vultuque com- 
positOt ne laeti (viderentur) excessu principis neu tris- 
tiores primordiOj lacrmas, gaudium — miscehant; ch^p. 31, 
non unus haec (dicebat) — sed multo seditioms era vocesque. 

c. Particles are omitted by no other writer more 
frequently: Annal. xiv. 8, respidt Anicetum (a) trie- 


rarcho — comitatum; iii. 19, is finis fait (in) ulciscenda 
Germanici morte ; i. 12, (ex) vultu offensionem conjecta" 
verat ; xiv. 40, taJbulas (cum) Us quos memoravi et aUis 
minus illustrUms obsignat; Agr. 35, ne simul in fron- 
tern, simul et (in) latera suoriim pugnaretur; Anna^. iii. 
30, (incertum est) fato potentiae raro sempitemae, an 
(quia) satias capit, &c. So quod, cum (followed by tu7n), 
licetf magis, tantum, tanto, eo, potius, alii, hinc, primum, 
modo, aUquandOy ut, ita, tamen, sed, are omitted in many 
places. Whole sentences are omitted before the par- 
ticles nam and enim (just as in the Greek writers yap is 
used in the same way) : Annal. xiv. 44, at quidam 
insontes peribunt I (and no wonder; nee mirum) nam 
et ex fuso exercitu — etiam strenui sortiuntur ! chap. 
14, nam et ejus flagitium est qui, &c. To the same head 
belongs the figure Asyndeton, so much used by Taci- 
tus : Hist. i. 3,/u^uror^m praesagiaj laeta, tristia, amhi- 
gua, manifesta ; chap. 73, consularia matrimonio suhnixa, 
et apvd Galbam, Othonem, Vitellium illaesa; Annal. iii. 
26, vetustissimi mortaUum — sine probro, scelere eoque 
sine poena — agebant ; Hist. iv. 75, ewm, qui attulerat, 
ipsas epistolas ad Domitianwn misit. 

Vn. To this law of brevity some forms of ex- 
pression appear to be opposed, which, however, in 
reality increase the force and livehness of the narration. 

a. The figure which is called by Quintilian An4DI- 
PLosis, or adjection, that is, the repetition or even more 
h^quent reiteration of the same word (chiefly of par- 
ticles) with a certain force. This is generally so 
managed that the repetition answers the purpose of an 
omitted copulative conjunction, only that it has greater 


Jpower: Annal. i. 7, miles in forum, miles in curiam 
comitabatur; Hist. i. 50, mansisse Caio Julio, mansisse 
Caesare Augusto victore imperium; Annal. ii. 82, statim 
credita, statim vulgata sunt; Dial. 40, apud quos omnia 
populus, omnia imperiti omnia {ut sic dixerim) omnes 
poterant ; nostra quoque civitas, donee erravit, donee 
86 — confecit, donee nulla fuit in foro pax, nullon—con- 
cordia, nulla — moderatio, nuUa — reoerentia, nullus — 
modus, tulit, &c. This passage is a clear proof that it 
was chiefly as an orator that Tacitus used this mode of 
expression, as there are very many examples of it in 
Cicero and Quintilian, hut few in the historical writers, 
if you except livy, who affects the style of an orator. 

b. Words which are commonly called synonymous, 
but which in truth are of such nature that the one 
augments, explains, and amplifies with a new sense the 
signification of the other* Generally substantives, of 
which Tacitus is very fond, are constructed in this man- 
ner : seditio et turhae, fulgor et claritudo, dolor et ira^ 
odium et inmdia, modestia et pudor, sanguis et caedes^ 
vires et robur : veteres et senes, antiqui ac veteres, do not 
so much belong to this head, as they do not express 
the same things. Of ac^ectives, adverbs, and verbs so 
used, the number is less. The following are examples : 
incertum et ainbiguum, immotum fixuinque, turbide et 
seditiose, temere ac fortuito, occultare et abdere, pollui 

c. The figure called in Greek tv ha Ivolv^ of which 
we have an example in the well-known passage, pateris 
Ubamus et awro. But the examples of this figure which 
are found in Tacitus (and they are very many) prove that 
there is a greater power in substantives and adjectives' 


constnicted after this manner, than m the usual form of 
speech : Agr. 16, nee ullum in harharia aaeoitiae genua 
omisit ira et victoria (this has greater force than tra 
victoria : it is anger and the licence of victory, rather than 
of the conquerors) ; Germ« 33, super sexaginta milia — 
oblectcUioni oculisgue cedderunt (not simply ohlectationi 
ocvlorum, hut for our entertainment and the mere plea- 
sure of the spectacle). The copulative conjunction often 
serves for an explanation: Annal. i. 46, incedebat 
muliebre et miseraJbih agmen (not miserable mulierum 
agmen, hut a troop consisting of women, and for that 
reason chiefly miserahle). 

d. As to the examples of Flbonasm, they proceeded 
less from the genius of Tacitus than from the common 
usage of the Latin language, nor do they detract in any 
measure from the hrevity of the discourse ; since none of 
the old writers has given offence by thus, as it were, 
expressing things abundantly. But there are also many 
among these passages of such a kind that the one word 
adds something to the meaning of the other. Thus, 
niare Oceanum is spoken of just as Rhenus amnis ; corpus 
in all writers (contrary to the usage of our language) is 
used pleonastically in such passages, corporis morbus, 
corporum verbera, libera corpora (liberi homines) : ante 
praevidere, ante praedkere are also used in the older 
writers; ipse solus. Germ. 38, and Dial. 5, and solus et 
unuSt Dial. 34, are explained by referring to the Greek 
avTOQ fiovoc, and also to that passage of Cicero, Vfirr. u 
2 (jgvod ipsis solia satis esset). 




That there was among the Greeks in the most an- 
cdent times a great resemblance between the poets and 
the historical writers, is sufficiently proved hy that well- 
known confparison in which we are wont to speak of Ho- 
mer, the father of epic poetry, as an author resembling 
Herodotas, while we call the latter the Homer of his- 
tory. Among the Romans the plan of composing history 
was different ; for, having at first attended only to the 
registering of annals, and having thus heen accustomed 
to set more value on the facts themselves, than on the 
expression of the feelings which move the mind in nar- 
rating and judging of the several events, when afterwards 
they were led on, chiefly by the example of the Greeks, 
to aspire to more perfect skill in the art of writing his- 
tory also, they then sought more after the ornaments of 
rhetoric than of poetry. And thus indeed you would 
justly mention Titus Livius as the most perfect model 
among all the Roman historians, and as the author who 
chiefly establishes the ability of the Romans for that 
species of composition, and above all as far excelling 
those writers who, like Lucan, Silius, and others, by 
doing httle more than narrating events in stiff language, 
lessened the gravity of epic verse and hurt the dignity 
of history, while they in vain affected poetical language 
in order to ornament their records of bare facts. Taci- 
tus alone among all these writers is worthy to he com- 
pared with those Greeks ; because he sought not poetical 




q6 on the style of TACITUS. 

ornaments from without, but was strong in the power of 
his own genius, and in the innate poetical sublimity of his 
mind. And as Herodotus presents to us the likeness of 
the epic, so does our auth6r chiefly that of the lyric and 
dramatic muse, by arranging every event he records after 
the manner of a tragic poet, and in all things expressing 
the impulses of his own mind, nay even the inmost feel- 
ings of his soul. When, as we read his annals and his- 
tories, we see the efforts made by men worthy of a better 
age against the cruelty of princes and the common cor- 
ruption of manners falling fruitless to the ground, but 
yet perceive at the same time that there can be good and 
brave men even under evil rulers ; when we behold for- 
tune, fate, nay the gods themselves, ruHng in a wonder- 
ful and ever inscrutable manner the divers chances of 
human events ; as we contemplate in his books of annals 
the fatal extinction of the Julian race, and in his histories 
the mighty efforts to establish anew an empire already 
desolate and falling ; do we not seem to ourselves to be 
reading some tragic composition, such as those of 
Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides ? is not the mournful 
image of a Niobe presented before our eyes ? are not 
our souls pervaded with a kind of horror as at the sight 
of a Laocoon attempting in vain to burst the frightful 
knots of serpents ? Surely it is a design worthy of the 
dignity of the Roman empire, to expend all the resources 
of so profound a skill, in setting forth what was the 
' fate and what the chances of events, through which 
' the power of a *' people now for a long time most 
mighty, destroyed itself," what were the vices both 
of citizens and rulers, which prQvoked the vengeance 
and punishment of the immortal gods, so that that mighty 


imperial structore began to fall to ruin. Behold a se- 
cond Scipio, not sitting among the ruins of proud Car- 
thage ^when she had just fulfilled her destiny, but on the 
soil of Rome herself, even now sinking to destruction, 
and prophesying with gushing tears thtf ruin of his 
country ! See him meditating, not with a factitious 
and far-fetched effort, but under aspects which to such 
a mind present themselves spontaneously, upon the 
ima^ of his country, before so excellent and so perfect 
in all its parts, now distorted and ruined ! And we see 
that he practised no less art than Sophocles used in his 
divine tragedies, in arranging every several part, and 
assigning its own place to each. After prefixing, both 
to the histories and to the books of annals, a prologue, 
in which not only the argument of the whole work, but 
its entire plan and character^ are briefly shadowed forth, 
he then leads the minds of his readers, now with a quick- 
ened, and now with a slackened and restrained pace, 
through all the stages of the action, which are meted 
out in a manner fit and suitable to the things themselves 
and to the laws of art ; and he so depicts the natures and \ 
characters of men, and of the actions performed . by 
them, he so portrays real life, even in its most varied 
and troubled forms, — whether he writes of battles and 
the storming of cities, or whether of things done m the 
palaces of princes, and the houses of private men, — 
that we seem to behold all these things with our own 
eyes, and to be present at them ourselves. But these 
are matters of such a kind that their nature can be less 
easily described than conceived in the mind itself. We 
shall proceed to illustrate by examples those points alone 
which belong to the poetical form of the language itself. 


I. Among these examples, the Collocation op 
THE Words themselves first claims our attention. For 
in some passages in Tacitus, either whole or half verses 
are found: Anna!, i. i, Urhein Bomam a piincipio 
reges hdbuere; xv. 73, donee consensu patrum deterritus 
est, ne; Germ. 18, bellorum casm piUet, ipsis incipientis ; 
chap. 33, praeceUunt ; nee major apud Cattos pedttum 
laus ; chap. 39, auguriis patrum et prisca formidine 
sacram. But Cicero has already observed that verses 
often fall also from the pens of writers through care- 
lessness, of which there are examples in lAvy and many 
other authors: Livy, moreover, as well as Tacitus, be- 
gins the preface to his books of histories with a hexa- 
metrical exordium. And indeed this circumstance, 
especially when two principal writers agree in it, I can- 
not believe to have fallen out at a venture ; but, in the 
case of Tacitus especially, to whose language gravity 
{(refjivov) is said peculiarly to belong, I should suppose, 
not indeed that he took pains to frame a verse in the 
very outset of his work, but that he retained one which 
had spontaneously offered itself to his mind. 

II. SiNGLB Words are used poetically. 

a. Words in themselves poetical and belonging to a 
former age : desolatus, ebumus, exspes, fatiscere^ grand' 
aevus, mersare, praesagus, secundare, &c. And of a 
later age : accurstis (us) distinctus (us), honorus. 
Simple verbs used for compounds: asperare, celerare, 
cirejflere (aliquid), gravescere, jutus, propinquare, radere, 
solari, suescerej iemnere, of a later SLgeJlammare, 

b. Words poetical in their signification (chiefly those so 
used by metonyme) : cura de libro, €iemtf5W=originem 


trahens, fides^ jiduda applied to a man who inspires 
confidence (Hist, ii 4, 5. Titms — mgms rerum fiducia 
accessU et praecipua concordiae fides Titus), flagitmmsss 
efflagitatio, puerperium:^psTtxis, 6t»»<ers=malu8, species 
=:acies oculorum,^^ triste used as a substantiTe ; in the 
poets of the later age : annua s^proventus anni, transi- 
^«re=tran8figere, ^anamtY/ere=transire silentio. — Ab- 
stract Tbrms are ased for concrete much oftener than 
in other prose writers: auxiUa, vigilitie, miluia (=:mi* 
lites. Hist. iii. 18, quos miUtiae legioncariis^ aequahant ; 
compare Flin. Hist. Nat. iv. 27, Glessaria a sttccino 
rmUtiae — hj the soldiers, militibus nostris — appellata a 
harharis Austraria), delectus (in chitates remittere, Hist, 
iv-. 71), matrimoniaj conjugium, necessitudines, affini- 
tcAts, amicitiae, dominationes, nobUikUes, remigiumy clien-- 
telaey servitium, exstlium (Hist. i. 2, plenum exsiliis 
mare) J antiquitas, consultationes, mors, ingema^ (pavida, 
servilia). — Substantives arb put for Adjbctiybs 
«pcctotor popultis, domus regnatrix, corruptor animus, vie- 
tor exercitus, hellator equus (according to the Greek form 
of expression). — Adjbctiybs are also used in the place 
of substantives, see IIL b. 

III. Poetic Ai# Structure of the Words : Grab- 
ciSMS^'^ (some words have also a Greek form: Dial. 31, 

* Annal. xi. 31, sive ceperat ea (tempestatem; but Tacitus ap- 
pears to haye written ea designedly to express a less conspicuous 
object; anything of the kind) species (ejus). Compare liy. xxxvii. 
04, spectaetdum capessite eomlis. So Lucret. iy. 243, speciem quo 
vertimus, and oftener; Vitniy.ix.4, si tantis intervaUis nostra 
species potest id animadvertere, and in other places. 

" But many also of the peculiarities explained above, may be 
considered as borrowed from the Greek language. 


grammatice, musice, et georn^trice. But Tacitus has never 
followed the practice of his age, in mixing words belong- 
ing to the Greek tongue with Latin words). 

a. In the Usb of the Cases. Concerning the ellip- 
sis in the use of the Genitive see On the Brevity, 
&c. VI. a. ; Apkata Sejani (uxor), as the Greeks say 
'AXi^avdpog 6 ^ikimrov ; Piraeeus Atticae orae (portus), 
as eiQ Trjy ^iXlvrov, sc. '^wpav. — ^Annal. xv. 14, adjecisse 
deos {dignum Arsacidarum) ut simul, &c. &£,iov r&v 'Apa, 
Compare Cic. Balb. 2, mihi quidem dignum ret vide" 
tar, — Concerning the peculiar use of the partitive geni- 
tive (01 <l>p6vifwi tUv dyOpunrwv), see On the Brevity, 
&c. III. b. — ^The genitive is nowhere found more fire- 
quently than in Tacitus joined to relative adjectives and 
participles (as oTraic d^piviav iraiZiov), and the same may 
be said of the Accusative, where it is used to apply or 
restrict the discourse to any object {vSlaQ wkvs, wavra 
EvdaifjLoyeiy, ra ^e aXXa). A few examples will suffice : 
ingens animi, diversus animi, fcUlax amicitiae, vetits 
operis ac laboris, morum non spemendus, praecipuus 
circumveniendi, primus luendae poenae, anxius potentiae, 
virtutum steriliSy insolens obsequii, manifestus delicti, ft- 
rox lingvMe, atrox odU ; — contectus humeroa, nudus brachia, 
allevari animum, cetera degener, cetera egregius, — ^The 
Dative is put for the genitive after the manner of thet 
poets : Hist. iii. 5, Baetia, cui Porcius procurator erat ; 
Annal. xiii. 23, cui (cujus) per nupiias ArUoniae gener erat 
(Cic. Demockares, — qui Juit Dermsihem sororis filhis) ; 
Annal, i. 3, Augustus svbsidia dominationi, — Marcellum — 
Agrippam — extulit; ii. 64, immittere latronum glohos, 
exscindere castella, camas bello ; chap. 46, missas tamen 
Drusus—pacijirmator; iii. 14, vario rumore^ custos saluti 


an mortis exactor sequeretur. For a preposition : AnnaJ. 
xi. 37.,^ore7i^i^Zzae hatui concors ; Hist. iv. 52, DomiYuzno 
mitigatus, i. e. mitigatus in Domitiani animo. There is a 
brevity (/3paxvXoyta) in the use of the dative of the 
participle: Annal. xiv. 49, optimum quemque jurgio laces^ 
sens et respondenti reticens, that is, keeping silence if any 
one answered. There is a very close resemblance to 
this in the use of the dative absolute, borrowed by the 
Latins from the Greeks (thus Herodotus : oKriQii Xoy^ 
'Xp£bffjLiyu)y Agric. 11 ; Germ. 6, in universum aestimanti 
(Curt) ; Hist. iv. 17, vere reputantibvs, Galliam suismet 
viribus concidisse. Compare Livy xxvi. 34, urbium Cor- 
cyrae tenus ab Aetolia incipienti solum tectaque — Aetolorum 
esse (so Herodotus ii. 26, aTro *E\£^avr*Viyc ttoXioc ioyri 
Qvayres ttrri '^wpiov). On the similar use of the geni- 
tive, see On the Brevity, &c. III. b. ; Annal. xiv. 61, 
and xi. 23. — The dative which is called subjective is 
used more frequently by no writer than by Tacitus 
with passive verbs, in place of a preposition with the 
ablative. In this circumstance the Greeks have a 
still greater variety and pliability in their language^ 
as is clear from the fact that, besides this dative (XcXficrac 
/ioi, iirparreTO avrdis tcl Tfjg woXfwc) they used not only 
the preposition Wo, but others also, npog, wapa, ex. 
Among the Latins, the poets have not unfrequently 
used this form of speech, as Ovid, Barbaras hie ego sum, 
quia non intelligor ulli ; but Cicero too, Livy, and others 
use it. So Tacitus, Annal. i. i, veteris populi Romani 
prospera vel adversa Claris scriptoribus m^emoj'ata sunt; 
iv. 6, frummta, — cetera pvhlicorum Jructaum societatibus 
equitum Romanorum agitahantur ; xi. 29, Callistus jam 


rrdhi circa necem Ccui Caesaris narratas, — Concerning the 
accusative, see above, On the Brevity, &c.. III. d« 

b. In thk Usb of Adjbctives.^^ 

a. In the Place op Substantives are put neuter 
adjectives, mostly joined with the genitive (the singular 
of the adjective being used less often than the plural), 
as well by Livy and other writers as by the poets and 
Tacitus ; (ra icaXa, ra avayKoia, to rerpafifiiyov t&v /3ap- 
l^apojy, TO TToWov TffQ (TTpaTifig, &tTTffia l3oifc, i. e. aarffiog 
fioff, T&v pouv KaraKeKprjfAvifffiiva), Annal. i. 1, populi 
JRomani prospera vel adversa; iii. 40, per condlialmla 
et coetvs seditiosa disserebant; xiv. 15, qmn et feminae 
Ulustres informia meditari. — Annal. iii. 59, diverso ter- 
rarum distineri; ii. 39, adire mumcipia obscure did. — 
Annal. iv. 23, incerta belli metuens, as ambigtia, dvbia, 
fortuita, intuta, certa, avia, inctccessa, cmgusta, ardua, 
lubrica, edita, obstantia, opportuna, amoena^ plana, svlh- 
jecta, aperta, profunda, secreta, adversa, saeva, svbita, 
occulta, operta, idonea, vana, inania, falsa, tadta, Umgin- 
qua, prima, extrema, summa» praecipua, rdiqua, cetera^ 
alia, paticaj multa, are found in Tacitus, joined with the 
genitive plural. 

0. Adjectives are very often used by him, as well as 
by the poets,- after the manner of the Greeks (aiva 
pro alvCJQ, ev^ov Travvvj^toc, i. e. vvkti, ^evTepaiog oxfiiKeTO, 
i. e. devTEptjf. fifiiipijf), for Adverbs, when greater power is 
thereby given to the discourse: Annal. iv. 12, domum 
Germanici revirescere occulti laetabantur; xii. 12, « citi 
advenissent; v. 1, aufert marito (Liviam) — adeo pr operas, 

^ Many points also in the mode of comparison which are 
borrowed from the Greek language, have been noticed above. 
(See On the Variety, &c, V. d.) 


ut, &c. ; Agric. 19, a se stasque orsus primam domum 
suam coercuit; Annal. iii. 52, adversum luxum, qutitf^ 
mensum proruperat ; iv. 60, Tiberius torvus out fcUsum 
renidens vultu ; chap. 28, imtocentem ComiUum et falsa 

y. Thb Usb of the Preposition Ex for Ai>« 
jBCTiTES AND Adtbrbs is veiy common in Tacitus. 
This mode of expression the poets have generally used 
after the manner of the Greeks (ek tov c/x^aveocy ^ui 
ra\ovQ^ iv T^ ^avEp^, and also in the plural numher, 
which is never thus used hj Latin writers, ejc t&v Ivva' 
r£v), and some examples of this have heen passed into the 
language of common discourse, as ex impromso, ex inqpi" 
nato, ex insperato, ex composito, ex praeparato, ex aequo, 
ex occuUoy in Livy, ex tuto, ex vano, ex supervacuo ; many 
instances are found in the writers of the Silver Age, as 
ex abundanti, ex contmervti (continuo), ex part, ex toto ; 
in Tacitus ex honesto, ex integro, ex vano, ex facih\ ex 
affluenti, ex aequo in many places. And on a like prin- 
ciple, per silentium, per tram, per licentiam, in aperto, 
in levi, in neutrum, in mollius, in detenus. See On the 
Brevity, &c. VII. d. at the end. 

c. In the Use of the Verb. Concerning the 
indefinite (aoristical) use of the tenses, see On the 
Brevitt, &c. III. g. 1., and concerning the use of the 
infinitive, ihid. III. f. The infinitive is used hy attraction 
with the nominative in place of the accusative, as in that 
passage of Virgil, sensit medios delapsus in hastes ; Hist. 
iv. 55 » ipse e majoribus suis hostis populi Eomani quain 
socius (esse) jactabat ; in like manner Herod, viii. 137, 
rov p,i(rOoy t^acov dlicaioi eTvat aVoXa/3dvr£c ovrof IJitVai. 
On the other hand, the accusative, instead of the 


nominative, is joined with the infinitive, after the Greek 
custom (c0jy elvat ffTparriydv^frTpaTrjyoc) : Hist. iv. 52 
Titum — orasse dkebatwr; \, 90, Trachali ingenio Otho- 
nem uti credebatur; Germ. 33, Angrivarios imndgrasse 
narratur. Very seldom dicitur, more frequently in 
Livy, creditur, proditur, traditur, fertur, nuntkUvr, are 
found thus used. — ^The infinitive suppHes the place of 
the suhstantive and gerund, after the usage of the 
Greeks, which has heen received hy the poets, and in a 
few examples also by the writers of the former age. 

a. For the nominative : Annal. xv. 20, culpa quam 
poena tempore prior, emendari quam peccare posterius 
est; Hist. ii. 82, sufficere videkantwr adversus VitelUum 
pars copiarum et dux Mucianus et Vespasiani nomen ac 
nihil arduum (esse)fatis, 

/3. For the genitive and sometimes for the ablative : 
Annal. vi. 12, dato sacerdotibus negotio — vera discemere; 
Dial. 3, etkmisi non novum tibi ipse negotium impor-^ 
tosses — aggregare (Caes. B. G. vii. 71, consilium — c?i- 
mdttere); Agric. 8, peritus (rov) obsequi eruditusqus 
(rf) utilia honestis miscere; Annal. iv. 52, modiois 
dignationis et quoquo facirwre properus clarescere (a case 
without example, even in the poets); Annal ii. 57, 
atrox ac dissentire mmiifestus ; Agric. 25, paratu magna, 
majore fama, uti» mos est, de ignotis, ** oppugnasse ultro" 
castella adorti. Compare Livy iv. 3i, civitas vind in- 
sueta, irdXiQ j^aXc-m) Xa/Jelv, €irn^^eu)g iroieiv, dia<pipeiy rf 
Tififjg opiyetrdai. 

y. For the accusative, and sometimes for the dative, 
and for the former chiefly when a substantive in the same 
case goes before : Annal, xiii, 15, qum nullum crimen neque 
jvbere caedem fratris palam audebat (compare Cic. Tusc, 


i. 26, ut Jovi bibere ministraret) ; Annal. iv. 56, foetus 
natura et consuetudine exerdtus (r^) veUire odium faHlor- 
cibus hlcmditUs ; Dial. 10, tamquam minus ofmoxmn sit 
(r^) offendere poetarum quam oratorum stvdmra. Com- 
pare Xen. Apol. Socr. 14* tva tn /iaXXoy'— dTrc^rwcri 
ry> e/i€ TtrifATJaOai vvo haifwvwy. See above. On thb 
Brbvitt, &c.. III. f. — ^There is another Graedsm in 
those cases where the particle (Citrre, so as) is implied 
in the infinitive: Annal xi. 1, non extimtasse contianem 
populi Ramani, fateri, gloriamque facrnoris ultro petere ; 
xii. 50, atrox hiems, seu parum provisi commeatus et orta 
ex utroque tabes percellunt Vohgesen omittere praesentia* 
Compare Thucydides iii. 6, Tij^ fiep OaXaafnfg elpyoy, fi^ 
•\pfi<rdai MvreXriyalovs. 

Thb Subjunctive, after the manner of the Greek 
optative, is used both by other writers and by Tacitus to 
imply that a thing has been done frequently ; Annal. 
i. 27, postremo deserunt tribunal, ut quis-^-occurreret, 
manus tntentantes; chap. 44, at tr^ni, si legio, indus- - 
triarn — apprcbaverant, retinebat ordines: ubi avaritiam 
aut crudeUtatem consensu objectavissent, solvebatur militia 
(ovff fjLEv tdoi evTcucnac — lovrac — Ewyvu), — Concerning^ 
the use of the Participlb, compare On thb Bre- 
vity, &c. Ill, i. Evidently after the Greek fashion, 
which is adopted also by Sallust, we read in Tacitus 
inmto, cupienti, volenti mihi est, for nolo, cupio, volo : 
Annal. i. 59, ut quibusque bellum invitis aut cupientibus 
erat, hyBonivoic Hi if^fuvoig Jfy ; Agric. 18, 1^ qmbus 
bellum volentibus erat. We may find an explanation of 
this in the passages in which volens has the same sense 
as gratum (just as gnarus is used for notus) : Hist, 
iii. 52, Mvdano volentia rescripsere (Sallust, volentia 


pUbi factvris vldebcUur) ; and Annal. ii. 4, Ariobarzanem 
— volentUma Armemis praefedt (compare Soph. Oed. 
Col. 1505, TTodovvTi 7rpov<j>dvrig) ; Sail. Jag. 76, poe" 
nas ipsi vokntes pependere. Add lastly the folloTong 
phrases, which are actually translated from the Greek, 
and which are common in the poets, SaUust, livy, and 
others, namely, est for licet, and amare for solere : Germ. 
5, est videre apud illos argerUea vasa; Annal. iv. 9, rU 
ferme amat posterior adulatio ; tart, ^tXcI. 

d. In the USB of Pabtioles. 

a. Vereor is omitted before the particle n^, (see above 
on the ellipsis of verbs), as in Greek authors we have 
lin rovTo 6XKwg exV- ^^ particle cum is often wanting 
(as in Ovid) : Annal. iii. 64, qutndedmviri septemviris 
simul; iv. 55, Bypaepevd TralUanique Laodicems ac 
Magnetibus simul; vi. 9, Appius Silanus Scauro Ma» 
merco simul. Compare Hom. Od. iv. 7^3} otrtrcu /lcoi 
Ofiov Tpa(l)ey i}S' kyivovro. 

j3. Annal. xvi. 9, donee a centurions — tamquam in 
pugna caderet (so Suetonius, Otho, 5, ab hoste cad&re ; 
Nepos de regibus iii. 3, periit a morho) — Oaveiv inrb 
rivoc* Annal. ii. 47, Magnetes a Sipt/lo, as on coins we 
read Mayvrima cltto SittvXov. Compare Liv. i. 50, 
Turnus Herdonius db Atida (Aricinus) ygrociYer in absen^ 
tern Tarquinium ercU invectus, 

y. The preposition in is often used to give greater 
force where, from the common form of speech, you 
would expect ad, or simply a case of the noun, or some 
other construction : in id, in hoc, eig rovro (Livy, Vel- 
leius, and the poets ; in majus celetrare (liyy and Sal- 
lust), and the like phrases, eirl to fieiZov Kotrfielv, in unum 
constdere, eig filav ISovXeveiv, in unum cedere, etc ev, 


ipx^^oBai Livy, Sallast), in tottgum, in prfisens, el^ <Spac 
clc ro irap6v (Livy, Sallast, Cicero), tn tantam, in wd- 
gus, in cetera, in diversum ; Annal. xii. 35, plus vulne- 
rum in nos at pUraeqae cades oriebantur ; ii. 47, asper^ 
rima in Sardianos lues; chap. Sq, forma Jiaud dissi' 
tnili in dommum erat, as the Greeks say, elg wayra, c<c 
ayaOov elireiv, eg <l>6fioy, eig uhra eoiKev. Annal. iv. .25, 
aderant semisomnos in barbaros (see above. On *thk 
Brbvity, &c. V, a. under syllepsis), as eg dpdyovg e^oyro 
Ei^vri Kig eig ocov, 

d. We find answering to the Greek phrases, ol rdre 
&t'Op<»yiroi, ft ^^cLifyrig jieTatrratng, Agric. 25, univtrsae 
ultra gentes ; Annal. xiii. 41, cuncta extra, tectis tenus, 
sole Ulustria fuere (compare Liv. xxiii. 27, omni circa 
agro potiuntur) ; Annal. i. 27, is ante alios aetate et glo- 
ria belli (excelling others) ; Hist. ii. 76, iua ante omnes 
eocperientia ; v. 12, proprOqv^ muri labore et opere ante 

£. Adverbs are joined with the substantive verbs, in- 
stead of adjectives : longe, velocius, frustra, impune est 
as in Greek authors we have d^v, eKatrrdrw elvai ; and 
bene male, rede est, are the common forms of expression 
in speaking of the state of a person's health. 

IV. Thb Form of Expression itsblf is Pobtical, 

as equestris procella, aliquid ultra mortale gaudium 
accipere, arbiter rerum, dira quies, in limine belli, conjux 
sex partus enixa, trucidati sunt sine nostro sanguine, 
sera juvenum Venus, marcentum pacem nutrire^ vita 
popuH Bomani per incerto maris et tempestatum quotidie 
volvitur. This poetical language consists generally in 
the following particulars :^- 


a. Inanimatb Objects arb spoken of as having 
LIFE, whence he not only speaks thus of animals : 
Germ. 9, ne armentis quidem suus honor aut gloria 
frontis, but also still more boldly, Anual. i. 79, quin 
ipsum Tiberim nolle prorsus accolis fivmis orbatum mi^ 
nore gloria fluere; xv. 15, flumen — vi equorum pen^-^ 
pere (as if it were a hostile army) ; Germ. 40, est 
in insula Oceani castum nemus; Hist. v. 6, praeci- 
puum monUum Lihanum erigit (Judaea), mirum dictu 
tantos inter ardor es opacum Jidumque nimbus; idem 
amnem Jordanen fundit alitque; Germ. 27, sepalcrum 
caespes erigit; Annal. xv. 62, lacrimas eorum modo 
sermone, modo intentior in modum coercentis ad Jirmitu^ 
dinem revocat; Hist. i. 17, drcumsteterat interim pala- 
tium publico exspectatio magni secreti impatiens; chap. 
2, opus aggredior opimum casibus, atrox proeliis, discors 
seditionibus, ipsa etiampace saevum; Annal. i. 31, multa 
seditionis ora vocesque; chap. 61, incedunt moestos locos, 
at the end : ubi infelici dextra — mortem invenerit. 

b. The Prosopopoeia of Time is very frequent : 
Annal. vi. 51, morum quoque tempora illi diversa: egrc" 
gium vita famaque (tempus), quoad privatus — fuit; 
occultum ac subdolum Jingendis virtutibus, donee Germa- 
nicus ac Drusus svperfuere; idem inter bona malaque 
mixtus, &c., whence it is clear that in these things 
also variety has been aimed at ; Germ. 30, disponere 
diem, vallarfi noctem ; Hist. i. 80, obseguia meliorum nox 
abstuUrat; Annal, xiii. 17, nox eadem necem Britannici 
et rogum conjunxit; chap. 33, idem annus plures reos 
habuit; iv. 15, idem annus alio quoque luctu Caesarem 
afficit aUerum ex geminis Drusi liberis extinguendo ; 
i. 54, idem annus novas caerimonias accepit addito soda- 


Ikon Augustalium sacerdotio; Agric. 22, terttus ex- 
petUtionum annus novas gentes aperuit; Hist. v. 10, 
proximus annus cwUi hello mtentus; Annal. iv. 31, 
guem vidit sequens aetas praepotenteiUt venalem ; xv. 38, 
fessa aut rudis paeritiae aetas ; xiv. 33, si quos imbellis 
sexus a fessa aetas — attinuerat Livy has not Tinfire- 
quently used this form of expression, as well as Velleius, 
Pliny the elder, Silius, and others ; compare Cicero, 
Brat. 92, interim me quaestorem Siciliensis excepit 


V certainly verbs are made to refer to men which, in their 

common use, are only joined to appellatives and abstract 

nouns : Annal. ii. 25, ipse majoribus copiis Marsos ir^ 

rumpit; chap. 56, Cappadoces in fomuxm provinciae 

redacti Quintum Veranium legatum accepere ; xii. 58, 

tributam Apamensibus terrae motu convolsis — remissum ; 

— ^Agric. 22, vastatis usque ad Taum — nationibus > 

Hist. ii. 87, nee coUmiae modo aut munidpia congestu 

copiarum, sed ipsi cultores arvaque, maturis jam Jrugi- 

2>ua, ut hostile solum vastabantur ; Annal. ii. 25, popukt- 

j tur, exscindit non ausum congredi hostem ; xii. 49, dum 

iocios magis quam hastes praedatur ; xvi. 13, iVi qua (urbe) 

omne mortalium genus vis pestilentiae depopvlabatur ; Agr. 

41, to^ militares viri cum tot cohortibus expugnati et capti 

(where Walch, comparing the expression to Thucydides's 

use of eo-oXiopfcelv, quotes Justin, iii. 4. ii, expugnatis 

veteriJbus incolis; Lucret. iv. 1008, reges eapugnare; 

Liv. xxiii. 30, obsessos fame expugnavit ; to which add 


Curt. iii. i. 7, aa scire inexpugnabiles esse; ix. 10. 7, tria 
sirmd agmina populabarUur Indos — maritimos Ptole^ 
maevs, ceteros ipse rex et ab alia parte Leonnaius urebant ; 
Liv. xxviii. ^tfinitimos depopidabantur ; Epit. 47, Illyrios 
— -vastaverant), — Annal. xii. 25, se qiwque accingeret 
juvene partem curarum capessituro; iii. 63, Milesios 
Dareo rege niti; iv. 19, Jios corripi, dilato ad teinpvs 
Sabino, placitum; Hist. ii. 71, Valerium Marinum de- 
stinatum a Oalba constdem distvlit ; chap. 95, magna et 
misera civitas, eodem anno Othonem Vitelliumqae passa; 
iv. 52, amicos tempwe, fo7'tuna — imminw, transferrin 
desinere (that is, their attentions, their very friendship ; 
Annal. iv. 42, Merulam — alho senatorio erasit; vi. 42, 
civitas — conditoris Seleud retinens (that is, of his insti- 
tutions). Compare Quintil. viii. 6. 25, hominem devO' 
ran (that is, his goods), Plinius, Hist. Nat. vi. 24, regi 
— percontanti postea narravit Bomanos et Caesarem; 
vii. 2, supra hos extrema in parte montium Trispithami 
Pygmaeique narrantur. And in the same way the older 
writers also use loqud, narrare. 




•^ " .I' 

.^. •... iM i s:«. 




^ Gbrmania omnis a Gallis ^Rhaetisque et Pannoniia 

Rheno etDanubio fluminibus, a^Sarmatis Dacisque ^mu- 

tuo metu aut ^montibus separator. ^Cetera Oceanua 

ambit, latos 7 sinus et ^insularum immensa spatia complec- 

tens, nuper cognitis quibusdam gentibns ac regibus, 

9quo8 bellum ^^aperuit. ^^Rhenus Rhaet^carum Alpiom 

inaccesso ac praecipiti vertice ortus, modico flexu in Ocd- 

dentem^^ versus septentrionali Oceano ^^miscetur. Danu- 

bius i*niolli et clementer edito mentis ^^Abnobae juga 

effusus ^^lures populos adit, donee in Ponticum mare ^^sex 

meatibus erumpat : septimum enim os paludibus hauritur. 

II . IpBos Germanos ^ indigenas crediderim, minimeque 

aliarum gentium adventibus et hospitiis mixtos, ^quia 

^nec terra olim sed classibus advehebantur qui mutare 

sedes quaerebant, et immensus ultra litque sic dixerim 

^adversus Oceanus raris ab ^orbe nostro navibus aditur. 

Quis porro, praeter periculum horridi et ignoti maris, 

Asia aut Africa aut Italia relicta, Germaniam peteret, 

mformem terris, asperam caelo, tristem cultu aspec- 

tuque, nisi si patria sit ? Celebrant carminibus antiqnis 

74 * TACITUS. 

(quod unum apud illos memoriae et annalium genus est) 
^ Tfdsconem deum ttrra ediium, et JUium Mannum, ori- 
ginem gentts conditoresque. fManno tris JUios assignant, 
e quorum nominibus proxmi Oceano Ingaevones, medii 
HermioneSf atteri lataevonea vocentur, Quidam, ut in 
licentia vetustatis, plures ^deo ortos plureaque genUi appeU 
kUianes, ^Marsos, ^^Gambrioioa, Suevoa, " Vandilios afi&rm- 
ant, eaque vera et arUiqua nominct, Ceterum ^^ Germaniae 
vocabulum recene et nuper additum, ^^quoniam qui primi 
Bhenum transgressi Gallos exptderint ac nunc Tungri, 
tunc Germani vocati sint, Ita nationis nomeuy non gen^ 
tie, eoaluisse paulatm, ut omnee prmum a victore ob 
metum, max etiam a se ipsU invento nomine Germani 

III* Fuisse apud eos et ^HercuUm memorant, pri- 
mumque omnimn ^ virorum fortium itari in praelia canunt. 
Sunt illis haec quoque carmina, quorum ^relatu, quern 
^haritum vocant, accendunt animos, ^futuraeque pugnae 
fortunam ipso cantu augurantur. Teirent enim trepi- 
dantve, prout sonuit acies ; nee tarn voces illae, quam 
viitutis ^concentus videntur. Affectatur praecipue asperi- 
tas soni et firactum murmur, olgectis ad os scutis, quo 
plenior et gravior vox repercussu intumescat. Ceteram 
et Ulixem, quidam opinantur, longo illo et fabuloeo 
eirrore in hunc Oceanum dekttum, adisse Germanicie 
terras, "f AscSmrgiumque, quod in ripa Rheni situm 
hodieque incolitiir, ah illo constitutum . nominatumque, 
AroM quin etiam XJUxi , consecratam, adjecto Laertae 
patris nomine, eodeni loco oUm repertam, monumentaque 
et tumvlos quoadam, ^Oraecie Utteris inscriptoa, in can-- 


finio Grermardae BhaeUaeque adhuc exstare, Qaae neque 
confirmare argomentis, neque refellere in animo est: ez 
ingemo suo quisque demat, vel addat fidem. 

IV. Ipse eomm opinionibns accedo qui, Oermani(M 
populos nulUs [aim] cUiarum nationwn cannubus ^in- 
fectos, prcpriam et sinceram et iantum aui smilem gen* 
tern exstttisae arbitrantur. Unde habitus quoque cor- 
porum, quamquam in tanto hominum nnmero, idem: om- 
nibus ^truces et caerulei oculi, ^rutilae comae, magna 
corpora et * tantum ad impetum valid^. Laboris atque 
openim non eadem patientia ; minimeque sitim aestum- 
que tolerare, fingora atque inediam ^caelo solove 

V. Terra, etsi ^aliquanto specie differt, in nniversum 
tamen aut silvis horrida, aut 'paludibus foeda, humidior, 
qua Gallias, ventosior, qua Noricum ac Pannoniam 
aspicit ; 'satis ferax, frugiferarnm ^arborum impatiens«pe- 
corum fecunda, sed plerumque ^improcera. ^Ne armentis 
quidem suus honor aut gloria frontis. Numero gaudent, 
eaeque solae et gratissimae opes sunt. Argentum et au- 
rum propitiine an irati dii negaverint dubito. 7 Nee ta- 
men affirmaverim, nullam Germaniae venam argentum 
aurumve gign^e. Quis enim scrutatus est ? possessione 
et usu baud ^perinde afficiuntur. 9 Est videre apud illoa 
argentea vasa, legatis et principibus eorum muneri data, 

10 non in alia vilitate, quam quae humo finguntur: 

11 quamquam proximi ob usum commerciorum aurum et 
argentum in pretio habent, formasque quasdam nostrae 
pecuniae agnoscunt atque eligunt : interiores simplidus 
et antiquius permutatione mercium utuntnr. Pecuniam 


probant veterem et dia notam, ^^serratos bigatosque. 
Aigentom quoque magis qnam aurom ^'sequantur, nulla 
affectione animi, sed quia nnmeros argenteorum £Gu;ilior 
nsui est promiscua ac vilia mercantibas. 

VI. Ne femim quidem ^saperest, sicut 'ex genere 
telomm colligitur. Rari gladiis,aut ^majoribus lanceis 
utnntur. Hastas, vel ipsoram vocabulo ^framtaSy genint, 
angnsto et brevi fenro, sed ita acii et ad usam babili, ut 
eodem telo, prout ratio poscit, vel cominus vel eminas 
pognent. Et eques quidem scuto frameaqne contentus 
est : pedites et missilia spargunt, plura singuli, atque in 
immensum ^vibrant, ^nudi aut sagolo leves. Nulla cultus 
jactatio : ^scutatantumlectissimis coloribus distinguunt. 
Faucis loricae, vix uni alterive ^cassis aut galea. Equi 
non forma, non velocitate conspicui. Sed nee variare 
gyros in morem nostrum docentor : in rectum aut uno 
flezu 9dextr6s agunt,ita conjuncto orbe ut nemo posterior 
sit. In uniyersum aestimanti, ^^plus penes peditem ro- 
boris ; eoque ^^mixti praeliantur, apta et congrueote ad 
equestrem pugnam velocitate peditum, quos ex omni ju- 
ventute delectos, ante aciem locant. Definitur et nume- 
rus : ^^centent ex singulis pagis sunt ; idque ipsum inter 
suos yocantur, et quod primo numerus fuit, jam nomen 
et honor est. Acies per cuneos componitur. Cedere 
loco, dummodo rursus instes, ^^consilii quam formidinis 
arbitrantur. Corpora suorum etiam in dubiis praeliis 
referunt. Scutum reliquisse praecipuum flagitium ; ^^nec 
aut sacris adesse aut concilium inire ignominioso fas ; 
multique superstites bellorum in^amiam laqueo finierunt. 

VII. Reges ^ex nobilitate, duces ex virtute sumunt. 



Nee regibus infinita ant libera potestas ; et duces ex- 
emplo potias quam imperio, si prompti, si conspicui, si 
ante adem agant, admiratione praesunt. Geterum neque 
'animadvertere neque vincire, ne verberare quidem, nisi 
sacerdotibus permissum, non quasi in poenam nee 
ducis jussu, sed velut deo imperante, quern adesse bel- 
lantibus credunt ; ^effigiesque et signa quaedam detracta 
lucis in praelium ferunt. Quodque praecipuum forti- 
tudinis incitamentum est, non casus nee fortuita conglo- 
batio ^turmam aut cuneum facit, sed familiae et propin- 
quitates. Et ^in proximo pignora, ^unde feminarum 
nlulatus audiri, unde vagitus infantium. Hi cuique 
sanctissimi testes, hi maximi laudatores. Ad matres, 
ad conjuges vulnera ferunt; ^nec illae numerare aut 
^exigere plagas pavent, ^cibosque et hortamina pugiian- 
tibus gestant. 

VIII* 1 Memoriae proditur quasdam acies inclinatas 
jam et labantes a feminis restitutas constantia precum 
et ^objectu pectorum, et monstrata cominus captivitate, 
quam longe impatientius feminarum suarum 'nomine 
timent, adeo ut efficacius obligentur animi civitatum, 
quibus inter obsides puellae quoque nobiles imperantur. 
Inesse quin etiam sanctum aliquid et providum patant, 
nee aut consilia earum aspemantur, aut responsa negli- 
gunt. ^Vidimus sub divo Vespasiano ^Veledam diu apud 
plerosque numinis loco habitam. Sed et olim ^Auriniam 
et compluris alias venerati sunt, non adulatione, nee 
tamquam ^facerent deas. 

IX. ^Deorum maxime ^Mercurium colunt, 'cui 
certis diebus humanis quoque hostiis litare fas habent. 


Hercnlem ac Maitem ^concessis aoimaliboB placant. 
^Fars Saevomm et Isidi saciificat : ande causa et origo 
peregiino sacro, pamin comperi, nisi quod signum ipsum 
in modum libomae figniatnm docet advectam religionem. 
Ceterom ^nec cohibere parietibns deos neqae in ullam 
hamani oris speciem aawmnlare, ex magnitudine caeles- 
timn arbitrantur. ^Lacos ac nemora consecrant, ^deo- 
nimque nominibus appeUant aecretam illnd quod sola 
reverentia ^ident. 

X. Anspicia soriesqne, at qoi maxime, observant. 
^Sortium consuetado simplex. Virgam, frngiferae ar- 
bori decisam, in surccdos amputant, eosqne, notis qnibus- 
dam discretos, super candidam vestem temere ac foituito 
spargunt. Mox, 'sipubliceoonsuletur, sacerdosdvitatis, 
sin privatim, ipse pater fSeuniliae, precatus deos caelum- 
que suspiciens, ^ter singulos toUit, sublatos secundum 
impressam ante notam interpretatur. Si prohlbuerunt, 
nulla de eadem re in eundem diem consultatio ; sin per- 
missum, auspidorum ^adhuc fides exigitur. Et iUud qui- 
dem etiam hie notum, ^avium voces volatusque interro- 
gare : ^proprium gentis, eqnorum quoque praesagia ac 
monitus experiri. Publice aluntur iisdem nemoribus ac 
lucis candidi et nullo mortali opere contacti ; quos 7pres- 
SOS sacro curru sacerdos ac rex vel princeps dvitatis 
comitantur, ^hinnitusque ac fremitus observant. Nee uUi 
auspicio major fides, non solum apud plebem ^ [sed] apud 
proceres, apud ^^sacerdotes : se enim ministros deorum, 
illos conscios putant. Est et alia observatio auspidorum, 
qua gravium beUorum eventus explorant. Ejus gentis 
cum qua bellum est, captivum quoquo modo interceptum 


cam electo populariam saoram, patiiis qaemque annis, 
^'committunt. Victoria hi]gus vel illius pro praqjudicio 

XI. De minoribus rebus principes consultant, de 
majoribuB omnes, itatamen, ^ut ea quoque quorum penes 
plebem arbitrium est, apud principes pertractentur. 
Coeunt, nisi quid fortuitum et subitum incident, certis 
diebus, cum aut inchoatur luna, aut inpletur: nam 
agendis rebus hoc auspicatissimum initinm credunt. ^Nec 
dierum numerum, ut nos, sed noctium computant. Sic 
constituunt, sic condicunt : nox ducere diem videtur. II- 
lud ex libertate yitinm, quod ^non simul nee nt jussi con- 
veniunt, sed et alter et tertius dies cunctatione coguntium 
absumitur. ^Ut turbae placuit, considunt armati. Silen- 
tium per ^sacer dotes, quibus turn et coercendi jus est, 
imperatur. Mox rex vel princeps, prout aetas cuique, 
prout nobilitas, prout decus bellorum, prout facundia est, 
audiuntur, auctoritate suadendi magis quam jubendi po- 
testate. Si displicuit sententia, fremitu aspernantur; 
sin placuit, frameas concutiunt: honoratissimum as- 
sensus genus est armis laudare. 

XII. Licet apud ^ concilium accusare quoque et discri- 
men capitis intendere. Distinctio poenarum ex delicto. 
Proditores et transfbgas arboribus suspendunt ; ignavos 
et imbelles et ^corpore infames coeno ac palude, ii\jecta 
msuper crate, mergunt. Diversitas supplicii illuc respi- 
cit, tamquam scelera ostendi oporteat, dum puniuntur, 
flagitia abscondi. Sed et levioribus delictis pro modo 
poena : equorum pecorumque numero convicti mul- 
tantur. Pars multae regi vel dvitati, pars ipsi qui 


vindicatar vel propinquis ejus exsolvitar. ^Eligantur in 
iisdem conciliis et principes, qui jura ^ per pagos vicosque 
reddunt. Centeni singulis ex plebe comites, ^consilium 
simul et auctoritas, adsunt. 

XIII. ^ Nihil autem neque publicae neque privatae 
rei nisi armati agunt. Sed arma sumere non ante cui- 
quain ^moris quam civitas 'suflFecturum *probaverit. 
Turn in ipso concilio vel principum aliquis vel pater vel 
propinquus scuto frameaque juvenem ^ornant. Haec apud 
illos ^toga, hie primus juventae ^honos ; ante hoc domus 
pars videntur, mox reipublicae. ^Insignis nobilitas aut 
magna patrum merita principis dignationem etiam ado- 
lescentulis assignant : ceteris robustioribus ac jam pri- 
dem probatis aggregantur. ^Nec rubor inter comites 
aspici. Gradus quin etiam ipse comitatus habet, judido 
ejus quern sectantur ; magnaque et comitum aemulatio^ 
quibus primus apud principem suum locus, et principum, 
cui plurimi et acerrimi comites. ^® Haec dignitas, hae 
vires, magno semper electorum juvenum globo circum- 
dari ; in pace decus, in bello praesidiura. Nee solum in 
sua gente cuique, sed apud finitimas quoque civitates 
id nomen, ea gloria est, si numero ac virtute comitatus 
emineat: ^^expetuntur enim legationibus et muneribus 
omantur et ipsa plerumque fama ^^bella profligltnt. 

XIV. Cum ventum in aciem, turpe principi virtute 
vinci, turpe comitatui virtutem principis non adaequare. 
^ Jam vero infame in omnem vitam ac probrosum super- 
stitem principi suo ex acie recessisse. Ilium defendere, 
tueri, sua quoque fortaa facta gloriae ejus assignare, prae- 
dpuum ^sacramentum est. Principes pro victoria pug- 


nont, comites pro principe. Si civitas in qua orti sunt 
longa pace et otio torpeat, plerique nobilium adolescen- 
tinm petunt ultro eas nationes, quae turn bellum aliqnod 
gerunt, quia et ingrata genti quies, et fecilius inter anci- 
pitia clarescunt, magnumque comitatum nonnisi vi bello- 
que ^tueare. Exigunt enim principis sui liberalitate ^il- 
ium bellatorem equum, illam cruentam victricemque fra- 
meam. ^Nam epulae, et quamquam incompti, largi 
tamen apparatus pro stipendio cedunt. Materia munifi- 
centiae per bella et raptus. Nee arare terram aut ex- 
spectare ^ annum tarn facile . persuaseris quam vocare 
hostem et vubiera mereri. Figrum quin immo et iners 
ladetur sudore acquirere quod possis sanguine parare. 

XV. Quotiens bella non ineunt, multum ^venati- 
buB, plus per otium transigunt, dediti somno ciboque, 
fortissimus quisque ac bellicosissimus nihil agens, ^dele- 
gata domus et ^penatium et agrornm cura feminis seni- 
busque et infirmissimo cuique ex ^&milia : ipsi ^hebent, 
mira diversitate naturae, cum iidem homines sic ament 
inertiam et oderint quietem. Mos est civitatibus ultro 
ac viritim conferre principibus vel ^armentorum vel fru- 
gum, quod pro hpnore acceptum etiam necessitatibus 
subvenit. Gaudent praecipue finitimarum gentium donis, 
quae non modo a singulis sed publice mittuntur, electi 
equi, magna arma, phalerae, torquesque. . ^ Jam et pecu- 
niam accipere docuimus. 

XVI. ^NuUas Germanorum populis urbes habitari 
satis notum est : ne pati quidem inter se junctas sedes. 
'Colunt discreti ac diversi, ut fons, ut campus, ut nemus 
placuit. Vices Ipcant non in nostrum morem, connexis 


et cohaerentibus aedificiis : suam quisque domum spatio 
circumdat, sive adversos casus ignis remedium, sive in- 
scitia aedificandi. ^Ne caementorum quidem apud illos 
aut tegularum usus : ^materia ad omnia atuntnr informi 
et ^ citra speciem aut delectationem. Quaedam loca ® dili- 
gentius illinunt terra ita pura et splendente, ut picturam 
ac lineamenta colorum imitetur. Solent et subterraneos 
specus aperire, eosque multo insuper fimo onerant, aa&g- 
ium hiemi et receptaculum frugibus, qaia rigorem 
frigorum ejusmodi locis molliant. Et, si quando hostis 
advenit, aperta populatnr, abdita autem et defossa aut 
ignorantur aut eo ipso iallunt quod quaerenda sunt. 

XVII. Tegumen omnibus ^ sagum fibula aut, si desit, 
^spina consertum : ^cetera intecti totos dies juxta focum 
atque ignem agunt. Locupletissimi veste distinguuntur, 
^non fiuitante, sicut Sarmatae ac Farthi, sed stricta et 
singulos Partus exprimente. Gerunt et ferarum pelles, 
proximi ^ripae ^negligenter, ulteriores ezquisitius, ut 
quibus nullus per commercia oultus. Eligunt feras, et 
detractavelamina spargunt ^maculis pellibusque beluarum 
quas exterior Oceanus atque ignotum mare gignit. Nee 
alius feminis quam viris habitus, nisi quod feminae 
saepius lineis amictibus velantur, eosque ^purpura yariant, 
partemque vestitus superioris in manicas non eztendunt, 
nudae ^^brachia ac lacertos; sed et proxima^pars pectoris 

XVIII. Quamquam ^severa illic matrimonia, nee 
ullam morum partem magis laudaveris. Nam prope 
soli barbarorum singulis uxoribus contenti sunt, exceptis 
admodum paucis, qui non libidine sed ^ob nobilitatem 


plnrimis naptiis ambiantur. ^Dotem non uxor marito, 
sed uxori maritus offert. Intennnt parentes et propin- 
qoi, ac muneraprobant, munera non ad deliciaa mnliebres 
quaesita, nee quibus nova nupta ^ comatur, sed boves et 
frenatmn eqnum et scutum cum framea gladioque. '^In 
haec munera uxor accipitur, atque in yicem ipsa armo- 
rum aliquid viro a£Pert. Hoc maximum vinculum, haec 
arcana sacra, hos coijngales deos arbitrantur. Ne se 
mulier extra virtutum cogitationes extraque ^bellorum 
casus putet, ipsis incipientis matrimonii auspiciis admo- 
netur, venire se laborum periculorumque sociam, idem in 
pace, idem in praelio passuram ausuramque. Hoc juncti 
boves, hoc paratus equus, hoc data arma denunttant. Sic 
vivendum, sic pereundum : ^accipere se quae liberis in- 
violata ac digna reddat, quae nurus accipiant rursusque 
ad nepotes referantur. 

XIX. Ergo ^septae pudicitia agnnt, nullis spectacu- 
lomm illecebris, ^nullis conviviorum irritationibus cor- 
mptae. ^Litterarum secreta viri pariter ac feminae igno- 
rant. ^Paucissima in tam numerosa gente adulteria ; quo- 
rum poena praes^is, et maritis permissa. ^Aecisis crini- 
bus, nudatam, coram propinquis, expellit domo maritus, 
ac per omnem vicum verbere agit. Publicatae enim pu- 
dicitiae nulla venia : non forma, non aetate, non opibus 
maritum invenerit. Nemo enim illic vitia ridet, nee cor- 
rumpere et corrumpi ^saeculum vocatur. ^Melius qui- 
dem adhue ^eae civitates, in quibus tantum virgines nu- 
bunt, et ^cum spe votoque uxoris ^^semel transigitur. 
Sic unum accipiunt maritum, quomodo unum corpus 
onamque vitam, ne ulla cogitatio ultra, ne longior 


cupiditas, ne tamquam maritum, sed tainqiiam matrimo- 
nium, ament. Numerom liberorum finire, aut quem- 
qiiam ^^ex agnatis necare, flagitium habetiir : ^^plusqae 
ibi boni mores valent, quam alibi bonae leges. 

XX. In omni domo ^nudi ac sordidi in hos artas, in 
haec corpora, quae miramur, excrescunt. Sua quemque 
mater ^uberibus alit, nee ancillis acnutricibus ^delegantur. 
^Dominum ac servum nullis educatioois deliciis dignoscas : 
inter eadem pecora, in eademhumo degunt, donee ^aetas 
separet ingenuos, ^virtus agnoscat. "^Sera juvenum 
Venus, eoque inexhausta pubertas. Nee virgines festinan- 
tur ; eadem juventa, similis proceritas : pares validaeque 
miscentur, ac »robora parentum liberi refefunt. » Sororum 
fiHis idem apud avuncalum qui apud patrem honor. Qui- 
dam sanctiorem arctioremque hunc nexum sanguinis ar- 
bitrantur, et in ^^accipiendis obsidibus magis exigunt, 
tamquam [ii] et animum firmius et domum lalius teneant. 
^^Heredes tamen successoresque sui cuique liberi ; et nul- 
lum testamentum. Si liberi non sunt, proximus gradus 
in possessione fratres, patrui, avunculi. ^^Quanto plus 
propinquorum, quo major afi&nium numerus, tanto gra- 
tiosior senectus ; ^^nec uUa orbitatis pretia. 

XXL Susdpere tam inimicitias seu patris seu ]Hro- 
pinqui quam amicitias necesse est. Nee implacabiles 
durant : ^luitur enim etiam homiddium certo armento- 
rum ac pecorum numero, ^recipitque satisfactionem uni- 
versa domus, ^utiliter in publicum, quia periculosiores 
sunt ihimidtiae ^juxta libertatem. ^Convictibus et hospi- 
tiis non alia gens efiPusius indulget. ^Quemcumquemor- 
talium arcere tecto nefas habetur : pro fortuna quisque 


apparatis epulis excipit. ^ Cum defeoere, qui modo ^ hos- 
pes fuerat, ^monstrator hospitii et comes, prozimam 
domum non invitati adeunt. Nee interest : pari huma- 
nitate accipiuntur. Notum ignotumque, quantum ad 
jus hospitis, nemo discemit. ^^Abeunti, si quid popos- 
cerit, concedere moris; et poscendi in vicem eadem 
fecilitas. Gaudent muneribus, ^^sed nee data imputant 
nee acceptis obligantur. '^ Victus inter hospites comis. 

XXII. ^Satim ^e somno, quem plerumque in diem 
extrahunt, lavantur, ^saepius calida, ut apud quos ^plu- 
rimuni hiems occupati Lauti cibum capiunt : separatae 
singulis sedes et sua cuique mensa. Tum ad negotia, 
nee minus saepe ad convivia procedunt armati. ^Diem 
noctemque continuare potando nulli probrum. Crebrae, 
ut inter ^vinolentos, rixae raro conviciis, saepius caede 
et vulneribus transiguntur. ''Sed>et de reconciliandis 
^ in vicem inimicis etjiingendis affinitatibus et asciscen- 
dis principibus, de pace denique ac bello plerumque in 
conviviis consultant, ^tamquam nuUo magis tempore aut 
ad ^^simplices cogitationes pateat animus aut ad magnas 
incalescat. Gens non ^^astuta nee ^^callida ^'aperit 
adhuc secreta pectoris licentia joci. Ergo ^^detecta et 
nuda omnium mens postera die retractatur, ^^et salva 
utriusque temporis ratio est. Deli^erant, dum fingere 
nesciunt : constituunt, dum errare non possunt. 

XXIII. Potui ^ humor ex hordeo aut ^frumento, in 
quandam similitudinem vini ^corruptus : ^proximi ripae 
et vinum mercantur. Cibi ^simplices, agrestia ^poma, 
'^recens fera, aut ^lac concretum. Sine apparatu, sine 
'blandimentis, expeUunt fEunem. Ad versus sitim non 


eadem temperantia. Si indulseris ebrietati suggerendo 
quantum concupiscunt, baud minus facile ^^vitiis quam 
armis vincentur. 

XXIV. Genus spectabulorum unum atque in omni 
coetu idem. ^Nudi juvenes, quibus id ludicrum est, 
inter gladios se atque ^infestas frameas ^saltu jaciunt. 
Exercitatio artem paravit, ars decorem, ^non in quaes- 
tum tamen aut mercedem : quamvis audacis lasciviae 
pretium est voluptas spectantium. ^Aleam (quod mi- 
rere) sobrii inter seria exercent, tanta lucrandi perden- 
dive temeritate, ut, cum omnia defeCerunt, ^extreme 
ac novissimo jactu de libertate et de corpore contendant. 
Victus voluntariam servitutem adit : quamvis juvenior, 
quamvis robustior, alligari se ac ''venire patitur. Ea est 
in re prava ®pervicacia; ®ipsi fidem vocant. Servos 
conditiouis bujus per commercia tradunt, ut se quoque 
pudore victoriae exsolvant. 

XXV. Ceteris sends ^non in nostrum morem, di- 
scriptis per familiam ministeriis, utuntur. Suam ^quis- 
que sedem, suos penates regit. Frumenti modum do- 
minus, aut pecoris, aut vestis, at colono, iigungit; et 
^servus hactenus paret. Cetera domus officia uxor ac 
liberi exsequuntur. ^Verberare servum ac vinculis et 
opere coercere rarum. Occidere solent, ^non disciplina 
et severitate, sed impetu et ira, ut inimicum, ^nisi quod 
impune. '^Liberti non multum supra servos sunt, ^raro 
aliquod momentum in domo, numquam in civitate, ex- 
ceptLs dumtaxat iis gentibus ^quae regnantur. Ibi enim 
et super ^^ ingenues et super nobiles ascendunt : ^^apud 
ceteros impares libertini libertatis argumentum sunt. 


XXVI. ^Fenas agitare et in osuras extendere ig^o- 
«um : ^ideoque magis servatur quam si vetitam esset. 
^Agri pro numero coltorum ab universis in vices occu- 
pantnr, quos mox inter se ^secundum dignationem par- 
tiantnr. Facilitatem partiendi camporom spatia prae- 
stant. ^Arva per annos mutant ; et superest ager. ^Nec 
enim cum ubertate et amplitudine soli labore contendunt, 
^ut pomana conserant et prata separent et hortos rigent : 
sola terrae seges ^imperatur. Unde annum quoque 
ipsum non in totidem digerunt species : hiems et ver et . 
aestas intellectum ac vocabula habent : ^auctumni per- 
inde nomen ac bona ignorantur. 

XXVII. ^Funerum nulla ambitio : id solum obser- 
votur, ut corpora darorum virorum ^certis lignis cre- 
mentur. Struem rogi nee vestibus nee odoribus cumu- 
lant: ^sna cuiqne arma, quorundam igni et equus 
adyicitur. ^Sepulcmm caespes erigit. ^Monumentorum 
arduum et operosum honorem, ut ^gravem defunctis, 
aspemantnr. Lamenta ac lacrimas cito, dolorem et tris- 
titiam tarde ponunt. ^Feminis lugere bonestum est; 
viris meminisse* Haec in commune de omnium Ger<- 
manorum origine ac moribus accepimus. Nunc ^singu- 
lamm gentium ^instituta ritusque, quatenus difPerant, 
quae nationes e Grermania in Gallias conmugraverint, 

XXVIII. ^ Validiores olim Gallorum res fuisse sum- 
mus auctorum divus Julius ^tradit : ^eoque credibile est 
etiam Gallos in Germaniam transgressos : quantulum 
enim amnis obstabat quo minus, ut quaeque gens eva- 
Inerat, occuparet permutaretque sedes promiscuas adhuc 


et nulla regnorum potentia *divisas? *I^tur inter 
^Hercjniam silvam Rhenumque et Moenum amnes 
^Helvetii, ulteriora Boii, Gallica utraque gens, tenaere. 
Manet adhuc ^Boihemi nomen, signatqae loci veterem 
memoriam, quamvis ^mutatis cultoribus. ^^Sedutram 
Aravisci in Pannoniam ab Otds, Germanorum natione, 
an Osi ab Araviscis in Germaniam commigraverint, com 
eodem adhuc sermone, institulis, raoribus utantur, incer- 
turn est ; quia, pari olim inopia ac libertate, eadem 
^^utriusque ripae bona malaque erant. ^^Treviri et 
Nervii ^^circa affectationem Germanicae originis ultro 
ambitiosi sunt, tamquam, per banc gloriam sanguinis, 
^^ a similitudine et inertia Gallorum separentur. Ipsam 
Rheni ripam baud dubie Germanorum populi colunt, ^'^Van- 
giones, Triboci, Nemetes. ^^Ne Ubii quidem, quamquam 
Romana colonia esse meruennt, ac libentius Agrippmen" 
ses ^7conditoris sui nomine vocentur, origine erubescunt, 
transgressi olim et ^^ezperimento fidei super ipsam Rheni 
ripam collocati, ut ^^arcerent, non ut custodurentur. 

XXIX. Omnium harum gentium virtute praecipui 
^Batavi ^non multum ex ripa, sed insulam Rheni amnis 
colunt, ^Chattorum quondam populus et seditione do- 
mestica in eas sedes transgressus, ^in quibus pars 
Romani imperii fierent. Manet honos et ^antiqnae 
societatis insigne : nam nee tributis contemnuntur, nee 
publicanus atterit. Exempti ^oneribus et collationibus, 
et tantum in usum praeliorum sepositi, velut tela atque 
arma', bellis reservantur. Est in eodem obsequio et 
^Mattiacorum gens. Protulit enim magnitudo Popnli 
Romani ^ ultra Rhenum ultraque veteres tannines im- 


peril reverentiam. Ita sede finibusque in sua ripa, 
mente animoque nobiscum agunt, cetera similes Batavis, 
^nisi quod ipso adhuc terrae suae solo et caelo acrius 
animantur. Non numeraverim inter Germaniae popu- 
los, quamquam trans Rhenum Danubiumque consederint, 
eos qui ^^decumates agros exercent. Levissimus quisque 
Gallorum et inopia audaz ^^dubiae possessionis solum 
occupavere. Mox ^^limite acto promotisque praesidiis, 
*' sinus imperii et **pars provinciae habentur. 

XXX. ^ Ultra hos ^ Chatti initium sedis ab Hercynio 
saltu inchoant/ non ita ^efPiisis ac palustribus locis, ut 
ceterae civitates ^in quas Germania patescit: ^durant 
siquidem colles, paulatimque rarescunt : et Chattos suos 
saltus Hercynius ^prosequitur simul atque ^deponit. Du- 
riora genti corpora, ^stridi artus, minax vultus, et major 
animi vigor. Multum ^(ut inter Germanos) rationis ac 
sollertiae : praeponere electos, audire praepositos, ^^nosse 
ordines, intelligere "occasiones, difiPerre impetus, ^^dis- 
ponere diem, ^'vallare noctem, fortunam inter dubia, 
virtutem inter certa numerare, quodque raiissimum ^^nec 
nisi Romanae disciplinae concessum, plus reponere in 
duce quam in exercitu. Omne robur in pedite, quern 
super arma ^^ferramentis quoque et ^^copiis onerant. 
^^ Alios ad praelium ire videas, Chattos ad bellum. Rari 
excursus et fortuita pugna. Equestrium sane virium id 
proprium. ^^cito parare victoriam, cito cedere. ^9 Velocitas 
juxta formidinem, cunctatio propior constantiae est. 

XXXI . ^ Et aliis Germanorum populis usurpatum raro 
et privata cuj usque audentia apud Chattos in consensum 
vertit, ut primum adoleverint, crinem barbamque submit- 


tere, nee nisi hoste caeso exuere votivum ^ obligatamque 
virtati oris habitum. Super sanguinem et spoUa ^revelant 
fifontem, seque turn demum ^pretia nascendi rettulisse dig^ 
nosqtie patrta ac parentibua ferunt. Ignavis et imbellibus 
manet squalor. ^Fortissimus quisque ferreum insuper 
annulum (ignominiosum id genti) velut vinculam gestat, 
donee se eaede hostis absolvant. ^Plurimis Chattorom 
hie placet babitus ; ^ jamque canent insignes, et hoslibus 
simul suisque monstrati. Omnium penes bos initia pug- 
narum ; haee prima semper aeies, ^ visu nova« Nam ne 
in pace quidem vultu miliore mansuescunt. NuUi domus, 
aut ager, aut ^aliqua cura : prout ad quemque venore, 
alontur, prodigi alieni, contemptores sui, ^ donee exsan* 
guis senectus tam durae virtuti impares faciat. 

XXXII* Proximi Chattis 'certum jam alveo Rhe- 
num, ^quique terminus esse sufficiat, ^Usipii ac Tencteri 
colunt. Tencteri super solitum bellorum decus ^eques- 
tris disciplinae arte praecellunt ; nee major apud Cbattos 
peditum laus quam Tencteris equitum. Sic instituere ma- 
jores: posteriimitantur. Hilususinfantium.baecjuvemmi 
aemulatio ; perseverant senes. Inter familiam et penates 
et j ura successionum equi traduntur ; excipit filius, non, ut 
cetera, maximus natu, sed prout ferox bello et melior. 

XXXIII. Juxta Tencteros ^Bructeri olim occuire- 
bant ; nunc Chamavos et Angrivarios immigrasse nar- 
ratur, pulsis Bructeris ac penitus excisis, vicinarum 
consensu nation um, seu superbiae odio, seu praedae 
dulcedine, seu favore quodam erga nos deorum. ^Nam 
ne' spectaculo quidem praelii invidere. Super sexaginta 
milia, non armis telisque Romanis, sed, quod magnifi- 


centiaa est^ oblectationi ocolisque cecidenmt. Maneat, 
quaeso, duretque gentibus, si non amor nostri, at certe 
odium soi, qaando ^urgentibas imperii fatis r\iih\\ jam 
praestare fortmiami^us potest quam hostimn diacordiam. 

XXXIV. Angrivarios et Chamayos ^a tergo 'Dolgi- 
bini et ^Chasuari cludmit ^aJiaeque gentes, baud perinde 
memoratae; a fronte ^Frisii ezcipiunt. Majaribua mi- 
norSmsgue Frisiis vocabulum est ex modo virium. Utrae- 
que nationes usque ad oceanum Rbeno ^praetexuntur, 
ambiuntque ^iimnensos insuper lacus et ^Romaois clas- 
sibus Davigatos. Ipsum quin etiam Oceanum ilia ^temp- 
tavimus. £t superesse adbuc ^^Herculis columnas fama 
Yttlgavit, sive adiit Hercules, seu quidquid ubique mag- 
nificum est, in claritatem gus referre consensimus. Nee 
defuit audentia ^^ Druso Germanico : sed obstitit Oceanus 
in se simul atque in Herculem inquiri. Mox nemo 
temptavit, sanctiusque ac rev^rentius visum de actis 
deomm credere quam scire. 

XXXV. Hactenus in Occidentem Germaniam ^novi- 
mus. In Septemtrionem ^ ingenti flexu redit. Ac pnmu 
statim 'Chaucorum gens, quamquam indpiat a Frisiis ^c 
partem litoris occapet, omnium, quas exposui, gentium 
^lateribus obtenditur, donee in Chattos usque ^ sinuetur. 
Tarn immensum terrarum spatium non tenent tantum 
Cfaaud, sed et implent, populus inter Germanos nobilissi- 
mus, quique magnitudinem suam malit justitia tueri. Sine 
cupiditafce, sine ^impotentia, quieti secretique ^ nulla pro- 
vocant bella, nullis raptibus aut latrociniis populantur. 
^Id praedpuum virtutis ac virium argumentum est, quod, 
ut superiores agant, non per ir^jurias assequun tar . Frompta 


tamen omnibus arma ac, si res poscat, exercitus, pluii- 
mam virorum equorumque ; et quiescentibus eadem fiaina. 

XXXVI. In latere Chaucorum Chattorumque ^ Che- 
rusci nimiam ac marcentem diu pacem illacessiti nutrie- 
runt. Idque jucundius quam tutius fuit, quia inter ^impo- 
tentes et yalidosfalso quiescas ; ^ ubimanu agitur.^modestia 
ac probitas nomina superioris sunt. Ita qui ^olim bond 
aequique Cherusci, ® nunc inertes ac stulti vocantur : ^Chat- 
tis victoribus fortuna in sapientiam cessit. Tracti ruina 
Cheruscorum et ® Fosi, contermina gens : adversaram re- 
rum ex aequo socii sunt, cum in secundis minoresfuissent. 

XXXVII. ^ Eundem Germaniae sinum proximi Oce- 
ano ^Cimbri tenent, parva nunc civitas, sed gloria ingens. 
Veterisque famae late vestigia manent, utraque ^ripa 
castra ac spatia, quorum ambitu nunc quoque metiaris 
^ molem manusque gentis et tarn magni '^exitus fidem. 
Sexcentesimum et quadragesimum annum urbs nostra 
agebat, cum primum Cimbrorum audita sunt arma, 
Caecilio Metello ac Papirio Carbone coss. £x quo si 
ad ^alterum imperatoris Trigani consulatum computemus, 
ducenti ferme et decem anni coUiguntur. 7 Tarn dia 
Germania vincitur. Medio tam longi aevi spatio multa 
in vicem damna. Non Samnis, non Poeni, ^non Hispaniae 
^Galliaeve, ne Parthi quidem s^pius ^^admonuere: 
i^quippe regno Arsacis acrior est Germanorum libertas. 
Quid enim aliud nobis, quam ^^caedem Crassi, amisso et 
ipso Pacoro, infra Ventidium dejectus Oriens objecerit ? 
^^ At Germania Carbone et Cassio et Scauro Aurelio et Ser- 
vilio Caepione, ^^ Cnaeo quoque Manlio fusis vel captis, 
quinque simul consulares exercitus populo Romano, Va« 


mm trisque cum eo legiones etiam ^^ Caesari abstulerant. 
Nee impane Oieuus Marias in Italia, ^^ diyus Julias in Gallia* 
^^Drosus ac Nero et Germanicus in suis eos sedibos percu- 
lenmt. ^^ Mox ingentes ^9 Caii Caesaris minae in lodibriom 
versae. ^ Inde otium, donee ooeasione disoordiae nostne 
et^ciyilium armorum, ^expugnatis legionom lubemis, 
etiam Gallias afPectavere ; ac rursus pulsi [inde], ^proxi- 
mis temporibus ^triumphati magis quam victi sunt. 

XXXVIII. Nunc de ^Suevis dieendum est, qaoram 
non una, at Chattorum Tencterommve, gens : migarem 
enim Grermaniae partem obtinent, propriis adhae nation- 
ibus nominibusque discreti, quamquam in oommone 
Sued voeentur. ^Insigne gentis obliquare crinem nodo- 
que substringere. Sic Suevi a ceteris Germanis, ^sic 
Suevorum ingenui a servis separantur. In aliis gentibos, 
sea cognalione aliqua Suevorum, seu (quod saepe aocidit) 
imitatione, rarum et intra juventae spatium ; apud Siievos 
usque ad canitiem horrentem eapillum retro sequuntur, ac 
saepe in ipso solo vertice religant. Frincipes et omatio- 
lem habent. ^ £^ cura formae, sed innoxia. Neque enim 
at ament amenturve ; ^in altitudinem quamdam et tehro- 
rem adituri bella, compli, ut hostium oculis, omantur. 

XXXIX. ^ Vetustissimoa se nobiUssvnosgue Suevorum Sem- 
nones memorant. Fides antiquitatis religione firmatur. 
Stato tempore ^in silvam, ^anguriis patrum et prisca for- 
midine sacram, omnes ejusdem sanguinis populi legationi- 
bus coeunt, ^caesoque publice homine celebrant barbari 
ritashorrendaprimordia. EstetaJialucoreverentia. Nemo 
nisi vinculo ligatus ingreditur, ut ^ minor et potestatem nu- 
minis prae se ferens. Si forte prolapsus est, attoUi et insur* 


gere baud licitam r perhumum ^evolvuDtur. Eoque omnis 
snperstitio respicit, tamquam f inde initia gexrtis, ibi rela- 
tor omnium deus, cetera subjecta atque parentia. ^ Adjicnt 
auctoritatem fortuna Semnonmn. dCentura pagis babitaat : 
lOjoagnoque corpore efficitur ut se Suevorum caput credant. 

XL. Contra ^Langobardos ^paucitaa nobilitat. Plu- 
rimia ac valentissimis nationibus cincti, non per obse- 
quium, sed praeliis et periclitando tuti sunt. ^Reudigni 
delude et Aviones et *Angli et ^Varini et ^Eudoses et 
7 Suardones et ^ Nuitbones fluminibus aut silvis muniun* 
tur . Nee quidquam notabile in singulis, nisi quod in com - 
mune dHerthum, id est, Terram matrem, colunt, earn que 
intervenire rebus bominum, ^^'invebi populis, arbitrantur. 
Est in 11 insula Oceani ^ castum nemus, ^^ dicatumque in eo 
vebiculum, veste contectum. Attingere uni sacerdoti con- 
cessum. Is adesse i^penetrali deam intelligit, vectamque 
^ bubus feminis multa cum veneratione prosequitur. Laeti 
tunc dies, festa loca, quaecunque adventu hospitioque dig- 
natur. i^Non belli ineunt, non arma sumunt ; clausum omne 
ferrum : i^pax et quies tunc tantum nota,tunc tantum amata, 
donee idem sacerdos satiatam conversatione mortalium 
i^deam templo reddat. Mox vebiculum et vestes, et, si 
credere velis, numen ipsum secreto lacu abluitur. Servi 
ministrant, quos statim ^9 idem lacus baurit. Arcanus bine 
terror ^^'sanctaque ignorantia, quid sit illud quod tantum 
perituri vident. 

XLI. Et baec quidem pars Suevorum in secretiora 
Germaniae porrigitur. iPropior (ut, quomodo paulo 
ante Rhennm, sic nunc Danubium sequar) ^Hermundu- 
rorom civitas, ^fida Romanis ; eoque solis Germanorum 


non in ripa commercium, sed ^penitus atque in ^splen- 
didissima Rhaetiae proyinciae colonia. Passim et ^ sine 
custode transeunt ; et com ceteris gentibtts anna modo cas- 
traque nostra ostendamus, his domos viUasqnepatefecimua 
7 non concupiscentibas. ^In Hermunduris Albis oritur, 
flomen inclitum et 9notum olim ; nunc tautum auditur. 

XLIl . Juxta Hermunduros ^ Narisci, ac deinde ^ Mar- 
comani et 'Quadi ^agunt. Praecipua Marcomanorum 
gloria viresque, atque ipsa etiam sedes, pulsis olim Boiis, 
viitute parta. Nee Narisci Quadive degenerant. £aque 
Germaniae velut ^ irons est, quatenus Danubio peragitur. 
Marcomanis Quadisque usque ad nostram memoriam reges 
manserunt ex gente ipsorum, nobile Marobodui et ^Tudri 
genus ; jam et ^extemos patiuntur. ^Sed vis et potentia 
regibus ex auctoritate Ronutna. Raro armis nostris, 
dsaepius pecunia juvantur, ^^nec minus valent. 

XLIII. Retro ^Marsigni, Gothini, Osi, Buri terga 
Marcomanorum Quadorumque claudunt. £ quibus 
Marsigni et Buri sermone cultuque ^ Suevos referunt : 
Gothinos Gallica, Osos Pannonica lingua coarguit non 
esse Germanos, et quod tributa patiuntur. Partem 
tributorum ^Sarmatae, partem Quadi ut alienigenis 
imponunt. ^Gothini, *^quo magis pudeat, et ferrum 
efifodiunt. Omnesque hi populi pauca campestrium, 
ceterum saltus et ^vertices montium 7 [jugumque] inse- 
derunt. Dirimit enim sdnditque ^Sueviam 9 continuum 
montium jugum, ultra quod plurimae gentes agunt. Ex 
quibus latissime patet ^^Ljgiorum nomen in plures civi- 
tates diffusum. Valentissimas nominasse sufficiet, ^^ Ha- 
rios, Helveconas, Manimos, Helisios, Naharvalos. Apud 


Naharvalos antiquae religionis lucus ostenditur. Fraesidet 
sacerdoB muliebri ornatu : sed deos tnterpretatione Romana, 
CastoremPoUucemqu^ memorant, Ea vis numini; ^^nomen 
Aids, Nulla simulacra, nullum peregrinae superstitionis 
vestigium. Ut fratres tamen, ut juvenes ^^veneraotur. 
Ceterum Harii super vires, quibus ^^ enumeratos paulo ante 
populos antecedunt, truces, insitae feritati ^^ arteac tempore 
^^lenocinantur. Nigra scuta, ^^tincta corpora. Atras ad 
praelia noctes legunt, ipsaque formidine atque umbra feralis 
exercitus terrorem inferunt,nullohostium sustinentenovum 
ac velut infemum aspectum : nam primi in omnibus prae- 
liis oculi vincuntur. Trans Ljgios ^^ Gothones regnantur, 
paulo jam ^^adductius quam ceterae Germanorum gentes, 
^ nondum tamen supra libertatem. Frotinus deinde ab Oce- 
ano ^^Rugii et Lemovii : omniumque harum gentium insigne 
rotunda scuta, breves gladii, et erga reges obsequium. 

XLIV. iSuionum hinc civitates, ^ipso in Oceano, 
praeter viros armaque classibus valent. ^ Forma navium 
eo differt quod utrinque prora ^paratam semper appulsui 
frontem agit. Nee velis ^ministrantur, necremos ^inor- 
dinem lateribus a^jungunt : ^golutum, ut ^in quibusdam 
fluminum, et mutabile, ut res poscit, hinc vel illinc remi- 
gium. Est apud illos et opibus honos, 9 eoque unus imperi- 
tat, ^^ nullis jam exceptionibus, non ^^ precario jure parendi. 
Nee arma, ut apud ceteros Germanos, in promiscuo, sed 
clausa sub custode, et quidem servo, ^^ quia subitoshostium 
incursus prohibet Oceanus, otiosaeporro armatorum manus 
facilelasciviunt . Enimvero neque nobilem neque ingenuum, 
ne libertinum quidem, armispraeponere^^regiautilitasest. 

XLV. Trans Suionas aliud ^mare, pigrum ac prope 


immotam, quo dngi dudique terrarom orbem hinc fides, 
'quod extremus cadentds jam solis folgor in ortos ^edurat 
adeo darus, ut sidera hebetet; ^sonam insuper andiri 
^fonnasqne deoram et radios capitis aspid persuasio 
adjidt. ^lUuc asque, et fama vera, tantom natura. 
7 Ergo jam ^dextro ^Suevid maris litore ^^Aestyorum 
gentes alluuntur : quibus ritus habitusque Suevorum, 
^^ lingua Britannicae propior. ^^Matrem deum vene- 
rantur. Insigne superstiiionis ^^ formas aprorum gestant : 
id pro armis ^* omniumque tutela securum deae cultorem 
etiam inter hostis praestat. Rarus ferri, frequens fustium 
usus. ^^Frumenta ceterosque fructus patientius, quam 
pro solita Germanorum inertia, ^^laborant. Sed et mare 
scrutantur, ac soli omnium ^7 succinum, quod ipsi ^glesum 
vocant, 19 inter vada atque in ipso litore legunt. *<*Nec, 
quae natura, quaeve ratio gignat, ut barbaris, quaesitum 
compertumve. Diu quin etiam inter cetera ejectamenta 
maris jacebat, ^ donee luxuria nostra dedit nomen. Ipsis 
in nullo usu ; rude legitur, informe '^ perfertur, pretiumque 
mirantes accipiunt. ^ Succum tamen arborum esse intel- 
ligas, quia terrena quaedam atque etiam volucria animalia 
plerumque interlucent, quae implicatabumore mox dures- 
cente materia cluduntur. Fecundioraigitur nemoralucos- 
que sicutOrientissecretis, ^^ubiturabalsamaque sudantur, 
ita Oceidentis insulis terrisque inesse crediderim ; ^^quae 
vicini solis radiis expressa atque liquentia in proximum 
mare labuntur, ac vi tempestatum in adversa litora exun- 
dant. Si naturam succini admoto igni temptes, in modum 
taedae accenditur, alitque flammam pinguem et olentem : 
moxut in picem resinamve lentescit. Suionibus ^ Sitonum 



gentes continudntur. Cetera similes uno differunt, quod 
femina dominatur: in ^taQtum non modo a libertate 
sed etiam a servitute degenerant. Hie Sueviae finis. 

XL VI. ^ Peucinorum Venetprumque et - Fennorum na- 
tiones Gennanis an Sarmatis ascribam, dubito, quamquam 
Feucini, quos ^ quidam Bastarnas vocant, sermone cultu 
sede ac domiciliis ut Gennani agunt. Sordes omnium ac 
torpor : ^procerum connubiis mixtis nonnibil in Sarma- 
tarum habitum foedantur. ^ Veneti multum ex moribus 
traxerunt : nam quidquid inter Peucinos Fennosque silva- 
rum ac montium erigitur, latrociniis pererrant. ^ Hi tamen 
inter Germanos potius referuntur, quia et 7 domos fingunt 
et scuta gestant et peditum usu ac pemicitate gaudent ; 
8 quae omnia diversa Sarmatis simt in plaustro equoque vi- 
ventibus. Fennis mira feritas, foeda paupertas : non arma, 
non equi, non penates : victui herba, vestitui pelles, cubile 
humus. Sola in sagittis spes, quas inopia ferri dossibus 
asperant. Idemque venatus viros pariter ac feminas alit: 
passim enim comitantur, partemque praedae petunt. Nee 
aliud infanlibus ferarum imbriumque su&gimn, quam ut 
in aliquo ramorum nexu contegantur. Hucredeuntjuve- 
nes, hoc senum receptacolum. Sed beatios arbitrantur 
quam ^^ingemere agris, ^^illaborare domibus, ^^suas 
alienasque fortunas spe metuque versare. ^^Securi ad- 
versus homines, securi adversus deos, rem difficillimam 
assecuti simt, ut ilHs ne voto quidem opus esset. Cetera 
jam fabulosa : Hellusioa et ^^ Oxionas ^^ora hominum 
imUusque, corpora aiqu^ artus ferarum gerere : quod ego, 
ut incompertum, ^^in medium relinquam. 




I. 1 Clarorum yiroram &cta moresque posteris tra- 
dere, aatiqaitus usitatom, ne nostris quidem temporibos, 

.Squamquam incuriosa suorum aetas ^omisit, quotiens 
magna aliqua ac nobilis virtus vicit ac sapergressa est 
vitium parvis magnisque dvitatibus commune, ^ignoran- 
tiam recti et invidiam. Sed apud priores ut agere digna 
memoratu ^pronum magisque ^in aperto erat, ita ^cele- 
berrimus quisque ingenio, ad prodendam virtutiB memo- 
riam, sine ^gratia aut ambitione, bonae tantum conscien- 
tiae pretio duoebatur. Ac dplerique suam ^^ipsi vitam 
narrare fiduciam potius morum quam airogantiam arbi- 
trati sunt: nee id ^^Rutilio et Scauro ^^citra fidem aut 
^^obtrectationi fuit. Adeo virhites iisdem temporibus 
optime aestimantur, quibus fiiciUime gignuntur. ^^At 
nunc narraturo mihi vitam defuncti hominis venia opus 
ftdt; i^quam non petissem, incnrsaturus tam saeva et 
infesta virtutibuB tempora. 

II. 1 Legimus, cum < Aruleno Rustico Paetus Thrasea, 
Herennio Senecioni Priscns Helvidius laudali essent/ 
dapitale fuisse* neqne in ipsos modo auctores, sed in 


libros quoque eorum saevitum, delegate 'triumviris 
ministerio, ut monumenta clarissimorum ingeniorum ^in 
comitio ac foro urerentur. Scilicet illo igne vocem 
Populi Romani et libertatem Senatus et. conscientiam 
generis humani aboleri arbitrabantur, ^expulsis insuper 
sapientiae professoribus atque omni bona arte in eidlium 
acta, ne quid usquam honestum occurreret. Dedimas 
profecto grande patientiae documentam : et sicut ^vetus 
aetas vidit 7 quid ultimum in libertate esset, ita nos quid 
in servitute, adempto per inquisitiones etiam loquendi 
audiendique commercio. Memoriam quoque ipsam cum 
voce perdidissemus, si tarn in nostra potestate asset 
oblivisci quam tacere. 

III. Nunc demum redit animus : et quamquam 
primo statim beatissimi ^ saeculi ortu ^ Nerva Caesar res 
olim dissociabiles miscuerit, principatum ac libertatem, 
augeatque quotidie felicitatem imperii ^ Nerva Trajanus, 
^nec spem modo ac votum ^secuntas publica sed ipsius 
voti fiduciam ac robur assumpserit, natura tamen iufirmi- 
tatis hmnanae tardiora sunt remedia quam mala ; et, at 
corpora lente augescunt, cito exstingumitur, sic ingenia 
studiaque oppresseris facilius quam revocaveris. Subit 
quippe etiam ipsius inertiae dulcedo, et invisa primo 
desidia postremo amatur. Quid, si ^per quindedm 
annos, grande mortalis aevi spatium, multi fortaitis 
casibus, 7promptissimus quisque saevitia principis inter- 
ciderunt? ^ Fauci, ut ita dixerim, non modo aliorum, 
sed etiain nostri superstites sumus, exemptis e media 
vita tot annis, dquibus juvenes. ad senectutem, senes 
prope ad ipsos exactae aetatis terminos per silentium 



Tenimns. Non tamen pigebit, vel incondita ac rudi 
voce, ^^meknoriam prions servitutis ac ^^testiinoniam 
praesentium bonorum composuisse. Hie ^^ interim liber 
bonori Agricolae soceri mei destiiiataB, professione 
pietatis aut laudatus erit aut excasatos. 

IV. 1 Cnaeus Julias Agricola, ^ vetere et illustri Foro- 

jaliensium^colonia ortus, utrumque avum ^procuratorem 

Caesarum habuit, ^quae equestris nobilitas est. Pater 

^Julius Graecinus senatorii ordinis, studio eloquentiae 

sapientiaeque notus, iisque virtutibus iram Cai Caesaris 

meritus : namque ^M. Silanum accusare jussus, et, quia 

abnuerat, interfectus est. Mater Julia Frocilla fuit, 

rarae castitatis. In hujus sinu indulgentiaque educatus, 

7 per omnem honestarum artium cultum pueritiam adoles- 

centiamque transegit. ^Arcebat eum ab illecebns pec- 

cantiuin, praeter ipsius bonam integramque naturam, 

quod statim parvulus sedem ac magistram studiorum 

Massiliam habuit, 9 locum Graeca comitate et provin- 

dali parsimonia mixtum ac bene compositum. Memoria 

teneo, solitum ipsum narrare, se prima injuventa studium 

philosophiae acnus, ^^ ultra quam conceasum Romano ac 

aenatort ^^ hausisse, ni pmdentia matrts incensvm ac flor- 

grantem animum coercuisset. Scilicet sublime et erectum 

ingenium pulchritudinem ae speciem magnae excelsae- 

que gloriae ^^vebementius quam caute appetebat. Mox 

mitigavit ratio et aetas : ^^retinuitque, quod est diffi- 

dllimum, ex sapientia modum. 

y . ^ Prima castrorum rudimenta in Britannia * Sue- 
tonio Paulino, diligenti ac moderato duci, ^approbavit, 
electus ^quem contubemio aestimaret. Nee Agricola 



licenter, more juvenum qui militiain ia lasciviam vertunt, 
neque segniter ^ad voluptates et oommeatus titulnm 
tribunatos et inscitiain rettulit : sed noscere proYinciam, 
nosd exercitui, discere a peritis, sequi pptimos, nihil 
appetere ^in jactationem, nihil ob formidinem recnsare, 
7simulque et anxius et intentus agere. Non sane alias 
^exercitatior magisque in ambiguo Britannia (uit. ^Tni- 
cidati veterani, incensae coloniae, ^^iht^cepti exercitns ; 
turn de salate, mox ^^de victoria, certavere. Quae 
cuncta etsi consiliis ductuque alterius agebantur, ac 
samma rerum et recuperatae provinciae gloria in ducem 
cessit, artem et usnm et stimulos ^^addidere juveni : 
intravitque animum militaris gloriae cupido, ingrata 
13 temporibus qnibus sinistra erga eminentes interpretation 
nee minus periculum ex magna fama, quam ex mala. 

VT. Hinc ad capessendos magistratus ^in urbem 
digressus, ^Domitiam Decidianam, splendidis natalibus 
ortam, sibi junxit. Idque matrimonium ad minora nitenti 
decus ac robur fuit. Vixeruntque mira concordia, ^per 
mutuam caritatem et invicem se anteponendo, ^nisi 
quod in bona uxore tanto nujor lau8« quanto in mala 
plus culpae est. Sors quaesturae provinciam Asiam, 
proconsulem ^ Salvium Titianum dedit. Quorum neutro 
corruptus est; quamquam et provinda dives ac ^parata 
peccantibus, et 7 proconsul in onmem aviditatem pronus 
quantalibet facilitate redempturus esset mutuam dissi- 
mulationem mali. Auctus est ibi ^filia, in subsidium et 
solatium simul: nam filium ante Osublatum ^^brevi 
amisit. Mox inter quaesturam ac tribunatum plebia 
atque ^^psum etiam tribunatus annum quiete et otio 


transiit, gnaruis 6ab Nerone temporum, quibus inertia pro 
sapientia fuit. Idem ^praeturae tenor et silentiiim : 
13 nee enim jumdictio ^^obvenerat. ^^Ludos et inania 
honoris ^^ medio rationis atque abundantiae doxit, uti 
longe a luxuria, ita &mae ^^propior. Turn ^^electiu a 
Galba ad dona templomm recognoficenda, ^^diligen- 
tiBsima conquisitione fecit, ne ctgus alterias sacnlegiam 
respublica quam Neronis sensisaet. 

VII. Seqaens annas gravi volnere animmn domnm. 
que qjiis afflixit. Nam ^dassiB Othoniana licenter vaga 
dam Intemelios (^ligariae pars est) hostiliterpopulatur, 
matrem Agricolae in praediis sois interfedt, praediaque 
ipsa et magnam patrimonii partem diripoit, quae causa 
caedis fuerat. Igitor ad sollemnia pietatis profectus 
Agricola, nantio ^alfectati a Vespasiano imperii depre- 
hensas, ^ac statim in partes transgressas est ^Initia 
principatus ac ^statom urbis Madanus regebat, ^juvene 
admodam Domitiano, ^et ex patema fortuna tantum 
licentiam usarpante. ^Is missum ad delectus agendos 
Agricolam, integreqae ac strenue versatum, ^^^vicesimae 
legioni, tarde ad sacramentum transgressae, praeposuit, 
abi 11 decessor seditiose agere narrabatur ; quippe 
I'legatis quoque consularibus ^^nimia ac formidolosa 
erat, nee ^^legatus praetorius ad cohibendum potens, 
i^incertum suo an militum ingenio. Ita successor 
simul et alter electus, rarissima moderatione maluit 
videri invenisse bonos quam fecisse. 

VIII. Praeerat tunc Bntatmiae ^Vettius Bolanus, 
*placidius quam feroci provinda dignum est. 'Tempe- 
ravit Agricola vim suam, ardoremque compescuit ^ne 


incresceret, peritus obsequi, eruditusque utilia honestis 
miscere. ^Brevi deinde Britannia consularem Pefdlium 
Gerialem accepit. ^Habuerunt virtutes spatium exem- 
plorum. Sed primo Cerialis ^labores modo et discrimina, 
mox et gloriam 7 communicabat : saepe parti exercitus in 
experimentum, aliquando majoribus copiis ex eventa 
praefecit. Nee Agricola umquam ^in suam famam gestis 
exsultavit; ad auctorem et dueem, ut minister, fortonam 
referebat. Ita virtute in obseqaendo, verecundia in 
praedicando, extra invidiam nee extra gloriam erat. 

IX. Revertentem ab legatione legionis divus Vespa- 
sianus ^ inter patricios ascivit, ac deinde ^provinciae 
Aquitaniae ^praeposuit, ^splendidae imprimis dignitati 
^administratione ac spe consulatus, ^cui destinarat. Cre- 
dunt plerique militaribus ingeniis subtilitatem deesse, 
quia castrensis jurisdictio Tsecura et obtusiorj ac plura 
manu agens, calliditatem fori non exerceat. Agricola 
naturali prudentia, ^quamvis inter togatos, ^facile joste- 
que agebat. ^^ Jam vero tempora curarum remissionum- 
que divisa. ^^ Ubi conventus ac judida poscerent, gravis, 
intentus, severus, et saepius misericors : ubi officio satis- 
factum, ^^ nulla ultra potestatis persona. ^^Tristitiam et 
^*arrogantiam et '^^avaritiam exuerat : ^^nec ilH, quod est 
rarissimum, aut facilitas auctoritatem aut severitas amo- 
rem deminuit. ^^Jntegritatem atque abstinentiam in tanto 
viro ref^. injuria virtutam fixerit. Ne &mam qoidem. 
cui saepe etiam bon^ indulgent, ostentanda virtute aut 
3 8 per artem quaesivit : procul ^^ab aemuktione adversus 
collegas, ^^ procul a contentione adversus procuratores, 
^^et viocere inglorium, et atteri sordidum arbitrabatur. 


ttMinus triennium ^'in ea legatione detentuB, ac Btatim 
ad spem consiolatas revocatus est, ^comitante opinione 
Britanniam ei provinciam dari, nallis ^in hoc suis ^ser- 
monibaa, sed ^qaia par videbator. Hand semper errat 
fama; aliqoando et ^^ elegit. ^Consid egregiae turn 
spei filiam juveni mihi despondit, ac post consulatum 
coUocavit, et statim Britanniae praepositus est, ^ac^ecto 
pontificatus sacerdotio. 

X. Britaoniae situm popidosque, ^multis scriptonbus 
memoratos, ^non in comparationem curae ingeniive refe- 
ram, sed quia tain primum perdomita est. ^Ita quae 
priores nondum comperta eloquentia percoluere, ^rerom 
fide tradentor. Britannia, insularom quas Romana 
notitia complectitur maxima, ^spatio ac caelo in orientem 
Germaniae, in occidentem Hispaniae obtenditur, Gallis 
^in meridiem etiam inspicitur : septemtrionalia ejus, 
^nullis contra terris,* vasto atque aperto mari pulsantur. 
Formam totius Britanniae Livius veterum, ^Fabius Eus- 
ticus recentium eloquentissimi auctores, ^oblongae scu- 
tulae vel bipenni assimulavere, £t est ea facies citra 
Caledoniam, ^^unde et in universum fama est transgressa. 
^^Sed immensum et enorme spatium procurrentium ex- 
treme jam litore terraram velut in cuneum tenuatur. 
^^Hanc oram novissimi maris tunc primiAn Romana 
dassis circumvecta, insulam esse Britanniam ^'afiOrmavit, 
ac simul ^^ incognitas ad id tempus insulas, quas Orcadas 
vocant, invenit domuitque. ^^Dispecta est et Thule, 
^^quam hactenus nix et hiems abdebat, sed ^^mare 
pigrum et grave remigantibus perhibent . ne ventis 
qoidem proinde attoUi : credo, quod ^^rariores terrae 




montesqae, causa ac materia tempestatum, et profunda 
moles continui maris tardius impellitur. ^Naturam 
Oceani atque aestus neque quaerere hujus operis est, ac 
multi ^^rettulere. Untim addiderim, nusquam latius 
dominari mare, ^^multum fluminum hue atque illuc ferre, 
nee litore tenus accrescere aut resorberi, sed influere 
penitus atque ambire, et jugis etiam ac montibtts inseri 
23velut in sue. 

XL Ceteram Britanniam qui mortales initio colu- 
erint, ^indigenae an advecti, ut inter barbaros, parum 
compertum. Habitus corporum varii, atque ex eo ar- 
gumenta. ^Namque ^rutilae Caledoniam habitantium 
comae, magni artus, Germanicam originem asseverant. 
^Silurum ^colorati vultus, torti plerumque cnnes, et posita 
contra Hispania, Hiberos veteres trajecisse easque sedes 
^occupasse, fidem faciunt. ^Proximi Gallis et similes 
stunt, seu durante originis vi, seu ^pj^currentibus in 
diversa terris positiocaeli corporibus habitum dedit. ^In 
universum tamen aestimanti Gallos vicinum solum oc- 
cupasse credibile est. ^^Eorum sacra deprehendas 
i^superstitionum persuasione: sermo baud multum 
diversus ; in deposcendis periculis eadem audacia, et ubi 
advenere, in detrectandis ^^eadem formido. ^'Plus tamen 
ferociae Britanni praeferunt, ut quos nondum longa pax 
emollierit. Nam ^^ Gallos quoque in bellis floruisse ac- 
cepimus : mox segnitia cum otio intravit, amissa virtute 
pariter ao libertate. Quod ^^Britannorum olim victis 
evenit ; ceteri manent quales Galli fuerunt. 

XII. In pedite robur: quaedam nationes et ^curru 
praeliantur. ^Honestior auriga: clientes propugnant. 


'Olim regibns parebant, nunc per principes factionibus 

et stadiis trahuntor. Nee aliud adversus validissimas 

gentes pro nobis utilius, quam quod ^in commune non 

consnlunt. ^Rarus ^duabus tribusque civitatibus ad 

propulsandnm commune periculum conventns: ita 

singali pugnant, universi vincuntur. Caelum crebris 

hnbribus ac nebulis foedum ; ^asperitas frigorum abest. 

^Diemm spatia ultra nostri orbis measuram ; nox clara 

et extrema Britanniae parte brevis, ut finem atque 

initium luds exiguo discrimine intemoscas. 9Quodsi 

nubes non officiant, aspici per noctem solia Jkdgorem, 

nee occidere et exsvrgere, sed transire affirmant* ^^ Scilicet 

extrema et plana terrarum humili umbra ^^non erigunt 

tenebras, infiraque caelum et sidera nox cadit. Solum, 

praeter oleam vitemque et cetera calidioribus terris oriri 

Bueta, i^patiens frugum, fecundum. Tarde mitescunt, 

cito proveniunt: eademque utriusque rei causa, multus 

^3 humor terrarum caelique. ^^Fert Britannia aurum et 

argentum et alia metalla, ^^pretium victoriae. ^^Gignit 

et oceanus margarita sed suffiisca et liventia. ^^Quidam 

artem abesse legentibus arbitrantm*: nam ^^in rubro 

mari viva ac spirantia saxis avelU, in Britannia, prout 

expulsa sint, colligi. Ego fiicilius crediderim naturam 

margaritis deesse quam nobis avaritiam. 

Xin. Ipsi Britanni delectum ac tributa et ^injuncta 
imperii munera impigre obeunt, si ii^uriae absint : has 
aegre tolerant, jam domiti ut pareant, nondum ut ser- 
viant. Igitur primus omnium Romanorum divus Julius 
cum exercitu ^Britanniam ingressus, quamquam prospera 
pugna terraerit incolas ac litore potitus sit, potest videri 


ostendisse posteria, non tradidisse. 'Mox bella civilia et 
in rempublicam versa ^rincipum arma, ac loDga oblivio 
firitanniae etiam in pace. ^Consilium id divas Augustus 
vocabat, ^Tiberius praeceptum. ^Agitasse Caium 
Caesarem de intranda Britannia satis constat, ni velox 
ingenio, mobilis paenitentia, ^et ingentes adversus Ger- 
maniam conatusfrustrafdissent. ^Divus Claudius auctor 
operis, transvectis legionibus auxiliisque, et assumpto 
9in partem rerum Vespasiano : quod initium venturae 
mox fortunae fiiit. ^^Domitae gentes, ^^capti reges, et 
^^monstratus fatis Vespasianus. 

XIV. Consularium ^primus Aulus Flautius praeposi- 
tus, ac ^subinde Ostorius Scapula, uterque bello egre- 
gius : redactaque paulatim in formam provinciae 'proxima 
pars firitanniae. ^Addita insuper veteranorum colonia. 
^ Quaedam civitates Cogiduno regi donatae (is ad nostram 
usque memoriam fidissimus mansit) ut, ^vetere ac jam 
pridem recepta Populi Romani consuetudine, haberet 
instrumenta servitutis et reges. 7Mox Didius Gallus 
parta a prioribus continuit, paucis admodum castellis ^in 
ulteriora promotis, per quae dfama aucti officii quaere- 
retur. Didium ^^ Veranius excepit, isque intra annum 
extincfcus est. ^^ Suetonius hinc Faulinus biennio pro- 
speras res habuit, subactis nationibus ^^firmatisque prae- 
sidiis : quorum fiducia ^^Monam insulam, ut vires 
rebellibus ministrantem, aggressus terga ^^occasioni 

XV. Namque absentia Legati remoto metu, Britanni 
agitare inter se mala servitutis, conferre ii^'urias et ^inter- 
pretando accendere : nihil prqfici patierUia nisi ut gror 

AGRICOLA. . 109 

mora tamquam *ex facili tolerantibus mpermtur, ^ Sm' 
gvlos sUn oUm reges fuisse, nunc ^hinos imponi, e quHna 
legaius in sangidnem, procvrator in bona saeviret, ^Aeque 
discordiam prciepositorwh, aeque . concordiam subjectis 
exitiosam, ^AUerius manua, centuriones aUeriuB vim et 
cantumelias rrmcere. Nihil jam cupiditati, nihil Ixbidmi 
exceptum. In praelio fortiorem esse ^t spoliet : nunc ab 
ignavis plerumque et imbellibus eripi domos, abstrahi 
liberos, injungi delectus, '^tamquam mori tantum pro pa- 
tina nescientHms, ^ Quantulum enim transisse militum, si 
sese Britanni numerent'f ^sic Germafdas excussisse jugum : 
^^etjlumine, non Oceano defendi. Sibipatriam, conjuges, 
parentes, illis avarttiam et luxuriam causas heUi esse, 
Recessuros^ ut '^^divus Julius recessisset, modo virtutem ma- 
jorum suorum aemuUzrentur, Neve praelH unius aut 
cdterius evmtu pavescerent; plus impetus, majorem con- 
stantiam perns miseros esse. Jam Britannorum etiam 
decs misereri, qui Bomanum ducem absentem, qui relegatum 
m aUa insula exercitum detinerent: jam ipsos, quod 
difficilUmum fuerity deUberare. Porro in ejusmodi consiliis 
periculosius esse deprehendi quam audere, 

XVI. His atque taJibus invicem instincti, ^ Boadicea, 
generis regii femina, duce (Deque enim sexum in im- 
perils di8cemm:it) ^sumpsere miiversi bellmn : ac sparsos 
per castella milites consectati, expugnatis praesidiis, ip- 
sam ^coloniam invasere ut sedem servitutis. Nee ullum 
^in barbaris saevitiae genus omisit ira et victoria. Quod 
nisi Paulinus cognito provinciae motu propere subve- 
nisset, amissa Britannia foret : quam unius praelii for- 
tuna veteri patientiae restituit^ (^tenentibus anna pleris- 


que quos conscientia defectionis et ^propius ex legato 
timor agitabat), ^ni quamquain egregius cetera, airo- 
ganter in deditos et, ut suae quoque iijuriae ultor, durius 
consuleret. ^ Missus igitur Petronius Turpilianus tam- 
quam exorabilior et ^delictis hostium novus eoque paeni- 
tentiae mitior, ^^compositis prioribua, nihil ultra ausus, 
^^Trebellio Maximo provinciam tradidit. Trebellius 
segnior, et ^^nullis castrorum experimentis, '^ comitate 
quadam curandi provinciam tenuit. Didicere jam 
barbari quoque ignoscere ^^vitiis blandientibus ; et 
i^interventus civilium cmnorum praebuit justam segnitiae 
excusationem. Sed ^^discordia laboratum, cum assuetus 
expeditionibus miles otio lasciviret. Trebellius, fuga ac 
latebris vitata exercitus ira, indecorus atque humilis, 
i7precario mox i®praefuit: ^^ac velut pacti, exercitus 
licentiam, dux salutem, ^^et seditio sine sanguine 
*^stetit. Nee ^Vettius Bolanus, manentibus adhuc 
civilibus bellis, agitavit Britanniam disciplina. ^^Ea- 
dem inertia erga hostes, similis petulantia castrorum, 
nisi quod idnocens Bolanus, et ^nullis delictis invisus, 
caritatem paraverat,loco auctoritatis. 

XVII. Sed ubi cum cetero orbe Vespasianus et Bri- 
tanniam recuperavit, magni duces, egregii exercitus, mi- 
nuta hostium spes. Et terrorem statim intulit ^Petilius 
Cerialis, Brigantum civitatem, quae numerosissima pro- 
vinciae totius perhibetur, aggressus. Multa praelia, et 
aliquando non incruenta: magnamque Brigantum par- 
tem aut ^victoria amplexus est aut bello. ^Et Cerialis 
quidem alterius successoris curam famamque obruisset, 
[sed] sustinuit molem Juhus Frontiuus, vir magnus. 


AGRICOLA. 1 1 1 

^qaantum licebat, ^validamque et pugnacem Silurum 
gentem armis subegit, super virtatem hostium locorum 
quoque difficultates elactatus. 

XVIII. Hone Britanniae statum, has beUoram vicea 
^ media jam aestate transgressus Agricola invenit, cum et 
milites, velut omissa expeditione, ad securitatem, et 
hostea ad occasionem ^verterentur. ^Ordovicumcivitas, 
baud multo ante adventum ejus, ^alam in finibus suis 
agentem prope universam obtriverat: ^eoque initio 
erecta provincia et quibus ^belltim volentibas erat, pro- 
bare exemplum ac recentis legati animum opperiri, 
cmn Agricola— ^uamqnam transacta aestas, sparsi per 
provinciam ^numeri, praesumpta apud militem illius anni 
quies ® (tarda et contraria bellnm incohaturo), et pie- 
risque ^custodiri suspecta potius videbatar — ire obviam 
discrimini statuit ; ^^contractisque legionum vexillis et 
modica auxiliorum manu, quia ^^in aequum degredi Or- 
dovices non audebant, ^ipse ante agmen, quo ceteris par 
animus simili periculo esset, ^^erexit aciem. Caesaque 
prope universa gente, non ignarus, ^^instandum famae 
ac, prout prima ^^cessissent, terrorem ceteris fore, 
Monam insulam (cujus ^^possesssione revocatum Pau- 
linum rebellione totius Britanniae supra memoravi) 
redigere in potestatem animo intendit. Sed, ut in 
^Tdubiis consiliis, naves deerant; ratio et constantia 
duels transvexit. ^^Depositis omnibus sarcinis, lectissi- 
mos auxiliarium, quibus nota vada et patrius nandi usus, 
quo simul seque et arma et equos regunt, ita repente 
immisit, ut obstupefacti bostes, ^^qm classem, qui naves, 


qui mare expectabant, nihil arduum aut invictum cre- 
diderint sic ad bellum venientibus. Ita petita pace ac 
dedita insula, clarus ac magnus haberi Agricola, quippe 
cui ingredienti provindam, quod tempus alii per osten- 
tationem aut ^^officiorum ambitum transiguht, labor et 
periculum placuisset. Nee Agricola prosperitate rerum 
in vanitatem usus, expeditionem aut victoriam vocabat 
victos continuisse : ne ^Uaureatis quidem gesta prose- 
cutus est. Sed ipsa dissimulatione famae famam 
auxit, aestimantibus quanta futuri spe tarn magna 

XIX . Ceterum ^ animorum provinciae prudens, simul- 
que doctus per aliena experimenta parum profici armis, 
si injuriae sequerentur, causas bellorum statuit excidere. 
A se suisque orsus, primum ^domum suam coercuit; 
quod ^lerisque baud minus arduum est, quam provin- 
ciam regere. 'Nihil per libertos* servosque rei publicae ; 
^non studiis privatis nee ex commendatione aut precibus 
centurionem, mihtem ascire, sed ^optimum quemque 
^fidissimum putare. Omnia scbe, non 7 omnia exsequi. 
Parvis peccatis veniam, magnis severitatem commodare ; 
nee poena semper, sed saepius paenitentia contentus 
esse : officiis et administrationibus potius non pecca- 
turos praeponere, quam damnare cum peccassent. ^Fru- 
menti et tributorum exactionem ^aequalitate munerum 
mollire, ^^circumcisis quae in quaestum reperta ipso tri- 
bute gravius tolerabantur. ^^Namque per ludibrium 
assidere ^^clausis horreis et ^'emere idtro frumenta ac 
i^ludere pretio cogebantur. Devortia itinerum et 

AGRICOL A. 1 13 

longinquitas regionum indicebator, at civitates ^^roximis 
hibemis in xbmota et avia defeirent, donee ^^quod omni- 
bus in promptu erat, paucis lucrosam fieret. 

XX. Haec primo statim anno comprimendo, egregiam 

famam ^ paci circumdedit, ^quae vel incuria vel toleran- 

tia prioroni baud minus quam bellum timebatur. ' Sed 

ubi aestas advenit contracto exercitu, ^multus in agmine, 

laudare modestiaud, disjectos coercere ; ^loca castris ipse 

capere, ^aestuaria ac silvas ipse praetentare^ 7et nibil 

interim apud bostes quietum pati, quo minus subitis 

excuisibus popularetur ; atque ubi satis terruerat, par- 

cendo rursos ^4rritamenta pacis ostentare. Quibus rebus 

muitae civitates, quae in ilium diem ^ex aequo egerant, 

datis obsidibus iram posuere, et ^^praesidiis castellisque 

circmndatae, tanta ratione curaque at nulla ante Britan- 

niae nova pars. 

XXI. ^Ulacessita transiit ^sequens biems, saluber- 
rimis consiliis absumpta. Namque ut homines dispersi ac 
rudes, eoque 'in bella faciles, quietiet otio per voluptates 
assuescerent, hortari privatim, adjuvare publice, ^ut 
templa, fora, domos exstruerent, laudando promptos, et 
castigando segnes. Ita honoris aemulatio pro necessi- 
tate erat. ^ Jam vero principum filios liberalibus artibus 
erudire, et ^ingenia Britannorum studiis Gallorum ante- 
ferre, 7ut qui modo linguam Romanam abnuebant, 
eloquentiam concupiscerent. Inde etiam habitus nostri 
honor et frequens toga. Paulatimque discessum ad 
^(lelenimenta vitiorum, porticus et balnea et conviviorum 
elegantiam. Idque apud imperitos humanitas vocabatur, 
cum pars servitutis esset. 

114 TACIiUS. 

XXII. ^TertiaB expeditionum atinus ^novas gentes 
aperuit, ^vastatis ^ usque ad Taum (aestaario nomen est) 
nationibus. Qua formidine territi hostes, quamquam 
^conflictatum saevis tempestatibus exercitom lacessere 
non ausi; ponendisque insuper ^castellis ^spatium fait. 
Annotabant periti non alium ducem opportunitates 
loconun sapientios legisse ; nullum ab Agricola positum 
castellom aut vi hostium expugnatum, aut pactione ac 
fagB. deseitum. ^ Crebrae eruptiones : nam adversus mo- 
ras obsidionis annuls copiis firmabantur. Ita intrepida 
ibi hiems, et sibi quisque praesidio, irritis hostibus 
eoque desperantibus, quia soliti plerumque damna aesta- 
tis bibemis eventibus pensare, turn aestate atque hieme 
juxta pellebantur. Nee Agricola umquam per alios 
gesta avidus intercepit : ^seu cehturio seu praefectus 
incorruptum facti testem habebat. Apud quosdam acer- 
bior in conviciis narrabatur» ut - erat comis bonis, ita 
adversus malos injucundus : ceterum ex iracundia nihil 
supererat ; secretum et silentium ejus non timeres. Ho* 
nestius putabat ofPendere quam odisse. 

XXIII. ^Quarta aestas ^obtinendis quae percurrerat 
insumpta ; ac si virtus exerdtuum et Romani nominis 
gloria pateretur,^ inventus in ipsa Britannia terminus. 
Nam >Clota et Bodotria, divers! maris aestibus per 
^immensum revectae, angusto terrarum spatio dirimun- 
tur. Quod tum praesidiis firmabatur; ^ atque omnis 
propior ^ sinus tenebatur, summotis velut in aliam 
insulam hostibus. 

XXIV. iQuinto expeditionum anno *nave" prima 
transgressus, ignotas ad id tempus gentes crebris. simul 


ac pTosperis piiEieliis domuit ; ^eamque partem Britanniae, 
qaae Hibemiam aspicit, copiis instnudt ^in spem magis 
qiiam ob formidiuem, ^ si quidem Hibemia, ^ medio inter 
Britanniam atque Hispaniam sita elT Gallico quoque 
mari opportmia, Tyalentissimam imperii partem magnis 
invicem usibns miscuerit. Spatium ejus, si Britanniae 
comparetur, angastius, nostri maris insulas superat. So- 
lum caelumque et ingenia cultusque hominmn baud 
mnltum a Britannia differunt. Melius aditus portusque 
per commercia et negotiatores cogniti. Agricold. expul- 
Bum seditione domestica unom ex regulis gentis exce- 
perat, ac specie amidtiae ^in occasionem retinebat : saepe 
ex eo audivi legione una et modicis auxiliis debellari 
obtinerique Hibemiam posse; idque etiam adversus 
Britanniam profutmmm, si Romana ubique arma, et 
velut e conspectu libertas tolleretur. 

XXY . Ceterum ^ aestate, qua sextum officii .annum 
inchoabat, ^amplexus civitates trans Bodotriam sitas, 
qtda motus universarum ultra gentium et 'infesta bostili 
exercitu itinera timebantur» ^ portus cksse exploravit ; 
quae, ab Agricola primum assumpta ^in partem virium 
sequebatur egregia specie, ^cum simul terra simul mari 
bellum impelleretur, ac saepe iisdem castris pedes eques- 
que et nauticus miles, mixti ?' copiis et laetitia, sua 
quisque facta, suos casus attollerent, ac modo silvarum 
et montium profunda, modo tempestatum ac fluctuum 
adversa, hinc terra et hostis, hinc ^victus Oceanus mili- 
tari jactantia compararentur. Britannos quoque, ut ex 
captivis audiebatmr, visa dassis obstupefaciebat, tamquam 
aperto maris sui sedreto ultimum victis per^gium clao- 


deretur. Ad manuB et anna conversi Caledoniam inco- 
lentes populi, 9parata magno, majore £Eima ^^(uti mos 
est de ignotis) ^^ oppugnasse ultrd, ^^castella adorti 
metam ut provdCantes addiderant ; regrediendomque 
citra Bodotriam^^etexcedendam potius quam pelleren- 
tur, ignavi ^^ specie prudentiam admonebant, cum interim 
cognoscit hostes pluribus agminibus irrapturos. Ac ne 
superante numero et peritia locorum circumiretur, diviso 
et ipse in tres partes exercitu incessit. 

XXVI. Quod ubi cognitam hosti, mutato repente 
consilio, universi ^ nonam legionem, ut maxime invalidam, 
nocte aggressi, inter somnum ac trepidationem caesis 
vigilibus, irrupere. Jamque in ipsis castris pug^batur, 
cum Agricola iter hostium ab exploratoribus edoctus 
et vestigiis insecutus, velocissimos equitum peditumque 
assultare tergis pugnantium jubet, mox ab univepais 
ac^ici clamorem. £t ^propinqua luce fulsere signa. 
Ita ancipiti malo territi Britanni; et Romanis redit 
animus, ac 'securi pro salute de gloria certabant. Ultro 
quin etiam erupere ; et fuit atrox in ipsis portarum 
angustiis praelium, donee pulsi hostes, utroque exercitu 
certante, his, ut tulisse opem, ^illis, ne eguisse auxilio 
viderentur. Quodnisi paludes et silvae fugientes texis- 
sent, debellatum ilia victoria foret. 

XXVII. Gujus conscientia ac fama ferox exercitus, 
nihil Vrirtuti suae invium, et penetrandam Caledoniam, 
inverUendumque tandem Britanniae terminum continue 
praeliorum curaUf fremebant. Atque ^illi modo cauti ac 
sapientes prompti post eventum ac magniloqui erant. 
Iniquissima haec bellorum conditio est ; prospera omnes 


sibi vindicant, adversa udI imputantur. ^At Britanni 
non viitute, sed occasione et arte ducis * * rati, nihil 
ex arrogantia remittere, quo minus juventutem armarent, 
conjuges ac liberos in loca tuta transferrent, coetibus ac 
sacrificiis conspirationem civitatum sancirent. Atque ita 
irritatis utrimque animis discessum. 

XXVIII. Eladem aestate ^cohors Usipiorum, per 
Germanias conscripta, et in firitanniam transmissa, mag- 
num ac memorabile facinus ansa est. Occiso centurione 
ac militibus, qui, ad tradendam discipUnam immixti 
manipulis, exemplum et rectores habebantur, tres libur- 
nicas adactis per vim gubematoribus ascendere ; et ^ uno 
remigante, suspectis duobus eoque interfectis, ^nondum 
Yulgato rumore, *ut miraculum, praevehebantur. *Mox 
hac atque ilia rapti, et cum, plerisque Britannorum ^ sua 
defensantium praelio congressi, ac saepe victores, ali- 
quando pulsi, eo ad extremum inopiae venere, ut infir- 
missimos suorum, mox ^gorte ductos, vescerentur. 
Atque. circumvecti Britanniam, ^amissis per inscitiam 
regendi navibus, pro praedonibus habiti, primum a 
Suevis, mox a Frisiis intercepti sunt. Ac fuere quos per 
commercia venumdatbs, et 9 in nostram usque ripam 
mutatione ementium adductos, indicium tanti casus 

XXIX. ^ Initio aestatis Agricola, domestico vulnere 
ictus, anno ante natum filium amisit. Quern casum 
^neque, ut plerique fortium virorum, ambitiose, neque 
per lamenta rursus ac maerorem muliebriter tulit. Et 
in luctu bellum inter remedia erat. Igitur praemissa 
classe, quae pluribus locis praedata magnum et incertum 


terrorein faceret, expedite exercitu, cui ex Britannis 
fortissimos et longa pace exploratos addiderat, 'ad mon- 
tem Grampium pervenit, quern jam hostis insederat. 
Nam Britanni, nihil fracti pugnae prioris eventu, et 
idtionem aut servitimn exspectantes, tandemque docta 
commune periculum concordia propulsandum, legationi- 
bus et foederibus omnium civitatum vires exciverant. 
Jamque super triginta milia armatorum aspiciebantur, et 
adhuc affluebat omnis juventus, ^et quibus cruda ac viridis 
senectus, clari bello, ac sua quisque ^decora gestantes, 
Gum inter plures duces virtute et genere praestans, nomine 
, Calgacus, apud contractam multitudinem praelium pos- 
centem in hunc modum locutus fertur : — 

XXX. Quottens causaa belU et necessttatem nostram 
intueor, ^magnus mxki animua est hodiemum diem con- 
sensumque vestrum initmm libertatts totvas Britanniae fore. 
Nam et ^unwersi servitutis experteSy et nvllae ultra terrae, 
ac ne mare quidem securum, imminente nobis classe 
Romatui, ItapraeUum atque arma, qiuie fortibtts honesta, 
eixdem etiam ignavis tiUissima sunt, ^Priores pugnae, 
quibus adversus Romanos variafortuna certatam est, spem 
ac subsidium in nostris manibus habebant, ^quia nobilissmt 
totius Britanniae, eoque in ipsis penetralibus siti, nee 
^servientium litora aspicientes, oculos quoque a contactu 
dominationis inoiokUos habebamus, ^Nos^ terrarum ac 
liberUxtis extremos, recesstis ipse ac ''sinus famae in hunc 
diem defendxt. Nunc terminus Britanniae patet. Atque 
^omne ignotum pro magnijico est, ^Sed nulla jam ultra 
gens, nihil nisi fluctus et saxa, et infestiores Eomani, 
quorum superUam frustra per obsequium et modestiam 


tffugeris. ^^Baptore& orbis, postquam cuncta vastantibus de^ 
fuere terrae, et mare scnUantur; si hcupUs hostis est, avari; 
si pauper, ambitiosij quos nan Oriens, non Occidens saHor 
verit. Soli omnium opes cUqw inopiam pari affectu concu' 
piscunt, Auferre, ' tntcidare, rapere, falsi^ nondnSms 
imperiuin, cUque, vlnsoUtitdinemfaciunt, pacem appellant, 

XXXI. Liberos cuique ac propinquos stios natura caris- 
simos esse vohtit: ^ hi per delectus, alibi servituriy auferuntur : 
coiyuges acroresque, etuzm si hostilem Ubidmem effugiant, 
nomine amicorum atqitehospitxinxpolluuntur. ^Bonafortvr- 
nasque in triJbuhim egerunt, armuminjrumentum. Corpora 
ipsa ac manus ^silvis ac paludibiis emmuendis ^verbera inter 
ac contumelias conterunt, Nata servituti mancipia a&nel 
veneunty atque idiro a dominis aluntur: ^Britannia servi- 
tutem 8uam quotidie emit, quotidiepascit. Ac, sumt in familia 
recenlissimus quisque servorum etiam conservis ludibrio est^ 
sic in hoc orbis terrarum vetere famulatu ^novi nos et viles in 
excidium petimur. f Neqvs emm arva nobis aut metalla aut 
partus sunt, quibus exercendis reservemur. Virtus porro ac 
feroda svbjectorum ingrata imperantibus ; et longinquitas ac 
secretum ipsum quo tutitis, eo suspectius. Ita^ sublata spe 
vmiae^ tandem sunUte animum, tam quibus solus qvam qvibus 
gloria carissima est. ^Brigantes femina dvce exurere colo^ 
rdam, eoppugnare castra, ac nisi felicitas in socordiam ver- 
iisset, eoBuere jugum potuere: nos integri et indomiti, ^et 
Ubertatem non in paenitentiam latfuri, prima statim con- 
gressu ostendamus, quos sibi Caledonia viros seposv/srit, 

XXXII. An eamdem Bomanis in bello virtutem, quam 
in pace lasciviam adesse creditis f Nostris ilU discessioni- 
bus ac discordiis cUaiy vitia hostium in gloriam exercitus 


sm vertunt; quern contractum ^ex diversissivm gentilnis, 
ut secundae res tenent, ita adversae dissolvent. ^Nisi si 
GaMos et Germanos et ^{pudet dictu) Britanrwram pleros- 
gue, licet dominationi alienae sanguinem commodent, diuttus 
tamen hostes quam servos, fide et affectu teneri pvtatzs. 
Metus et terror est, infirma vincula caritatis ; quae vM remo- 
veris, qui timere desierint, odisse incipient. Omnia victoriae 
incitamenta pro nobis sunt. Nullae Eomanos conjuges ac- 
cendunt, nulli parentes fugam exprobraturi sunt ; aut nulla 
plerisque patria, ^aut alia est. ^Paucos numero, trepidos 
^ignorantia, caelum ipsum ac mare et silvas, ignota omnia 
circumspectantes, cUmsos quodammodo ac vinctos di nobis 
tradiderunt. 7 Ne terreat vanus aspectus et aurijulgor atque 
argenti, quod neque tegit neque vulnerat. In ipsa hostium 
ode inveniemus nostras numus. Agnoscent Britanni suam 
causam, recordabuntur Galli priorem libertatem : deserent 
ilhs ceteri Germani, tamquam nuper Usipii reliquerunt. 
Nee quidquam ultra formidi^is. Vacua casteUa, ® senum 
cohniae, inter male parentes et injuste imperantes ^aegra 
munidpia et discordantia. Hie dux, hie exercitus : ibi tri- 
buta et metalla et ceterae servientium poenae ; quas in aeter^ 
num perferre, aut statim ukisd in hoc campo est Proinde, 
ituri in aciem, et majores vestros et posteros cogitate. 

XXXIII. ^Excepere orationem alacres, ^ut barbaris 
moris, ^canta fremituque et clamoribus dissonis. ^ Jam- 
que agmina, et armorum fulgores audentissimi cujusque 
procursu : ^simul instruebatar ^es, cum Agricola 
quamquam laetum et vix munimentis ^coercitum militem 
acc.endendum adhue ratus, ita disseruit :— 7 Octavus 
annus est, commilitones, ex quo virtute et a/uspicOs imperii 


jRomanij Jide cUque opera vestra Britanniam vicistis. Tot 

cxpedUionibus, totpraeliia, seu fortitvdine adoersus hostes, 

9€u patientia ac labore paene adversus ipsam rerum naturam 

opus fuit, neque me militum, neque vos ducis poenittut. 

Ergo egressi, ego ^veterum legatomm, vos priorum exerci' 

tuum tennmos, finem Britanniae nonfama nee rumore sed 

castria et armis tenemus, Inventa Britannia et subacta, 

Eqmdein saepe in agmine, cum vos paludes montesve et 

flumina faiigarentj fortissimi cujusque vocem audiebam, 

Quando dabitur hostis, quando acies ? Veniunt, e kite' 

bris suis extrusi; ^et vota virtusque in aperto, omniaque 

prona victoribus atque eadem victis adversa. Nam ut super* 

esse tantum itineris, sUvas evasisse, transisse aestuaria ^^pul* 

chrum ac decorum infrontemj ita fugientibus periculosissima 

guoje hodie prosperrima sunt, Neque enim nobis aut locorum 

tadem notitia aut commeaiuum eadem ahundantia, sed manus 

el arma et in his omnia. Quod ad me atiinet,jam pridem 

mxhi decretum est, neque exercitus neque ducis terga tuta 

esse. Proinde et honesta mors turpi vita potior , et incolu- 

mitas .ac decus eodem loco sita sunt. Nee inglorium Juerit 

in ipso terrarum ac naturae fine cecidisse. 

XXXIV. Si novae gentes atque ignota acies consti- 
tisaet, aUorum exercituum exemplis vos hortarer: nunc 
vestra decora recensete, vestros oculos interrogate. Hi sunt 
quos proximo anno unam legionem furto noctis aggressos 
cUxmore debellastis ; ^M ceterorum Britannorumjvgacissimi, 
ideoque tarn diu super stites, Quomodo silvas aaltusque 
penetrantibus fortissimum quodque animal contra ^ruere, 
pavida et inertia ipso agminis sono pelhmtur, sic acerrimi 
Britannorum Jam pridem ceciderunt, reliquus est numerus 



ignavorum et metumtium. ^ Quoa quod tandem tnvenistis, 
non restiterunt, sed deprehensi sunt ruwissimi, et ^extremo 
metu corpora defixere aciem in ^hia vestigiia^ in qvibus 
pulchram et speclabilem victoriam ederetis. ^Transigite 
cum expecUtionibus; UmpaniU quinquaginUi annis magnum 
diem; approbate reipublicae nunquam exercitut imputari 
potuisse aut moras belli aut causas rebellandi. 

XXXV, Et alloqaente adhuc Agricola militum ardor 
eminebat, et finem orationis ingens alacritas consecata 
est, statimque ad arma discursuiD. Instinctos ruentes- 
que ita disposuit, ut peditam aaxilia, quae octo milia erant, 
mediam aciem ^firmarent, equitum tria milia cornibus 
afi^derentur. Legiones pro vallo atetere, ^ingens vie- 
toriae decus ^citra Romanum sanguinem bellanti, et 
auxilium, si pellerentur. Britannorum acies, in speciem 
simul ac terrorem, editioribus locis constiterat ita, ^ut pri- 
mum agmen in aequo, ceteri per acclive jugum connezi 
velut insurgerent; ^ media campi ^covinarius et eques 
strepiti; ac discursu complebat. Tum Agricola, superante 
hostium multitudine, veritus ne 7 simul in frontem simul 
et latera suorum pugnaretur, diductis ordinibus, ^quam- 
quam porrectior acies futura erat et arcessendas plerique 
legiones admonebant, dpromptior in spem et firmus ad- 
versis, i^dimiggo equo impedes ante vexilla constitit. 

XXXVI. Ac primo congressu eminus certabatur. 
1 Simul constantia simul arte Britanni ingentibus gladiis 
et brevibus ^cetris missilia nostrorum vitare vel excutere, 
atque ipsi magnam vim telorum ^superfundere, donee 
Agricola ^Batavorum cobortes ^ac Tungrorum duaa 
cohortatus est, ut rem ad mucrones ac manus adduce- 


rent; quod et ipsis vetustate militiae exercitatum ^ et hos- 
tibus inhabile, parva scuta et enormes gladios gerentibus. 
Nam Britannorum gladii sine mucrone ^complexum ar- 
morum, et ^in artopugnam non tolerabant. Igitur, ut 
Batavi miscere ictus, ferire umbonibus, 9ora fodere, et 
stratis qui in aequo adstiterant, erigere in coUes aciem coe- 
pere,ceterae cohortes,aemulatione et impetu commixtae, 
proximos quosque caedere : ac plerique semineces aut in- 
tegri, lofestiuatione victoriae relinquebantur. Interim 
equitum turmae ^^ [fiigere covinarii] peditum se praelio 
miscuere. Et, quamquam recentem terrorem intulerant, 
densis tamen hostium agminibus et inaequtdibus locis hae- 
rebant ; ^^minimeque equestris ea pugnae facies erat, cum 
aegre diu stantes, simul equorum corporibus impellerentur ; 
ac saepe vagi currus, exterriti sine rectoribus equi, ut quem- 
que formido tulerat, transversos aut obvios incursabant. 

XXXVII. Et Britanni, qui adbuc pugnae expertes 
summa collium insederant, et paucitat«m nostrorum 
vacui spemebant, degredi paulatim et circumire terga 
vincentium coeperant, ^ni id ipsum Veritas Agricola 
quattuor equitum alas, ad subita belli retentas, venienti- 
bus opposuisset, quantoque ferocius accurrerant, tanto 
scrius pulsos in fugam disjecisset. Ita consilium Bri- 
tannorum in ipsos versum, transvectaeque praecepto 
dacis a fronte pugnantium aJae aversam hostium aciem 
invasere. ^Tum vero patentibus locis *grande et atrox 
spectaculnm. Sequi, vulnerare, capere, atque ^eosdem, 
oblatis aliis, trucidare. ^Jam hostium Sprout cuique 
ingenium erat, catervae armatorum paucioribus terga 
praestare, quidam inermes ultro mere, ac se morti offerre. 


Passim arma et corpora et laceri artus et craenta bumas ; 
^et aliquando etiam victis ira virtusque. Postquam silvis 
appropinquarunt, coUecti primos sequeDtium, incautos et 
locoram ignaros, circumveniebant. Quodnifrequens ubi- 
que Agricola validas et expeditas cobortes, 9 indaginis 
modo, et, ^^sicubi artiora erant, partem equitum, dimissis 
equis, simul rariores silvas equitem persultare jussisset, 
acceptum aliquod vubius per nimiam fiduciam foret. 
Ceterom, ubi compositos ^^ firmis ordinibus sequi rursus 
yidere, m fugam versi, non agminibus, ut prius, ^^ nee alius 
alium respectantes, rari et vitabimdi invieem longinqua 
atque avia petiere. Finis sequendi nox et satietas fuit. 
Caesa bostium ad decem milia : nostrorum trecenti 
sexaginta cecidere, in quis Aulus Atticus, praefectus co- 
bortis, juvenili ardore et ferocia equi bostibus illatus. 

XXXVIII. Et nox quidem gaudio praedaque laeta 
victoribus : Britanni palantes, mixtoque virorum mulie- 
rumque ploratu, trabere vulneratos, vocare integros, 
deserere domoa ac per iram ultro incendere, eligere 
latebras, et statim relinquere ; ^miscere invieem consilia 
aliqua, dein separare ; aliquando ^frangi aspectu pigno- 
rum suorum, saepius concitari. Satisque constabat 
saevisse quosdam in conjuges ac liberos, tamquam 
misererentur. Proximus dies &ciem victoriae latius 
aperuit t vastum ubique silentium, 'secreti coUes, fu- 
mantia procul tecta, nemo exploratoribus obvius. Qui- 
bus in omnem partem dimissis, ubi incertafugae vestigia, 
neque usquam conglobari bostes compertum, et exacta 
jam aestate ^spargi bellum nequibat, ^in fines Borestorum 
exercitum deducit. Ibi acceptis obsidibus, praefecto 


classis ^ (^(mmveUBritanniam praecepit. Datae ad id vires, 
et praecesserat terror. Ipse peditem atqae equites lento 
itinere, quo novaram gentium animi ipsa transitus mora 
terrerentnr, in hibemis locavit. Et simul classis secmida 
tempestate ac fama ^Trutolensem portmn tenuit, mide 
^proximo Britanniae latere lecto omni redierat. 

XXXIX. Hunc rerom corsum, quamquam nulla ver- 
borum jactantia epistolis Agricolae auctum, nt ^Domitiano 
liioris erat» &onte laetus, pectore anzius excepit. ^Inerat 
consdentia derisui faisse nuper ^ falsum e Germania trium- 
pbum, ^emptis per commercia quorum habitus et crinis in 
captivorom speciem formarentur : at nunc veram mag- 
namque victoriam, tot milibus hostium caesis, ingenti &ma 
celebrari. ^Id sibi maxime formidolosum, privati hominis 
nomen supra principis attolH : ^frustra studia fori et cir 
vilium artium decus in silentium acta, si militarem gloriam 
alius occuparet ; et cetera 7 utcunque facilius ^ dissimulari, 
ducis boni imperatoriam virtutem esse. Talibus curis ex- 
ercitus, quodque saevae cogitationis indicium erat, 9 secreto 
Buo satiatus, optimum in praesentia statuit reponere odium, 
donee impetus £amae et favor exercitus languesceret. 
Nam etiam tum Agricola Britanniam obtinebat. 

XL. Igitur ^triumphalia omamenta et illustris statuae 
hmorem, et quidqutdpro trmmpho datur, multo verborum 
honore cumulata, decerni in senatu jubet, 'addique 
insuper opinionem, Syriam provinciam Agricolae desti- 
nari, vacuam tum morte Atilii Rufi consularis et 
'majoribus reservatam. Credidere plerique, libertum ex 
secretioribus ministeriis missum ad Agricolam codicillos, 
quibus ei Syria dabatur, tulisse, cum praecepto ^ut, si in 


Britannia foret, traderentar ; eamque libertum in ipso fireto 
Oceani obvimn Agricolae, ne appellato quidem eo, ad Do- 
mitianum remeasse, sive verum istud, sive exingenio prin- 
cipis fictum ac compositum est. ^Tradiderat interim 
Agricola successori sao provinciam qoietam tutamque. 
Ac, ne notabilis celebritate et frequentia cx^currentiam in- 
troitos esset, vitato amicorom officio, noctu in urbem, 
nocta in ^Palatium, ita ut praeceptum erat, venit ; excep- 
'tusque 7breyi oscolo et nullo sermone turbae servientium 
immixtus est. Ceterum uti militare nomen, grave inter 
^otiosos, aliis virtutibus temperaret, tranquillitatem atque 
otium dpemtns auxit, culta modicns, sermone &cilis, uno 
ant altero amicorum comitatus, ^^adeo at plerique, quibus 
magnosviros per ambitionem ^^aestimare mos est, vise 
aspectoque Agricola quaererent famam, pauci interprets- 

XLI. ^ Crebro per eos dies apud Domitiannm absens 
accusatus, ^ absens absolutos est. Causa periculi non cri- 
men ullum aut querela laesi cigusquam, sed infensus virtu- 
tibus princeps, et gloria viri, ac 'pessimum inimicorum 
genus, laudantes. Et ea insecuta sunt reipublicae tempora, 
quae sileri Agricolam non sinerent ; ^tot exercitus in 
Moesia Daciaque et Germania et Pannonia temeritate aut 
per ignaviam.ducum amissi.^tot militares viri cum tot co- 
hortibus expugnati et capti ; nee jam ^ de limite imperii et 
^ripa; sed de bibemis legionum et possessione dubitatum. 
Ita, cum damna damniscontinuarentur, atque omnis annus 
fiineribus et cladibus insigniretur,poscebaturore vulgi dux 
Agricola, comparantibus cunctis vigorem, constantiam et 
expertum bellis animum cum inertia et formidine ^eorum. 


Quibus sermonibus satis constat DomitiaQi quoque aures 
Terberatas,9dumoptimu8 quisque libertorum amoreetfide, 
pessimi mali^nitate et livore, pronum deterioribus princi- 
pem ex8\timiilflbant. Sic Agricola simul suis virtutibus, si- 
mul ^^tiis aliorum, ^^in ipsam gloriam praeceps agebatur. 
XLII. Aderat jam ^ annus, ^quo proconsulatum 
Asiae et Africae sortiretur, et ^ occiso Civica nuper, nee 
Agricolae consiliam deerat, nee Domitiano ^exemplum. 
Accessere quidam cogitationum principis periti, qui 
itnrusne esset ultro Agricolam interrogarent. Ac prime 
occultius quietem et otium laadare, moz operam suam 
in approbanda excusatione offerre, postremo ^non jam 
obscuri, suadentes simul terrentesque, pertraxere ad 
Domitiaimm. Qui ^paratus simulatione, in arrogantiam 
compositus, et audiit preces ^excusantis, et cum annuis- 
set, agi sibi ^g^atias passus est ^nec erubuit beneficii 
invidia. ^^Salarium tamen, proconsulari solitum ofPerri, 
et quibusdam a se ipso concessum, Agricolae non dedit, 
sive offensus non petitum, sive ex conscientia, ne quod 
vetuerat videretur emisse. ^^Proprium hmnani ingenii 
est odisse quem laeseris : Domitiani vero natura prae- 
ceps in iram et, quo obscurior, eo irrevocabilior, modera- 
tione tamen prudentiaque Agricolae leniebatur, quia non 
contumacia neque inani jactatione libertatis famam fatum- 
que provocabat. Sciant, quibus moris est ^^illicita mirari, 
posse etiam sub malis principibus magnos viros esse, obse- 
quiumque ac modestiam, si industria ac vigor adsint, ^^eo 
laudis excedere, ^^quo plerique ^^ per abrupta, sed in nul- 
lum reipublicae usum, ambitiosa morte inclaruerunt. 
XLIII. Finis vitae ejus nobis luctuosus. amicis tristis. 


^eztraDeis etiam ignotisque non sine cura ftdt. Vulgus 
quoqne, et hie ^aliad agens populos, et ventitavere ad 
domum, et per fora et circulos locuti sunt : nee quisquam, 
audita morte Agricolae, aut laetatus est, aut statim oblitus 
est: Augebat miserationem constans rumor veneno mter- 
ceptum, ^ Nobis nihil comperti afBrmare ausim. Ceterum 
per omnem valetudinem ejus, crebrius quam ex more prin- 
cipatus per nuntios visentis, et libertorum primi et ^me- 
dicorum intimi venere, ^sive cura illud sive inquisitio erat. 
Supremo quidem die, ^momenta ipsa deficientis 7 per dis- 
positos cursores nuntiata constabat, nulio credente sic 
accelerari quae tristis audiret. ^Speciem tamen doloris 
animo vultuque prae se tulit, securus jam odii, et qui 
fadlius dissimularet gaudium quam metum. Satis consta- 
bat lecto testamento Agricolae, 9 quo coheredem optimae 
uxori et piissimae filiae Domitianum scripsit, laetatum 
eum velut ^^honore judicioque. Tam caeca et corrupta 
mens assiduis adulationibus erat, ut nesciret a bono 
patre non scribi heredem nisi malum principem. 

XLIV. ^Natus erat Agricola Caio Caesare tertium < 
Consule Idibus Juniis : excessit sexto et quinquagesimo 
anno, decimo Kalendas Septembris CoUega Friscoque 
consulibus. Quodsi habitum quoque ejus posteri nos- 
cere velint, ^decentior quam sublimior foit : 'nihil metus 
in ^vultu ; gratia oris supererat. Bonnm virum fiicile 
crederes, magnum libenter. Et ipse quidem, quamquam 
^ medio in spatio integrae aetatis ereptus, quantum ad 
gloriam, longissimum aevum peregit. Quippe etvera 
bona, quae in virtutibus sita sunt, ^impleverat, et con- 
sulari ac triumphalibus omamentis praedito quid aliud 


adstniere fortana poterat ? ^Opibus nimiis non gandebat ; 
gpedosae contigerant. Filia atque uzore snperstitibus. 
pote^ videri etiam beatus incolumi dignitate, florente 
fema, salvia affinitatibus et amicitiis futora efiPdgisse. 
^Nam, sicati durare in hac beatissimi saeculi luce, ac 
pnncipem Trajanum videre, quod augurio votisque 9apud 
nostras aures ominabatur, ita festinatae mortis grande sola- 
tiam tulit evasisse postremam illudtempus, quo Domitiar 
nas, non jam per ^^intervalla ac spiramenta temporom, 
sed continue et velut uno ictu, ^^rempublicam exhausit. 

XLV. ^Non vidit Agricola obsessam curiam, et 
daosum armis senatum, et eadem strage ^tot consula- 
riam caedes, tot nobilissimarum ^feminarum exsilia et 
fiigas. ^Una adhuc victoria ^Carus Melius censebatur, 
^et intra Albanam arcem sententia Messalini strepebat, 
et^Massa Baebius jam tum reus erat. Moz ^nostrae 
duxere Helvidium in carcerem manus; dnos Maurici 
Rusticique visus, ^^nos innocenti sanguine Senedo per- 
fadit. Nero tamen subtraxit oculos suos, jussitque 
ficelera, non spectavit : praecipua sub Domitiano mis- 
eriarum pars erat, ^^videre et aspici, cum suspiria nostra 
^^subscriberentur, cum denotandis tot hominum pallori- 
bus ^'sufficerit i*saevus ille vultus et rubor, ^uo se 
contra pudorem muniebat. ^^Tu vero felix, Agricola, 
non vitae tantum clantate, sed etiam opportunitate 
mortis, Ut perhibent, qui interfoerunt novissimis ser- 
nionibus tuis, constans et libens fatum excepisti, ^^tam- 
quam pro virili portione innocentiam principi donares. 
Sed mihi ^^filiaeque praeter acerbitatem ejus parentis 
erepti auget maestitiam, quod assidere valetudini, fovere 



deficientem, satiari yulta complexaqae non contigit. 
^dfiZcepissemus eerie mandata vocesque, qxias penitos 
animo figeremus. Noster hie dolor, nostrum vulnus, 
nobis tarn longae absentiae ^conditione ^'ante qua- 
driennium amissus es. Omnia sine dubio, optime paren- 
tum, assidente amantissima uxore, saperfuere honori 
tuo : paucioribus tamen lacnmis compositas es, et novis- 
sima in lace desideravere ^aliquid oculitui. 

XL VI. Si quis piorom manibus locus, si, ut sapien- 
tibus placet, non cum corpore exsting^untur magnae 
animae, placide quiescas, nosque domum toam ab 
infirmo desiderio et muliebribus lamentis ad contempla- 
tionem virtutum tuarum voces, quas neque lugeri neque 
plangi fas est. Admiratione te potius, ^et immortalibus 
laudibus, et, si natura suppeditet, aemulatu decoremus. 
Is verus honos, ea conjunctissimi cujusque pietas. Id 
filiae quoque uxorique p^raeceperim, sic patris, sic mariti 
memoriam venerari, ut omnia facta dictaque gus secum 
revolvant, ^formamque ac figuram animi magis quam 
corporis complectantur, non quia intercedendnm putem 
imaginibus, quae marmore aut aere finguntur ; sed nt 
vultus hominum, ita simulacra vultus imbecilla ac mor- 
talia sunt, forma mentis aetema, quam tenere et expri- 
mere, non per alienam materiam et artem, sed tuis ipse 
moribus possis. Quidquid ex Agricola amavimus, quid- 
quid mirati sumus, manet mansurumque est in animis 
hominum, in aetemitate temporum, ^fama rerum. Nam 
multos veterum, velut inglorios et ignobiles, oblivio 
obruet : Agricola, posteritati narratus et traditus, 
superstes erit. 




^Urbem Romam a principio reges ^habuere. Liber- 
tatem et consulatum L. Brutus instituit. Dictaturae 
^ad tempus sumebaatur. >Neque decemviralis potestas 
ultra bieimium, neque tribunorum militum consulare jus 
diu valuit. Non Cinnae, non Sullae longa dominatio ; 
et Pompei Crasaique potentia cito in Caesarem, Lepidi 
atque Antonii ^arma ^iir Augustum cessere, qui cuncta 
discordiis civilibus fessa ^nomine principis sub imperium 
accepit. Sed ^ veteiis populi Romani prospera vel adversa 
Claris scriptoribus memorata sunt ; temporibusque Au- 
gusti dicendis non defuere 9 decora ingenia, ^^donec 
gliscente adulatione deterrerentur. ^^Tiberii Caique et 
Claudii ac Neronis ^^res, florentibus ipsis, ob metum 
falsae, postquam occiderant, recentibus odiis compositae 
sunt. Inde consilium mihi pauca de Augusto et ex- 
trema tradere, mox Tiberii principatum et cetera, sine 
ira et ^^studio, ^^quorum causas procul habeo. 

II. Postquam ^Bruto et Cassio caesis nulla jam 


^publica arma, ^Pompeius apud Siciliam oppressus, ^exu- 
toque Lepido, ^interfecto Antonio, ne Julianis qnidem 
partibus nisi ® Caesar dux reliquus, ^posito triumviri 
nomine, consulem se ferens, et ad tuendam plebem ^tri- 
bunicio jure contentum, ubi militem donis, populum 
dannona, ^^cunctos dulcedine otii pellexit, insurgere pau- 
latim, 1^ munia senatus, magistratuum, legum in se tra- 
here, nuUo adversante, cum ferocissimi ^^per acies aut 
proscriptione cecidissent, ceteri nobilium, quanto quis 
servitio promptior, ^'opibus et honoribus extollerentur, 
ac novis ex rebus aucti tuta et praesentia quam vetera 
et periculosa mallent. Neque provindae ilium rerum 
statum abnuebant, suspecto senatus populique imperio 
ob certamina potentium et avaritiam magistratuum, in- 
valido leg^m auxilio, quae vi, ambitu, postremo pecunia 

III. Ceterum Augustus, ^ subsidia dominationi, ^ Clau- 
dium Marcellum, sororis filium, 'admodum adolescentem 
^pontificatu et curuli aedilitate,^arcum Agrippam, igno- 
bilem loco, bonum militia et victoriae socium, ^geminatis 
consulatibus extulit, mox defuncto MarceUo ^generum 
sumpsit; Tiberium Neronem et Claudium Drusum, 7pri- 
vignos, imperatoiiis nominibus ^auxit, ^integra etiam turn 
domo sua. Nam genitos Agrippa, Caium ac Lucium, in 
familiam Caesarum ^^induxerat, necdum ^^posita puerili 
praetexta,^^p*tnctjpes7*ut;en^^ appellari, ^^destinari con- 
sules specie recusantis flagrantissime cupiverat. Ut 
^^ Agrippa vita concessit, Lucium Caesarem euntem ad 
Hispanienses exercitus, Caium remeantem Armenia et 
vulnere invalidum mors fato propera yd ^^novercae 


Liviae dolus abstolit, ^^Drnsoqne pridem ezstincto, Nero 
solus e piivignis erat, Dlac cuncta vergere : ^''filios, ^^col- 
lega imperii, ^^consors triboniciae potestatis assumitur, 
onmisque . per exercitus ^ostentatur, non obscuris, ut 
antea, matris artibos, sed palam hortatu. Nam senem Au- 
gostum devinxerafc adeo, ^^nti ^nepotem unicum, Agrip- 
pam Postumom, in insulam Planasiam projiceret, rudem 
sane bonarum artinm et robore corporis stolide ferocem, 
nullius tamen flagitii ^'compertom. At Hercule ^ Ger- 
manicum, Druso ortum, octo apud Bhenum legionibus 
imposnit, asdrique per adoptionem a Tiberio jussit, 
qnamqiiam esset in domo Tiberii ^filius juvenis ; sed 
quo pluribus mmiimentis insisteret. BeUum ea tempes- 
tate nuUom, nisi adversus Grermanos, snpererat, ^abo- 
lendae magis infamiae ob amissom cum ^ Quintilio Varo 
exerdtmn quam cupidine proferendi imperii aut dignum 
ob praemium. Domi res tranquiUae, eadem magistra- 
tuum vocabula; ^juniores post Actiacam victoriam, 
etiam eenes plerique inter beUa civium nati : quotus- 
quisque reliquus qui rem publicam vidisset ? 

IV. Igitur verso civitatis statu, nihil usquam prisci 
et integri moris : omnes exuta aequalitate Jussa principis 
aspectare ; ^ nulla in praesens formidine, dum Augustus 
aetate validus ^seque et domum et pacem sustentavit. 
Postquam 'provecta jam senectus aegro et corpore 
fistigabatur, ^aderatque finis et spes novae, pauci bona 
libertatis incassum disserere, plures bellum pavescere, 
alii cupere. Pars multo maxima ^imminentis dominos 
variis mmoribus differebant, trucem ^Agrippam et igno^ 
minia accensum non aetate neque rerum experientM tantae 


moliparem, TibermmNeronem'^ maiurum arms^ ^spectatum 
hello y sedvetere atqae insita ClcuuUae famiUcK superbia; 
muUctque indicia saevitiae, ^qtuzmquam premantur, erum" 
pen. Hunc et prima ab infantia eductum in domo 
regnatrice ; ^^congeatosjuveni constdatus, tiiumphoa ; neiis 
quidem ^^ annis, qti^ms Rhodi specie secessus exsulem egent, 
^^aliqtiid quam tram et gimvlatumem et secretaa libidines 
^^meditatum. Aecedere matrem muHdni impotmtia: ser^ 
viendum feminas ^^duobusque inmper adolescerUibuB, qui 
rem pvblicam "^^ interim premant, ^^quandoque disirahant. 

V. Haec atque talia agitantibas gravescere valetudo 
Augusti ; et quidam ^ ecelus uzoris sospectabant. Quippe 
rumor incesserat, pancos ante menses Augustam, electis 
consciis et comite uno, ^Fabio Maximo, Flanasiam Tec- 
tum ad visendum Aghppam ; niultas illic utrimque 
lacrimas et signa caritatis, spemque ex eo fore ut juvenis 
penatibus avi redderetur. Quod Maximum uxori Mar- 
ciae aperuisse, illam Liviae. '^Gnarum id Caesari; 
neque multo post exstincto Maximo (dubium an ^quae- 
sita morte), auditos in funere ejus Marciae gemitus semet 
iQcusantis, quod causa exitHmaritoJuisset. CJtcumque se ea 
res habuit, vixdum ingressus Illyricum Tiberius properis 
matns litteris accitur ; neqne satis compertum est, spi* 
rantem adhuc Augustum apud urbem Nolam an exanimem 
reppererit. Acribus namque custodiis domum et viae 
sepserat Livia; laetique interdum nuntii vulgabantor, 
donee provisis quae tempus monebat, simul excessisse 
Augustum et rerum potiri Neronem fama eadem tulit. 

VI. Frimum facinus novi principatns ftdt Postumi 
Agrippae oaedes quern ignarum ^ inermumque, ^quamvis 


firmatus animo, centario aegre confecit. Nihil de ea re 
Tiberius apnd senatum disseruit : patris jossa simulabat, 
qnibas praescripsisset tribuno custodiae apposito, ne 
cwnctaretur Agrippam morte (xfficere, ^quandoque ipse «u^ 
prenrnm diem explevisset, Multa sine dubio saevaque 
Augastus de moribos adolescentis questus, ut ezsdlium 
ejus ^senatus consulto sandretur perfecerat : ceterum in 
nullius unquam suorum necem '^duravit ; neque mortem 
nepoti pro securitate privigni illatam credibile erat. 
Fropius vero Tiberium ac liviam, ilium metu, hanc 
novercalibus odiis, suspecti et invisi juvenis caedem 
festinavisse. ^Nuntianti centurioni, ut mos militiae^ 
factum esse, quod imperasset, neque imperasae eese et ratio- 
nem facti reddendam apud senatum^ respondit). Quod 
postquam 7 Sallustius Crispus particeps secretorum (is ad 
tribunum miserat ^codiciMos) comperit, metuens ne reus 
^subderetur, ^ojuxta periculoso ^^ficta seu vera prome- 
ret, monuit liviam, ne arcana domus, ne consHia amdcorum, 
mmisteria miUtum mlgarentur, neve Tiberius vim principa- 
tus resolveret cuncta ad senatum vocando : earn conditionem 
esse imperandi, ut non dUter ^^ ratio constet quam si uni 

VII. At Romae ruere in servitium consules, patres, 
eques. Quanto quis illustrior, tanto magis falsi ac fes- 
tinantes, vultuque composito, ^ ne laeti ezcessu principis, 
neu tristiores ^primordio, lacrimas, gaudium, 'questus, 
adulatione miscebant. ^Sextus Pompeius et Sextus 
Appuleius Consules primi ^in verba Tiberii Caesaris 
iuravere, apudque eos ^Seius Strabo et '^ Caius Turranius, 
iUe ^praetoriariim cohortium praefectus, hie annonae : 


mox senatus milesque et populus. Nam Tiberius cuncta 
per consules incipiebat, tamquam vetere re publica et 
ambigaus imperandi. Ne edictmn quidem, quo patres 
in curiam vocabat, nisi ^tribuniciae potestatis praescrip- 
tione ^^posuit ^^sub Ai^sto acceptae. Verba edicti 
fiiere pauca et sensu permodesto : de konoribm parentis 
^^'consulturum, '^^neque abscedere a corpore, idque unum ex 
pubUcis muneribua uBtapare. Sed defuncto Augusto 
^^signum praetoriis cohortibus lit imperator dederat; 
excubiae, anna, ^^ cetera aulae ; miles in forum, miles in 
curiam comitabatur. Litteras ad exercitus tamquam 
^^adepto principatu misit, nusquam cunctabundus, nisi 
cum in Senatu loqueretur. Causa praecipua ex formi- 
dine, nB Germanicus, in cujus manu tot legiones, immensa 
sodorum auxilia, mirus apud populum favor, habere im- 
perium quam exspectare mallet. ^^Dabat et famae, ut 
vocatus electusque potius a republica videretur, quam 
^Bper uxorium ambitum et senili adoptione irrepsisse. 
Postea cognitum est ad introspiciendas etiam procerum 
voluntates ^^inductam dubitationem : nam verba, vultus 
in crimen detorquens, recondebat. 

VIII. Nihil primo senatus die agi passus nisi ^ de 
supremis August!; cujus testamentum, illatum ^per 
virgines Vestae, Tiberium et laviam heredes habuit. 
^ Livia in familiam JuHam nomenque Augustae assume- 
batur, ^ in spem secundam nepotes pronepotesque ; 
tertio gradu primores dvitatis scripserat, plerosque in- 
visos sibi, sed jactantia gloriaque ad posteros. ^Legata 
non ultra civilem modum, nisi quod ^populo et plebi 
quadringenties tricies quinquies, praetoriarum cohortium 



militibiis singula nummom milia, ^legionariia trecenos, 
cohortibas civium Romanorum quingenos nummos viritim 
dedit. Turn consultatum de honoribus ; ^ex quis maxime 
msignes visi: tU 9porta triumphali duceretur funus, 
lOGrallus Asinius, tU legum latarum UtuU, victarum ab eo 
gentium vocabula anteferrentur, L. Arruntius censuere. 
^^ Addebat Messala Valerius renovandum per annoa sacra- 
mentum in nomen Tiberii; interrogatusque a Tiberio, 
num 86 mandante earn sententtam « prampsisset, sponte 
dixisse, respondit, neqm in iia, quae ad rem publicam per- 
tinerent, consilio nisi suo usvrum, vel cum periculo offen- 
stonis, IS Ea sola species adulandi supererat. Conda- 
mant patres, corpus ad rogum humeris senatorumferendum. 
^'Remi&it Caesar arroganti moderatione ; populumque 
edicto monuit, ne, ut quondam nknus studHs funus divi 
JuUi turhassenty ita Augustum in faro poiius quam ^^in 
campo Martis, ^^sede destinata, cremari vellent. Die 
faneris milites velut praesidio stetere, multum irridenti- 
bus qui ipsi viderant quique a parentibus acoeperant 
^^diem ilium crudi adhuc servitii etlibertatis improspere 
repetitae, cum ^''^occisus dictator Caesar aliis pessimum, 
aliis pulcberrimum facinus videretur : nunc senem prin« 
dpem, longa potentia^ provisis etiam heredum in rem 
publicam * opibus, auzilio scilicet militari tuendum, ut 
sepultura qjus quieta foret. 

IX« Multus hinc ipso de Augusto sermo, plerisque 
vana mirantibus, quad ^idem dies accepti quondam imperii 
prmceps et vitae supremm ; quod Nolae in domo et cubicuU), 
m quo pater ejus OctaviuSj vitam finwisset, ^Numerus 
etiam consulatunm celebrdbatur, quo Valerium Corvum et 


(7. Maarium simul aeqiuxverat; ^continuata per septem et 
triginta annos tribumcia potestas, ^nomen imperaJtoris semel 
atque vicies partum, aJxaque hcmorum mvUiplicata avi nova. 
At apud prudentes vita ejus varie eztollebatur argueba- 
turve. Hi, pietate erga ^parentem et ^ necessitvdine rei 
publicaey in qua nvUus tunc legibm locus, ad aarma civilia 
actum, quae neque parari possent neque haberi per bonas 
aiies, Multa Antonio^ '^dum interfectores patris ulciscere- 
tur, multa Lepido cancessisse. Postquam hie socordia 
^senuerit, illeper libidines pessum daJtua ait, non aliud diS' 
cordantis patriae remedium Juisse quam ut ab uno regeretur. 
Non regno tamen neque dictatvra, sed principis nomine 
constitutam rem puhlicam ; ^mari Oceano aut ^^ammbus 
longinquis septum imperium ; Ugiones, provindas, classes, 
cuncta inter se connexa ; jus apud dves, modestiam apud 
socios; urbem ipsam magnifco omata ; pauca admodum vi 
tractata, quo ceteris qvies esseU 

X. Dicebatur contra, pietaJtem erga parentem et tern- 
pora rei publicae obtentvi sumpta : ceterum cupidine domi' 
nandi ^concitos per largitionem veteranos, paratum ab 
adolescente privato exercitum, corruptas ^consiUis Ugiones, 
simtdatam ^ Pompeianarum gratiam partium; mox ubi 
decreto patrum fasces et jus praetoris invaserit, ^caesis 
Hirtio et Pansa, {sioe hostis iUos, seu Pansam venenum 
wlneri affusum, sui milites Hirtium et macMnator doli 
Caesar ^abstulerat), utriusque copias occupavisse: ^extor^ 
tum inviio '^senatu consulatum, armaque quae in Antonium 
^acceperit, contra rem publicam versa; proscriptionem 
civnim, divisiones agrorum, ne ipsis quddem qui ^fecere 
laudatas. Sane ^^ Cassii et Brutorum exitus patemis 


mmtcitiis datos, (qtuxmquam fas sit privata odia puhUcis 
utiUtatibiis remittere) ; sed Pompeium imagine paciSj sed 
^^Lepidum specie amidtiae deceptos: post Antonium, ^^ To- 
rentino Brundisinoqtie foedere et nuptiis sororis ilUctum^ 
subdolae affinxtatis poenas morte exsolvisse. Pacem sine 
dabio post haec, verum cruentam: ^^LolUanas, ^^ VarianaS' 
que dades, interfectos Eomae ^^ Varrones, ^fJEJgnatios, 
'^^Jidos. Nee domesticis abstinebatur. ^^ AJbdvcta NerorU 
^acor, et consiUti per lud^nium pontijlces, an concepto nee- 
dvm edito partu rite nvheret : ^ Q. Tedii et Vedii PolUonis 
luxus; postremo Livia, gravis in rem pubUcam mater, gra- 
vis domui Caesarum noverca, ^^ Nihil deorum honoribus 
relictum, cum se templis et ^effigie numinum ^perjlamines 
et sacerdotes coli vellet. Ne Tiberium quidem caritate aitt 
fei publicae cura successorem asdtum : sed quoniam arro- 
gantiam saeoitiamque ejtbs inirospexerit, comparatione deter- 
rima sibi gloriam quaesivisse. Etenim Augastus, ^^paucis 
ante annis, cum Tiberio tribuniciam potestatem a patri- 
bas rursum postularet, quamquam honora oratione, 
quaedam de ^habitu ccdtuque et institutis ejus jecerat, 
quae velut excusando exprobraret. Ceterum sepultura 
more perfecta, templum et caelestes religiones decer- 

XI. Versae inde ad Tiberium preces. Et ille varie 
disserebat, de mtignitudine imperii, ^ sua modestia. Solam 
di&i Augusti mentem tantae molis capacem : 'se in partem 
curaarwn ab iUo vocatum expenendo didicisse quam arduum, 
qwxm suljectumfortunae regendi cuncta onus. Proinde in 
civitate tot Ulustribus viris suhnixa ^non ad unum omnia 
deferrent: plures fadlvus muma rei publicae sodatis 


laboribus exsecuturos. Plus in oratione tali dignitatis 
quam fidei erat; Tiberioque etiam in rebas qoas non 
occuleret, seu natura sive assuetadine, saspensa semper 
et obscura verba, tunc vero nitenti ut sensus suos peni- 
tus abderet, in incertum et ambiguum magis implica- 
bantur. At patres, quibus anus metus». si intelligere 
viderentur, in questus, lacrimas, vota effundi ; ad deos, 
^ad efi&giem Augusti, ad genua ipsius manus tendere, 
cum proferri *libellum *recitarique jussit. Opes publicae 
continebantur, quantum civium sociorumque in armis, 
quot classes, ^regna, provinciae, ^tributa aut vectigalia, 
et necessitates ac largitiones. Quae cuncta sua manu 
perscripserat Augustus, addideratque consilium coercendi 
iutra ^terminos imperii, incertum ®metu an per invidiam. 
XII. Inter quae senatu ad infimas obtestationes 
procumbente, dixit forte Tiberius se, ut non toti ret pub- 
licae parem, ita qvaecumque pars sibi mandaretu/t, ejus 
tutdam susceptfuram, Tum ^ Asinius Gallus, Interrogo, 
inquit, Caesar, ^quam partem ret pvhUcae mandari tUn 
veUs, 'Perculsus improvisa interrogatione, paulum 
^reticuit : dein collecto animo respondit, neqtjuiguam deco' 
rum pudori suo legere aliquid aut evitare ex eo, cui in 
wniversum excusari mallet. Rursum Gallus (etenim 
vultu offensionem ooi\jectaverat), non idcirco interroga- 
tum, ait, vt divideret quae separari nequirent, sed tit 
sua confessume argueretur unum esse ret publicae corpus 
atque unius animo regendum. ^Addidit laudem de Au- 
gusto, Tiberiumque ipsum victoriarum suarum, quaeque 
^in toga per tot annos egregie fecisset, admonuit. Nee 
^ideo iram ejus lenivit, pridem invisus, tamquam ducta in 


matrimonhim Vipsania M. Agrippae filia, quae quondam 
Tiberii uxor fuerat, plus quam chdlia agitaret, PoUionis- 
qae ^Asinii patris ferociam retiueret. 

XIII. 1 Post quae ^ L. Arruntios, baud multum discre- 
paQs a Galli oratione, perinde ofPendit, quamquam Ti- 
berio nulla vetus in Arruntium ira ; sed divitem, 'promp- 
tarn, artibus egregiis et pari fiuna ^publice, suspectabat. 
Quippe Augu&tus, supremis sermonibus cum tractaret, 
quinam adipisci principem locum sufPecturi abnuerent, 
aut impares vellent, vel iidem possent cuperentque, ^M, 
Lepidum dixerat capacem sed capemanteni; Galium 
Asinium ^avidum et minorem, L. Arruntium non mdig- 
num, et si casus daretar^ ausurum. De prioribus con- 
sentitur, pro Arruntio quidam 7 Cn. Rsonem tradidere ; 
onmesque, praeter Lepidum, variis moz criminibus stru- 
ente Tiberio circumventi sunt. Etiam ® Q. Haterius et 
Mamercus Scaurus suspicacem anlmum perstrinxere, 
Haterius, cum dixisset, Quousque paiieris, Caesar, non 
adesse caput ret pvhlicae f Scaurus, quia dixerat, spem 
esse ex eo, non irritas fore sencUus preces, quod relationi 
consulum jure tribuniciae potestatis non intercessisset. 
In Haterium statim invectus est ; Scaurum, cui implaca- 
bilius irascebatur, silentio tramisit. Fessusque clamore 
omnium, expostulatione sing^orum, flexit paulatim, non 
ut fateretur suscipi a se imperium, sed ut negare et ro- 
gari desineret. Constat Haterium, cum deprecandi 
causa Palatium introisset, ambulantisque Tiberii ® genua 
advolveretur, prope a militibus interfectum, quia Tiberius 
casu an manibus ejus impeditus prociderat. Neque tamen 
periculo talis viri mitigatus est, donee Haterius ^^Au- 


gustam oraret, ejasque curatdsBimis precibus protege- 

XIV. Multa patrum et in Augustam adulatio. Alii 
parentem, alii ^matrem patriae appellandam, plerique 
ut normnd Caesaris ascnberetur Juliae films censebant. 
Ille moderandos feniinarum honores dictitans, eademqtte 
se temperantia usurum in iis, quae sihi tribuerentur^ 
ceterum anxius invidia et muliebre feustigiam in deminu- 
tionem sui accipiens, ^ ne lictorem quidem ei decemi pas- 
sus est, ^aramque adoptionis et alia hujuscemodi pro- 
hibuit. At Germanico Caesari ^proconsulare imperium 
petivit ; missique legati qui deferrent, simcd maestitiam 
ejus ob excessum Augusti solarentur. Quo minus idem 
pro Druso postularetur, ea causa, quod designatus con- 
sul Drusus praesensque erat. ^Candidatos praeturae 
duodedm nominavit, numerum ab Augusto traditum ; et 
hortante senatu ut augeret, ^jurejurando obstrinxit se 
non excessurum. 

XV. ^Tum primum e campo comitia ad patres trans- 
lata sunt : nam ad eam diem, etsi potissima arbitno 
principis, quaedam tamen studiis tribuum fiebant. Ne- 
que populus ademptum jus questus est nisi inani rumore, 
et senatus, largitionibus ac precibus sordidis exsolutus, 
libens ^tenuit, moderante Tiberio ne plures quam quat- 
tuor candidates commendaret, sine repulsa et ambita 
designandos. Inter quae Tribuni plebei petivere ut 
proprio sumptu ederent 'ludos, qui de nomine Augusti, 
fastis additi, Augustales vocarentur. Sed decreta pecunia 
ex aerario, * utque per circum triumphali * veste uterentur : 
cuiru vebi baud permissum. Mox celebratio ^ annua ad 


praetorem translata, cui inter cives et peregrinos juris- 
dictio evenisset. 

XVT. Hie rerum urbanaram status erat, cum ^ Panno- 
nicas legiones seditio incessit, nullis novis causis, nisi 
quod mutatus princeps ^Ucentiam turbarum et ex civili 
bello spem praemiorum osltendebat. Castris aestivis 
' tres simul legiones habebantur, praesidente ^ Junio Blae- 
80; qui fine Augusti et initiis Tiberii auditis ob ^justi- 
tium aut gaudium intermiserat solita munia. ^Eo 
principio lascivire miles, discordare, pessimi cujusque 
sermonibus praebere anres, denique luxum et otium cu- 
pere, disciplinam et laborem aspemari. Erat in castris 
Percennius quidam, dux olim^ theatralium operarum, 
dein gregarius miles, procax • lingua et miscere coetus 
bistrionali studio doctus. Is imperitos animos, let quae- 
nam post Augustum militiae conditio ambigentes, impel- 
lere paulatim noctumis colloquiis aut flexo in vesperam 
die, et dilapsis melioribus deterrimum quemque con- 

XVtl. Postremo, promptis jam et aliis seditionis 
ministris, velut contionabundus interrogabat : Cur ^pavr 
cis centurionibuSy paucioribus tribunis in modum servorum 
obedirent ? quando avsuros exposcere remedia, nisi novum 
et nutantem adhuc prindpem precibus vel armis adirent ? 
satis per tot annos ignavia peccatum, quod ^tricena aut 
quadragena stipendia senes, et plerique truncato ex ml- 
neribus corpore, tolerent, Ne dimissis qvidem Jinem esse 
militiae, sed ^apvd vexilhmt tendentes ^alio vocabulo eosdem 
hbores perferre. Ac si quis tot casus vita supsraverity 
trahi ^ adhuc diversas in terras, vhi per nomen agrorum 


uUgmes pallidum vel mculta montium acctpiant, Enimvero 
miliiiam ipaam gravem, injructtwsam : ^ dents in diem aesi- 
bus cmimam et corpus aestimari: "^hinc vestem, arma, ten- 
toria, June saeuitiam centwrionum et vacationes munerum 
redimi. At HercuU verhera> et vulnera, durarh hiemem, 
^exerdtas aestates, helium atrox aiU sterilem pacem sempi- 
tema. Nee cdiud kvamentum quam si certis svb legibus 
militia iniretur, ^uJt singulos denarios mererent, sextos deeu^ 
mus stipendii annus finem afferret; ne ultra sub vexillis 
tenerenJtur, sediisdem in castrispraemiumpecunia solveretur. 
An ^^praetorias cohortes, quae ^^binos denarios ^^ acceperint, 
quae ^^post sedecim annos penaUbus stds reddantur, plus 
periciUorum svscipere ? Non obtrectari a se urbanas 
excubias : sibi tamen apud horridas gentes e contubemiis 
hostem aspicu 

XVIII. Adstrepebat Tulgus, ^ diversis incitamentis, 
hi verberum notas, ill! canitiem, plurimi detrita tegmina, 
et nudum corpus exprobrantes. Postremo <eo furoris ve- 
nere, ut tres legiones miscere in unam agitaverint. 
Depulsi aemulatioDe, quia suae quisque legioni' ^eum 
honorem quaerebant, alio vertunt, atque una tres aquilas 
et ^signa cohortium locant. Simul ^congerunt cespites, 
exstruunt tribunal, quomagis conspicua ^sedes foret. 
7 Properantibus Blaesus advenit, increpabatque ac retine- 
bat singulos, clamitans : Mea potius caede imhuite manus ; 
leviore Jlagitio legatum, interficietis quam ab imperatore 
desciscitis. Aut incolumis Jidem legionum retinebo, out 
juguUcbas paenitentiam accderabo, 

XIX. Aggerebaturnihilo minus cespes, jamque * pec- 
tori usque apcreverat, cum tandem ^pervicacia victi 


inceptum omisere. Blaesas multa dicendi arte, Non per 
sedUionem et turhas desideria. rmlitum ad Caesarem ft- 
renda^ ait, negue veterea ah tmperatoribua priscia neque 
tpsos a divo Augusto tarn nova pettvisse; et parum in 
tempore mcipientes prindpis euros onerari. Si tamen 
tender ent in pace ten tare quae ne civUium, qmdem hello* 
rum victores expostulavmnt, cur contra morem ohseqyU, 
contra fas disciplinae vim meditentur ? decernerent lega- 
tos, seque coram mandata darent, Acclamavere, lU JUius 
Blaesi tribunus legatione ea JungeretuTy peteretque mdliti- 
bus missionem ah sedecim annis: cetera mandaturos, uhi 
prima ^provenissent. Profecto juvene, modicum otium ; 
sed superbire miles, quod filius legati orator pablicae 
causae satis ostenderet necessitate expressa quae per 
modestiam non ^obtinuissent. 

XX. Interea manipuli ante coeptam seditionem 
^Nauportum missi ob itinera et pontes et alio? usus, 
postquam turbatum in castris accepere, vexilla ^ convel- 
limt, direptisque proximis vicis ipsoque Nauporto, quod 
^municipii instar erat, retinentes centuriones irrisu et 
contumeliis, postremo verberibus insectantur, ^praecipua 
in Aufidienum Rufum ^praefectum castrorum ira, quern 
dereptum vehiculo sarcinis gravant aguntque primo in 
agroine, per ludibrium rogitantes, an tarn immensa onera, 
tarn longa itinera lihenter ferret} Quippe Ruins diu 
manipularis, dein centurio, mox castris praefectus, anti- 
quam duramque militiam revocabat, ®vetus opens ac 
laboris, et eo immitior quia toleraverat. 

XXI. Horum adventu redintegratur seditio, et vagi 
drcun^ecta populabantur. Blaesus paucos, maxima 



praeda onustos, ad terrorem ceteroram affici veroeribus, 
daudi carcere jubet : nam ^ etiam turn legato a centorio* 
nibns et optimo quoqne manipularium parebatur. lUi 
obniti trahentibns, prensare circumstantiam genua, ciere 
modo nomina singuloram, modo 'centuriam qoisqae 
cujus maaipularis erat, cohortem, legionem, eadem omm-- 
bus imndnere damitantes. Simnl probra in legatam 
cumulant, caelum ac deos obtestantur, ^nihil reliqui 
^fiEtciunt quo minus invidiam, misericordiam, metnm et 
iras permoverent. Accurritur ab universis, et carcere 
effiracto solvunt vincula, desertoresque ac rerum capita- 
Hum damnatos '^sibi jam miscent. 

XXII. Magrantior inde vis, plures seditioni duces. 
£t Vibulenus quidam, gregaiius miles, ante tribunal 
Blaesi allevatus drcumstantium humeris, apud turbatos, 
et quid pararet intentos : Vos qvidem, inquit, his mno- 
centibus et rmserrimia lucem it spiritum reddidiatis : sed 
gtus fratri vieo vitam, quia fratrem mht reddit ? quem 
missum ad vos a Germamko exerdtu ^de commumbus 
commodis, node proxima juffulavit per ^gladiatores sttos, 
quos in exitium militvm habet cUque armat. Bespondey 
Blaese, ^vbi cadaver abjeceris ? ne hostes quidem ^sepnltura 
invidenU Cvm osadis, cum lacrmis dolorem meum tim- 
plevero, me quoque trucidarijvhe, ^dum inierfectos nullum 
6b scelus, sed quia utilitati legionvm consulebamus, hi 

XXIII. Incendebat haec fletu et pectus atque os 
manibus verberans. Mox disjectis quorum per humeros 
Bustinebatur, praeceps et singulorum pedibus advolutus 
tantum constemationis invidiaeque condviti ut pars mili- 


turn gladiatores, qui e servitio Blaesi erant, pars ceteram 
gusdem familiam vincirent, alii ad quaerendum corpus 
efibnderentur. Ac ^ni prepare neque corpus ullum 
reperiri, et servos adhibitis cniciatibus abnuere caedem, 
neque illi fuisse unquam fratrem pemotuisset, baud 
multum ab exitio legati aberant. Tribunos tamen ac 
praefectum castrorum extrusere : sarcinae fugientium 
direptae : et centurio Lucilius interficitur, *cui militari- 
bus facetiis vocabulum Cedo alteram iudiderant, quia, 
fracta vite in tergo militis, alteram clara voce ac rursus 
aliam poscebat. Ceteros latebrae texere^ uno retento 
Clemente Julio, qui perferendis militum mandatis habe- 
batur idoneus ob promptum ingenium. Quin ipsae inter 
se legidnes octava et quinta decuma ferrum parabant, 
dum centurionem cognomento Sirpicum ilia morti de- 
poscit, quintadecumani tuentur, ni miles nonanus preces 
et adversum aspemautes minas interjedsset. 

XXIV . Haec audita quamquam abstrusum et tnstis- 
sima quaeque maxime occultantem Tiberium perpulere, 
ut Drusum filium cum primoribus civitatis duabusque 
praetoriis cobortibus mitteret, nullis s^is certis mandatis, 
ex re consulturum. Et cobortes delecto milite supra 
solitum firmatae. Additur magna pars praetoriani equitis 
et robora Germanorum, qui ^ turn custodes imperatori 
aderant : simul praetorii praefectus Aelius Sejanus, col- 
lega Straboni patri suo datus, magna apud Tiberium 
auctoritate, rector juveni, et ceteris ^periculoruin prae- 
miorumque ostentator. Druso propinquanti, quasi per 
officium, obviae fuere legiones, non laetae, ut assolet, 
^ neque insignibus fulgentes, sed illuvie deformi et 


vultu, quamquam maestitiam imitarentor, contamaciae 

XXy. Postquam vallum introiit, portas stationibus 
firmant^ globosarmatorom certis castrorum lods oppenri 
jabent : ceteri tribunal ingenti agmine drcumveniunt. 
Stajbat Drusus, silentium manu poscens. Bli, quotiens 
oculos ad multitudinem ^rettulerant, vocibus truculentis 
strepere, rursum viso Caesare trepidare ; murmur incer- 
tum, ^atarox clamor, etrepentequies; diversis aaimorum 
motibus pavebant terrebantque. Tandem, interrupto 
tumultu, litteras patris recitat, in quia perscriptum erat, 
Fraectjfmam ipsi fortissimarum Ugiomm carom, qmbus- 
cum plurima bella tokravtsset; vbi primum a luctu re- 
qvdesset animus, acturum apvd patres de posttUatid earum ; 
misisse interim filium, ut sine cunctatione concederet 
qyuoA atatim tribui possent; cetera senatm servanda, 
quern neque gratiae neque severitatis expertem haberi par 

XXVI. Responsum est a contione mandata de- 
menti centurumi quae perferret. Is orditiir de missione 
a sedecim annxs, de praemdis finitae TnUitiae ; ut dena^ 
rius dxwmum stipendmm foret ; ne veterani sub vexiUo 
haherentur. Ad ea Drusus, cum arbitrium senatus et 
patris obtenderet, clamore turbatur : Cur venisset, neque 
augendis militum stipendiis, neque allevandis laboribus^ 
denique nulla benefaciendi Ucentia ? at Hercule verbera 
et necem cunctis permitti. Ttbervwm olim nomine Au- 
gusti desideria legionum frustrari solitum : easdem artes 
Drusum rettulisse: ^numquamne nisi ad se filios /amtli- 
arum ventures ? novum id plane, quod imperator sola 


mSitis commoda ad aencUum rejtciat. Eundem ergo 
senatum consuUndum^ quotiens supplicia out praeUa 
tndicantur. An praemia svb domznis, poenas sine arbiti*o 
esse f 

XXVII. Postremo deserunt tribunal, nt quia praeto- 
rianoram militam amicorumve Caesaris ^occurreret, 
^manus intentantes, causam discordiae et initium artno- 
ram, maxime infensi ^Cn. Lentulo, quod is, ante alios 
aetate et gloria belli, firmare Drusum credebatur, et 
iUa ^militiae flagitia primus aspemari. Nee multo post 
digredientem cum Caesare, ac ^provisu periculi hibema 
castra repetentem, circumsistunt, rogitantes, quo per' 
geretf ad imperatorem an adpatresf ut ilUc qwoque com- 
modis legionum adversareturf Simul ingruunt, saxa 
jaciunt. Jamque lapidis ictu cruentus et exitii certus, 
accursu multitudinis, quae cum Druso advenerat, pro- 
tectna est. 

XXVIII. ^Noctem minacem et in scelus erupturam 
fors lenivit ; ^nam luna claro repente caelo visa langue- 
scere. ^Id miles rationis ignarus ^omen praesentium ac- 
cepit, ac suis laboribus defectionem sideris assimulans, 
prospereque cesaura ^quae pergerentj si f vigor et claritudo 
deae redderetur. I^tur ^aeris sono, tubarum comuumque 
concentu strepere; prout splendidior obscuriorve, lae- 
tan aut maerere ; et pobtquam ortae nubes offecere visui 
creditumque conditam tenebf^a, ut sunt mobiles ad super- 
stitionem perculsae semel mentes, sibi aetemum laborem 
portendi, suafacinora '^aversari deos lamentantur. Uten- 
dum inclinatione ea Caesar, et, quae casus obtulerat, in 
sapientiam vertenda ratus, circumiri tentoria jubet. Ac- 


citur centorio Clemens, et si alii bonis artibus grati in 
Tolgas. li ^vigillis, stationibus, custodiis portarum se 
insepnint, spem ofiPerunt, metum intendunt. Quausque 
filium imperatoris obsidebimus} quis certanunum JbUsf 
Percennione et Vibuleno sacramentum dtcturi sumus ? 
Percennius et Vibulenus stipendia mUitibus, agros emeritia 
kurgientur^ demqm pro Neronibus et Drum impenum 
popuU JRomani capessent? quin potius, ^ut novissmi in 
culpam, ita primi ad paenitentiam sumus ? Tarda sunt 
qtiae in commune exposiulantur : privatam gratiam statim 
mereare, statim redpias, Commotia per haec mentibus 
et inter se suspectis, tironem a veterano, legionem a 
legione dissociant. Turn redire paulalim amor obseqoii : 
omittunt portas, signa unum in locum principio seditionia 
congregata suas in sedes referunt. 

XXIX. Drasus^ orto die et vocata contione, quam- 
quam rudis dicendi, nbbilitate ingenita incusat priora, 
probat praesentia : negat se terrore et minis vinci : fleocoa 
ad modestiam si videat, si sappUces audiat, scripturtm 
pain, ut placatus legionum preces exciperet. Orantibus, 
rursum idem Blaesus et L. Apronius, eques Romanns 
^e cohorte Drusi, ^Justosque Catonius ^ primi ordinis 
centorio, ad Tiberium mittmitur. Certatum inde senten- 
tiis, cum alii opperiendos legates atque interim comitate 
permukendum militem censerent, alii fortioribus remediia 
agendum : nihil in wlgo modicum ; terrere, ni paveant ; 
u5t pertimuerint, impune contenmi; dum supersHtio 
urgeat, adjiciendos ^ex duce metus, sublatis seditionis auc- 
torUms. Fromptum ad asperiora ingenium Druso erat : 
vocatos Vibulenum et Percenniam interfici jubet. Tra- 


dunt plerique intra tabemaculum ducb obrutos, alii 
corpora ^ extra vallum abjecta ostentui. 

XXX. Tom, ut quisque praecipuus turbator, con- 
quisiti ; et pars, extra castra palant^s, a ccntorionibus 
ant praetoriarum cohortium militibus caesi ; quosdam 
ipai manipuli, documentum fidei, tradidere. Auxerat 
nuUtom curas praematora hiems, imbribus coutinuis 
adeoque saevis, ut non egredi tentoria, congreg^ inter 
se, ^vixtutari signa possent, quae turbine atque unda 
raptabantur. Durabat et formido caelestis irae, nee 
frustra adversus inpios hebeBcere sidera, mere tempestatea : 
non aUud mcdorum levamentumj quam si Unquerent ccatra 
mfausta temercUaqus, et soluti piaculo suis quusque hibemia 
redderenlur^ Primum ootava, dein quinta decuma legio 
rediere. Nonanus opperiendas Tiberii epistolaa clamita- 
verat, mox ^desolatus aliorum diacessione imminentem 
necessitatein sponte praevenit. £t Drusus, non ex- 
Bpectatolegatorum regressu, quia praesentia satis consid- 
enmt, in urbem rediit. 

XXXI. lisdem ferme diebus. iisdem causis ^Germa- 
nicae legiones turbatae, quanto plures, tanto violentius* 
et magna spe fore ut Germanicus Caesar imperium alte- 
nus pat] nequiret, daretque se legionibus vi sua cuncta 
tracturis. Duo apud ripam Rheni exercitus erant : cui 
nomen superiori, sub C. Silio legato; inferiorem A. Cae- 
cina curabat. Regimen summae rei penes Germani- 
cam, 2 agendo Galliarum censui turn intentum. Sed 
quibos Silius moderabatur, mente ambigua fortunam 
seditionis alienae speculabantur : inferioris exercitus 
nules in rabiem prolapsus est, orto ab unetvicesimanis 


quintanisque initio, et tractis ^ prima quoque ac vicesima 
legionibus; nam iisdem aeslivis in finibus ^(Jbioram 
habebantar per otium aut levia munia. Igitur, audiio 
fine Augasti, vernacula multitudo, ^noper .acto in nrbe^ 
delectn, lasciviae sueta, laboram intolerans, ^impellere 
ceteromm rudes animos : venisse tempus, quo '^veterani 
maturam missionem, juvenes largiora atipendia^ cuncti 
modum mtaenarum exposcerent, saevitiamque centurionwn 
ulciscerentur. Non imus haec, ut Pannonicas inter 
legiones Fercennius, nee apud trepidas militum anres, 
alios validiores exercitus respicientium, sed multa sedi- 
tionis ora vocesque : sua in manu sitam rem Bomanam; 
suia victoriis augeri rem puhlicam ; ^in suum cognomentum 
adacisci imperatores, 

XXXII. ^Nec legatus obviam ibat : quippe ^planum 
yecordia constantiam exemerat. Repente ^lympbati de- 
strictis gladiis in centuriones invadunt : ea vetustissima 
militaribus odiis materies, et saeviendi principium. Pro- 
stratos verberibus molcant, sexageni singulos, ut nume- 
rum centurionum Hdaequarent : turn convulsos lania- 
tosque et partim exanimos ante vaUum aut in amnem 
Rhenum projiciant. Septimius cum perfiigisset ad .tri- 
bunal, pedibusque Caecinae advolveretur, eo usque flagi- 
tatus est donee ad' exitium dederetur. Cassius Cbaerea 
mox caede C. Caesaris memoriam apud posteros adeptus, 
^tum adolescens et animi ferox, inter obstantes et ar- 
matos ferro yiam patefecit. Non tribunus ultra, non 
castrorum praefectus jus obtinuit : vigilias, stationes, et 
si qua alia praesens usus indixerat, ipsi partiebantur. 
Id, militares animos altius coi^ectantibus, praecipuum 


indiciam magni atque implacabilis motus, quod neque 
disjecti, nee paucorum instincta, sed pariter ardescerent, 
pariter silerent, tanta aeqoalitate et constantia, ut regi 

XXXIII. Interea Gennanico per Gallias, ut diximus, 
census aceipienti eKcessisse Augustum affertur. ^Nep- 
tera ejus Agrippinam in matrimonio, pluresque ex ea 
liberos habebat, ipse Druso iratare Tiberii genitus, 
Augustae nepos ; sed anxius occultis in se patrui aviae- 
que odiis, quorum causae acriores, quia iniquae. Quippe 
Drusi magna apud populum Romani memoria, credeba- 
turque, sirerum potitus foret, ^libertatem redditurus ; 
unde in Germanicum favor et spes eadem. Nam juveni 
'civile ingenium, mira comitas et diversa a Tiberii ser- 
mone, vultu, arrogantibus et obscuris. Accedebant 
nmliebres offensiones, novercalibus liviae in Agrip- 
pinam stimulis ; atque ipsa Agrippina paulo commolior, 
nisi quod castitate et mariti amore quamvis indomitum 
animum in bonum vertebat. 

XXXIV. Sed Germauicus, quanto summae spei pro- 
pior, tanto impensius pro Tiberio niti. Sequanos proxi- 
mos et Belgarum civitates in verba ejus adigit. Debinc, 
audito legionum tumultu, raptim profectus obvias extra 
castra habuit, dejectis in terram oculis velut paenitentia. 
Postquam vallum iniit, dissoni questus audiri coepere. 
Et quidam prensa manu cgus per speciem exoscolandi 
inseruerunt digitos, ut vacua dentibus ora contingeret ; 
alii curvata senio membra ostendebant. Assistentem 
contionem, quia permixta videbatur, discedere in manU 
pulos jubet: ^sic melvus avdituros responmm ; ^vexilla 



praeferri, ut id saltem discemeret cohortes. Tarde obtem- 
peravere. Tunc a veneratione Augusti orsus flexit ad 
victorias triumphoaqae Tiberii, praecipuis laudibus cele- 
brans qitae apud Germanias Ulia cum legtomhis pulcher^ 
rima fecisset. Itcdiae inde consensum, Gcdliarum fid/em 
extoUit ; ml usquam turbidum aut discors. Silentio'haec 
vel murmure modico audita sunt. 

XXXV. Ut seditionem attigit, ubi modestia miUtaris, 
ubiveteris dimpUnae decua, quonam tribunos, quo centuriones 
exegiasent, rogitans, nudant universi corpora, cicalrioes 
ex vulneribtta, verberum notaa exprobrant ; mox indiscretis 
vocibus ^pretia vacationunij anguatias sttpendU, duriticm 
operum, ac propriis nominibus incusant vallum^ fossasy 
pabuli ^materiae lignorum aggeatus, et ^si qua alia ex 
necessitate aut ^adversus otium castrorum quaeruntor. 
Atrocissimus veteranorum clamor oriebatur, qui tricena 
aut supra stipendia numerantes, mederetur feaaisy ^neu 
mortem in iisdem hbortbuSy aed Jinem tam exerdtae mHi- 
tiae, neque inopem requiem, orabant. Fuere etiam qui 
legatam a divo Augusto pecuniam ^reposcerent, faustia in 
Germanicum ominibus; ^et, sivelletimperium, ^promptos 
ostentavere. Tunxvero, quasi scelere contaminaretur» 
praeceps tribunali desiluit. Opposuerunt abeunti anna, 
minitantes, ni regrederetur. At iUe, moriturum potiua 
quam fidem exueret, clamitans, ferrum a latere deripuit, 
elatomque ^deferebat in pectus, ni proximi prensam dex« 
tram vi attinuissent. Extrema et conglobata inter se pars 
contionis, ac vix credibile dictu, ^^quidam singnli propius 
incedentes, /enret bortabantur; et miles nomine Calu- 
sidius strictum obtulit gladium, addito acutiorem esae. 


Saevum id maliqiie moris etiam forentibus visum ; ac spa- 
tiiim fuit, quo Caesar ab amids in tabemaculum raperetor. 

XXXYI. Consultatum ibi de remedio. Etenim 
nnniiabatiir parari legaios qui superiorem exercitam ad 
ccLusam eandem trdhermt; destinatvm exddio ^ Ubiorum 
oppiditm, imbutasque praeda manus in dirq>ti(mem ^ OaHi" 
orum erupturaa. Augebat metum gnarus Romanae 
seditionis, et, si omitteretur ripa, invasuras hostis. At, 
si auxilia et socii adversom absoedentes legiones anna- 
rentor, civile bellum suscipi. "Periculosa severitas, 
fla^tiosa largiiio ; sea nibil mQiti sive omnia conceden- 
tor, in ancipiti res publica." Igitur volutatis inter se 
rationibuB, pladtum ut epistolae nomine principis scri- 
berentnr, missionem dari vkena stipendia mentis^ ^ex^ 
avctorari qui aena dena fecUsent^ ac retinm sub vexillo, 
ceterorum immunea, niai propulaandi hoatia; Ugaia qme 
petwerant, exaolvi duplicarique. 

XXXVIL Sensit miles in tempos confida, statimque 
flagitavit. Missio per tribunos matoratur ; kurgitio differ- 
ebatur ^in bibema cirque* ^Non abscessere quintani 
Bnetvicesimaniqne, donee iisdem in aestivis contracta 
'ex vialico amicorum ipsiosque Caesaria peeunia persolv- 
eretnr. Frimam ac vicesimam legiones Caedna legatos 
in dvitatem Ubiorum reduxit, turpi agmine, cum ^fisd 
de imperatore rapti inter signa interque aquilas veheren- 
tor, Germanicus superiorem ad exa*dtum profectus, 
secondam et tertiam decumam et sextam decumam 
legiones nihil cunctatas sacramento adigit. Quartade- 
comoni paulum dubitaverant; peeunia et missio quam- 
isvjion flagitantibus oblata est. 


XXXVI II, At ^in Chaucis coeptavere seditionem 
praesidium agitantes ^vexillarii discordium legionum, et 
praesenti duorum militum eupplicio paulum repress! 
sunt. Jusserat id Mennius castrorum praefectus, ^bono 
magis exemplo qtiam concesso jure. Deinde, intume- 
scente motu, profugus repertusque, postquam intutae 
latebrae, praesidium ab audacia mutuatur : non praefec- 
turn ab its, sed Germardcvm ducem, sed Tiberium impera* 
torem violari, Simul exterritis qui obstiterant, ^ raptum 
vexiUum ad ripam vertit, et si guis agmine decessisset, pro 
desertore fore clamitans, reduxit in hiberna turbidos et 
nihil ausos. 

XXXIX. Interea legati ab senatu ^regressum jam 
apud aram Ubiorum Germanicum adeunt. Duae ibi 
legiones, prima atque vicesima, veteranique nupw missi 
sub vexillo, hiemabant^ Pavidos et conscientia vecordes 
intrat metus, venisse patrum jussu, qui irrita facerent 
quae per seditionem expresserant. Utque mos vulgo, 
quamvis falsis reum subdere, ^MunatiumPlancum, con- 
sulatu functum, principem legationis, auctorem senatus- 
consulti incusant; et nocte concubia ^vexillum in domo 
Germanici situm flagitare occipiunt, concursuque ad 
januam facto moliuntur fores, extractum cubili Caesa- 
rem tradere vexiUum intento mortis metu subigunt. Mox 
vagi per vias obvios habuere legatos, audita constema- 
tione ad G^nnanicum tendentes. Ingerunt contumelias, 
caedem parant, Flanco maxime, quem dignitas fuga 
inpediverat. Neque aliud periclitanti subsidium quam 
^castra primae legionis. Illic ^signa et aquilam amplexos 
religione sese tutabatur ; ac, ni aquilifer Calpumius vim 


eztremam iorcuisset, (ronim etiam inter hostes), legatus 
populi Romani, Romanis in. castris, sanguine suo altaria 
deum commaculavisset. Luce demum, postquam dux 
et mfles et &cta noscebantur, ingressus castra Germani- 
cus perduci ad se Plancum imperat, recepitque in tribu- 
nal. Turn ^fatalem increpans rabiem, neque militum sed 
deum ira resurgere, cur veneriut legati aperit : JTis lega- 
tionis, atque ipsius Planet gravem et imrneritum casum, 
umul qiuintum dedecoris adierit Ugio, facunde miseratur, 
attonitaque magis quam quieta contione, legates prae- 
sidio auxiliiarium equitum dimittit, 

XL. ^Eo in metu arguere Germanicum omneSi (pwd 
non ad mperiorem exercitum pergeret, ttbi obsequia et 
contra rebeUes auxilmm. Satis superque misaione et 
pecunia et mollibus consultis peccatum. Vd si mlis ipsi 
salus, cur fMum parvxdumt cur gravidam cbnjttgem inter 
Jurentes et omnis humani juris violatores haberet^ illos 
scdtem avo et rei publicae redderet. Diu cunctatus, 
^aspemantem uxorem, cum se divo Augusto ortam neque 
degenerem adpericula testaretur, postremo uterum ejus 
et communem filium multo cum fletu complexus, ut 
abiret perpulit.' ^Incedebat muliebre et miserabile 
agmen, profuga ducis uxor, parvulum sinu filium gerens, 
lamentantes circum amicorum conjuges quae simul 
trahebantur ; nee minus tristes qui manebant. 

XLI. Non florentis Caesaris, ^ neque suis in castris, 
sed velut in urbe victa, facies, gemitusque ac planctus 
etiam militum aures oraque ^advertere, Frogrediuntur 
contubemiis. Qvds ille fiehilis sonus ? q\dd tarn triste ? 
feminas iUustres; ^non centurionem ad tutelam, non 


miUtem, nihil imperatoriae uxoria aut comitatus soUti, 
Fergere ad ^Treviros ^et esctemae Jidei ! Pudor inde et 
miseratio, et patris Agrippae, August! avi, memona ; 
socer Drusus; ipsa insigni fecunditate, praeclara pudici* 
tia; jam ^infans in castris genitus, in contubernio legio- 
num eductus, quern militariyociabulo '^Caligulam appella- 
bant, quia plerumque ad concilianda vulgi studia eo 
tegmine pedum induebatur. Sed nihil aeque flezit 
quam invidia in Treviros. Orant, obsistunt, rediret, 
maneret, pars Agrippinae occursantes, plurimi ad Ger- 
manicum regressi. Isque, ut erat recens dolore et ira, 
apud circumfusos ita coepit: — 

XLIl. Non rrdhi uxor aut Jilius paire et re pubUca 
cariores sunt: sed ilium quidem sua majestas, impermm 
RoTnanum ceteri exercitus defendent. Conjugem et infe- 
ros meoSf quos pro gloria vestra libens ad exitium offerrem^ 
nunc procul a furentibus summoveo, ut ^qmdquid istuc 
sceleris imminet, meo tantum sanguine pieiur, neve oc» 
cisus Augusti pronepos, interfecta Tiberii nurus, nocen- 
tiores vos faciat. Quid enim per hos dies inausum tnte- 
meratumve vobis? ^Quod nomen hmc coetui dabof 
militesne appellemf qui ^fiUam imperatoris vestri ^vcdlo 
et armis circumsedistis. An cives ? quibus tarn projeda 
senatus auctoritas f hostium quoque jus et sacra legattonia 
et fas gentium rupistis. ^ Divus Julius seditionem exer-^ 
citus verho uno compescuit, Quirites vocando qui sacra- 
mentum ejus detractdbant Divus ^Augustus vuUu et 
aspectu Actiacas legumes exterruit. Nos, ut nondum eos- 
dem, ita ex illis ortos, si Htspaniae Syriaeve miles asper^ 
naretur, tamen mirum et indignum erat, Primane et 


vicesima legumes, ilia signia a Tiberio acceptie, tu tot 
praeliorum socid, tot praemiis awta, '^egregtam dud vestro 
gratiam referttsf hunc ego nuntium patrt, laeta omnia 
aHis e provindia aucUentif feramf ipsiue tirones, ipsiua 
veteranos non miasione, non pecunia eatiatos ; hie tardum 


interfici centurionea, ejici tribunoa, includi legatoa : infecta 
aanguine caatra, flumina i meque precariam animam inter 
infenaoa trahere, 

XLIII. Cur enim prvmo corUionia die ferrum illud, 
quod pectori meo infigere parabam, detraxiatia f impro' 
vidi amid I ^meliua et amantiua ilk, qui gladium offers 
hat, Ceddiaaem certe nondum tot flagitiorum ^exerdtui 
meo conadua : legiaaeiM ducem, qui meam quidem mortem 
impunitam dneret, Vari tamen et trium legionum uldace^ 
retur. Negue enim > di ainant, ut Belgarum, quamquam 
offerentium, ^decuA iatud et daritudo dt, avbveniaae Bo^ 
mono nomim, compreaaisae Oermaniae popuba, Tua, 
dive Auguate, caelo recepta mena, *tua, pater Druae^ imago, 
tui memoria, iiadem iatia cum militibua, quoa jam pudor 
et gloria intrat, eluant ^hanc macuUxm, iraaque ddlea in 
eodtium koatUma vertant 1 Voa quoque, quorum alia nunc 
ora, alia pectora contueor, d legatoa aenatuij ohaequium 
impercUori, d mihi conjugem et filium redditia, diacedite a 
contactu ac dimdite turhidoa. Id atdbik ad paenitentiam, 
idfidd vinculum erit 

XLIV. Supplices ad haec, et vera exprobrari fa- 
tentes, orabant, puniret, noxioa, ignoaceret lapaia et duceret 
in koatem j revocaretur conjux, rediret legionum alumnuaf 
neve obaea QaHUa traderetur. Reditam Agrippinae ^ excu- 
aavit ob imminentem partum et hiemem; venturumJUium: 


cetera ipsi exsequerentur. Discurrunt mutati, et sedi- 
tiosissimum quern que vinctos trahunt ad ^legatura le- 
gionis primae, C. Cetronium, qui judicium et poenas de 
singulis in hunc modum exercuit. Stabant^pro contione 
legion es destrictis gladiis ; reus ^in suggestuper tribunum 
ostendebatur : si 7ioc^fe77iacclamaverant, praeceps datus 
trucidabatur. Et gaudebat caedibus miles, tamquam se- 
met absolveret ; nee Caesar arcebat, quando nullo ipsius 
jussu penes eosdem saevitia facti et invidia erat. Secuti 
exemplum veterani baud multo post in Rhaetiam mittun- 
tur, specie defendendae provinciae ob imminentes Suevos ; 
ceterum ut avellerentur castris trucibus adhuc non minus 
asperitate remedii quam sceleris memoiia. ^Centurio- 
natum inde egit. Citatus ab imperatore, nomen, orpi- 
nem, patriam, numerum stipendiorum, quae strenue in 
praeliis fecisset, et cui erant ^dona militaria, edebat. Si 
tribuni, si legio industriam innocentiamque approbave- 
rant, retinebat ordines : ubi avaritiam aut crudelitatem 
consensu objectavissent, solvebatur militia. 

XLV. Sic compositis praesentibus, ' baud minor 
moles supererat ob ferociam quintae et unetvicesimae 
legionum, ^sexagesimum apud lapidem (loco ^ Vetera 
nomen est) bibemantium. Nam primi seditionem coep- 
taverant : atrocissimum quodque facinus borum manibus 
patratum ; nee poena commilitonum exterriti, nee paeni- 
tentia conversi, iras retinebant. Igitur Caesar arma, 
classem, socios demittere Rheno parat, si imperium 
detrectetur, bello certaturus. 

XL VI. At Romae, nondum cognito qui fuisset exi- 
tus ^in lUyrico, et legionum Grermanicarum motu audito. 


trepida civitas incusare Tiberium, quod, dum patrea et 
plebem. ^vnvaUda et inermia, cuncUxtume ficta ludificetur, 
dissideat interim miles, neque ^duorum adolescentium non» 
dum adulta auctoritate comprimi quecU. Ire ipeum et 
cpponere mc^estatem imperatoriam ddmisse cessurie, vhi 
^principem longa experientia eundemque severitatis et mu- 
mficentiae mmmum vidissent. An^Augustumfessaaetate 
totiens in Germaniaa commeare potuisae : Tiberium vigen" 
tern annie sedere in senatu, verba patrum ^cavillantemf 
satis prospectum urbanae servituti: mtLiUxrxbus anvmis 
adhibenda "^ /omenta, utferrepacem velint. 

XLVII. ilmmotum adversus eos sermoDes fixumqne 
Tlberio fiiit non omittere ^ caput renim, neque i^e remque 
publicam in casum dare. Multa quippc et diversa ange- 
bant, validior per Oermaniam exerdtus, propior apud 
Pannoniam: ille GalUarum opibus submanis, hie Italiae 
tmminens : quos igitwr anteferret f ^ac ne postpositi con-* 
tumeHa incenderentur. At per Jilios pariter adiri, ma- 
jestate salva, cui major e hnginquo reuerentia, Simul 
adolescentibus ^excusaJtum quaedam ad patrem rejicere, 
resistentesque Germanico aut Druso posse a se miUgari 
vel infringi: quod aliud subsidium, si imperatorem spre* 
vissent ? Ceterum, ilt jam jamque iturus, legit comites, 
conquisivit ^impedimenta, ^ adomavit naves : mox hiemem 
aut negotia vane causatus, primo prudentes, dein vulgum, 
diutissime provincias fefellit. 

XLVIII. At Grermanicus, quamquam contracto 
exercitu, et parata in defectores ultione, dandum adhuc 
spatium ratus, ^si ^recenti exemplo sibi ipsi consulerent, 
praemittit litteras ad Caecinam, venire se vaUda manu, ac, 

I 5 

1 62 TACITUS. 

m suppltctum in malos prcieaumant, vsurum promtsctia 
caede. Eas Caecina aquiliferis signifensque, et quod 
maxime castrorum sincerum erat, occulte redtat, utque 
cmctoa infamiae, ae ipsoa morti eximanty hortatur : nam 
in pace cawaa et merita apectari: tthi helium ingruat, 
innocentes ac noxioa juxta cadere. Illi tentatis quos 
idoneos rebantur, postquam miyorem legionum partem 
in officio vident, de sententialegatistatuunttempus, quo 
foedissimum quemque et seditioni promptam ferro inva- 
dant. Tunc, signo inter se dato, irriimpunt contuberma, 
trucidant ignaros, nullo, nisi consciis, 'noscente quod 
caedis initium, 'quia finis. 

XLIX. Diversa omnium, quae miquam acddere, civi- 
liom armorum facies. Non praelio, non adversis e castris, 
sed iisdem e cubilibus, quos simul vescentes dies, simol 
quietos nox habuerat, discedunt in partes, ingerunt tela. 
Clamor, vulnera, sanguis palam, causa in occolto : cetera 
fdm regit : et quidam bonorum caesi, postquam, intel- 
lecto in quos saeviretur, pessimi quoque arma rppue- 
rant. Neque legatus aut tribunus moderator adfdit: 
permissa vulgo licentia atque ultio et satietas. Mox 
ingressus castra Germanicus, non mecUcinam iUvd, pla- 
rimis cum lacrimis, aed cladem appellans, cremari cor- 
pora ^uhet. Truces etiam turn animos cupido involat 
eundi in hostem, ^piaculum furoris; nee aliter posse 
placari commilitonum manes, quam si pectoribus impiis 
honesta vulnera accepissent. Sequitur ardorem militum 
Caesar, ^junctoque ponte tramittit duodecim milia a 
legionibus, sex et viginti socias cohortes, octo equitum 
alas, quarum 'ea seditione intemerata ^modestiafuit. 


L. ' Laeti, neque procul, Germaiii ^agitabant, dum 
juatitio ob amissum Augustom, post discordiis altinemar. 
At Romanas agmine propero ^ silvam Caesiam limitem- 
que a Tiberio coeptum ^scindit, castra in limite locat, 
frontem ac tergum vallo, ^latera concaedibus munitus. 
Inde ^ saltas obscoros permeat, consultatqne, ex duobua 
itmerUnis ^breve tt solitnm sequatur, an '^impeditius et th- 
tentatum, eoque hostibtis ^incaiUum. Delecta longiore via, 
cetera accelerantur : etenim attulerant exploratores fes^ 
tarn earn Oermams noctem ac sollemnibus epulis Ivdicram, 
Caecina cum expeditis cohortibus praeire, et ^obstantia 
silvarum amoliri jubetur : legiones modico intervallo se- 
quuntur. Juvit nox sideribus illustris, ventomque ad 
vicos ^^Marsorum, et drcumdatae stationes, ^^stratia 
etiam turn per cubilia propterque mensas, nullo metu, 
non antepositis vigiliis. Adeo cuncta incoria disjecta 
erant, neque belli timor ; ac ne ^^pax quidem, nisi Ian* 
gaida et ^^ soluta, inter temulentos. 

LI. Caesar ^avidas legiones, quo latior populatio 
foret, quattuor^in cuneos dispertit; quinquaginta mil- 
lium spatium ferro flammisque pervastat. Non sexus, 
non aetas miserationem attulit ; profana simul et sacra, 
etceleberrimum illis gentibus ^templum, quod ^ Tanfanae 
Yocabant, solo aequantur. ^ Sine vulnere milites, qui se- 
ndsomnos, inermos, aut palantes ceciderant. Excivit ea 
caedes ^Bructeros, ^Tubantes, Usipetes; saltusque, per 
quos exerdtui regressus, insedere. ^Quod gnarum duci; 
incessitque 9 itineri et proelio. Pars equitum et ^^ auxiliariae 
cohortes ducebant, mox prima legio, et mediis impedi- 
mentis sinistrum latus unetvicedimani, dextrum quintani 


dausere ; vicesima legio terga firmavit ; post ceteri soci- 
Oram. Sed hostes, ^^ donee agmen per saltus porrigere- 
tar, immoti ; dein latera et frontem modice assultantes, 
tota vi novissimoB incurrere. Turbabanturque densis Ger- 
manorum catervis ^^leves cohortes, cum Caesar advectus 
ad vicesimanos voce magna hoc illud tempus ohlitteran" 
dae sedittonis clamitabit ; pergerent, properarent culpam 
in decus verier e, Exarsere animis, nnoque impetu per- 
r upturn hostem redigunt in aperta, caeduntque. Simul 
primi agminis copiae ^^evasere silvas castraque communi- 
vere. Quietum inde iter : fidensque recentibus ac prio- 
rum oblitus miles in hibemis locatur. 

LII. Nuntiata ea Tiberium laetitia curaque afiPecere. 
Gaudebat oppressam seditionem: sed quod largiendis 
pecuniis et missione festinata favorem militum quaesivis- 
set, bellica quoque Germanici gloria, angebatur. Ret- 
tulit tanlen ad senatum de rebus gestis, multaque de 
virtute ejus memoravit, magis in speciem verbis ador- 
nata, quam ut penitus sentire crederetur. Paucioribus 
Drusum et finem Illyrici motus laudavit, sed ^intentior 
et fida oratione. Cunctaque, quae Germanicus indulserat, 
servavit etiam apud Fannonicos exercitus. 

LIII. Eodem anno ^ Julia supremum diem obiit, ob 
impudicitiam olim a patre Augusto ^Pandateria insula, 
mox oppido ^ Bheginorum, qui Siculum firetum accolunt, 
clausa. Fuerat in matrimonio Tiberii, florentibus Caio 
et Lucio Caesaribus, spreveratque ut^imparem ; nee alia 
* tam intima Tiberio causa, ^ cur Rhodum abscederet . Im- 
perium adeptus, extorrem, infamem, et^postinterfectum 
Postumum Agrippam omnis spei egenam, inopia ac tabe 


long^ peremit, obscuram fore necem longinquitate ^ exsilii 
ratus. Far causa saevitiae in Sempronium Gracchum, 
qui familia nobili, sellers ingenio et prave facundus, 
eandem Juliam in matrimonio M. Agrippae temeraverat. 
Nee is libidini finis ; traditam Tiberio pervicax adulter 
contumacia et odiis in maritum accendebat : litteraeque, 
quas Julia patri Augusto cum insectatione Tiberii scrip- 
Bit, a Gracclio compositae credebantur. Igitur ^amotus 
Cercinam, Airici maris insulam, quattuordecim annis 
exsilium toleravit. Tunc milites ad caedem missi inve- 
nere ^^in prominenti littoris, nihil laetum opperientem. 
Quorum adventu breve tempus petivit, ut suprema man' 
data uxori Alliariae per litteras daret, cervicemque per- 
cussoribus obtulit, constantia mortis baud indignus 
Sempronio nomine : vita degeneraverat. Quidam non 
Roma eos milites, sed ab ^^ L. Asprenate, proconsule 
Africae, missos tradidere, auctore Tiberio, qui famam 
caedis posse in Asprenatem verti frustra speraverat. 

LIV. Udem annus novas caerimonias accepit, addito 
^sodalium Augustalium sacerdotio, ^ut quondam T. Tatius 
retinendis Sabinorum sacris sodales Titios instituerat. 
Sorte ducti e primoribus civitatis unus et viginti: Tibe- 
rius Drususque et Claudius et Germanicus a^iciuntur. 
Ludos Augustales tunc primum coeptos turbavit ^ discor- 
dia ex certamine histrionum. ^Indulserat ei ludicro 
Augustus, dum Maecenati obtemperat effuso in amorem 
Bathylli : neque ipse abhorrebat talibus studiis, et civile 
rebatur misceri voluptatibus vulgi. Alia Tiberio morum 
via : sed populum, per tot annos molliter habitum, non- 
dum audebat ad duriora vertere. 


LV . • ^Dniso Caesare,C. Norbano consulibus, decemitur 
Germanico triumphos ^ manente bello ; quod, quamquam 
in aestatem summa ope parabat, initio veris et repentino 
in Chattos excursu ^praecepit. Nam spes incesserat 
^dissidere hostem in Arminium ac Segestem, insignem 
utrumque perfidia in nos aut fide. Arminius turbator 
Germaniae, Segestes parari reheUionem saepe alias et 
supremo convivio, post quod in arma itum, aperuit, sua- 
sitque Varo, ui se et Arminium et ceteros proceres vinciret ; 
nihil attsuram plebem principibus amotis, atque ipsi tempos 
fore quo ^crimina et innoxios discenteret. Sed Varus fate 
et vi Arminii cecidit. Segestes, quamquam consensu 
gentis in bellum tractus, discors manebat, auctis pri- 
vatim odiis, quod Arminius ^filiam ejus alii pactam 
rapuerat. ^ Gener invisus, inimici soceri; quaequeapud 
Concordes vincula caritatis, incitamenta irarum apud 
infensos erant. 

LVI. Igitur Germanicus quattuor legiones, quinque 
auxiliarium milia, et tumultuarias catervas ^ Germanorum 
cis Rhenum colentium Caecinae tradit : totidem legiones, 
duplicem sociorum numerum ipse ducit : ^positoquecas- 
tello super vestigia patemi praesidii in monte Tauno, 
expeditum ezercitum in 'Chattos rapit, L. Apronio ad 
munitiones viarum et fluminum relicto. Nam (rarum illi 
caelo) siccitate et amnibus modicis inoffensum iter pro- 
peraverat, imbresque et ^fluminum auctus regredienti 
metuebatur. Sed Chattis adeo improvisus advenit, ut, 
quod imbecillum aetate ac sexu, statim captum aut truci- 
datum sit. Juventus ^flumen Adranam nando tramiserat, 
Romanosque pontem coeptantes ^arcebant. Dein tormen^ 


tie sagittisque pulsi, tentatis frustra conditionibus pacis, 
cum quidam ad Germanicum perfdgissent, reliqui, omissis 
pagis vicisque, in silvas disperguntur. Caesar, incenso 
Mattio, (id genti caput), aperta populatus, vertit ad 
Rhenum, non auso hoste terga abeuntium lacessere; 
quod iUi moris, quotiens astu magis quam per formidi- 
nem cessit. Fuerat animus Cheruscis juvare Chattos : 
sed exterruit Caecina buc iUuc ferens arma ; et Marsos, 
congredi ausos, prospero praelio cohibuit. 

LVII. Neque multo post legati a Segeste venerunt 
auxilium orantes adversus vim popularium, a quis cir- 
cumsedebatur, validiore apud eos Arminio, 'quoniam 
bellum snadebat: nam barbaris ^quanto quis audacia 
promptus, tanto magis fidus rebusque motis potior ha- 
betur. Addiderat Segestes legatis filium, nomine Segi- 
mundum : sed juvenis conscientia cunctabatur. Quippe 
^anno, quo ^Germaniae descivere, sacerdos apud Aram 
Ubiorum creatus, ruperat vittas, profiigus ad rebelled. 
Adductus tamen in spem clementiae Romanae pertulit 
patris mandata; benigneque exceptus cum praesidio 
Gallicam in ripam missus est. Germanico ^pretium fuit 
convertere agmen : pugnatomque in obsidentes, et erep- 
tus Segestes magna cum propinquorum et ^clientium 
manu. Inerant feminae nobiles ; inter quas uxor Ar- 
minii, eademque filia Segestis, mariti magis quam paren- 
tis animo, neque yicta in lacrimas neque voce supplex, 
oompressis ^intrasinum manibus, gravidum uterum in- 
tuens. Ferebantur et spolia Variailae cladis, plerisque 
eorum, qui tum in deditionem veniebant, praedae data. 


LVlil. Simul Segestes ipse, ingens visa et memoria 
^bonae societatis impavidus. Verba ejus in bunc modiun 
fiiere: — Non hie mihi primus erga populum Romanum 
Jidei et constantiae dies. Ex quo a divo Augusto dviiate 
donattjts sum, amicas inimicosque ex vestris utilitatibus delegi^ 
negue odio patriae (quippe poditores etiam iis quos 
anteponunt invisi sunt), verum quia Eomanis Germanisque 
idem ^conducere, etpacem quam helium probabam. Ergo 
raptorem Jlliae meae, vioUxtorem foederis vestri, Armi- 
Ilium apud Varum, qui turn exerdtui praesidebat, ream 
fed, Dilatus segnitia duds, quia parum praesidii in legi' 
bus erat, ut me et Armirdum et consdos vindret Jlagitavi. 
Testis ^illa nox, mihiutinampotiusnovissima! quae secuta 
sunt ^defleri magis quam defendi possunt. Ceterum ^et 
injed catenas Arminio, et afactione ejus injectas 'perpessus 
sum, Atque vM primum tui copia, Vetera nods et qiUeta 
iurbidis antehabeo, neque ob praemium, sed ut me petr» 
fidia exsolvam, dmul genii Germanahim idoneus ^cond- 
liator, si paenitentiam quam pemidem maluerit. Pro 
juventa et errore filii veniam precor : filiam necessitate 
hue adductam fateor. Tuumerit consultare, '^utrum prae^ 
valeat, quod ex Arminio concepit, an quod ex me genita 
est. Caesar, dementi response liberis propinquisque 
ejas incolumitatem, ipsi sedem ^vetere in provincia poUi- 
cetur. Exercitum redozit, npmenque imperatoris auctore 
Tiberio accepit. Arminii uxor virilis sexus stirpem 
edidit: ^educatusRavennae paer,qao mox ludibrio con- 
flictatus sit, in tempore memorabo. 

LIX. Fama dediti benigneque excepti Segestis 
vulgata, ^ut quibusque bellum invitid ant cupientibus erat> 



spe vel dolore accipitur. Armiiiiam, super insitam viu- . 
lentiam, rapta uxor, subjectus servitio uxoris uterus, 
vecordem agebant: volitabatque per Cberuscos, anna 
in Segestem, arma in Caesarem poscens. Neque probris 
temperabat: — Egregium pair em! magnum mperatorem! 
farUm exeriitum! quorum tot manus unam muLierculam 
avexerint Siln tres legioneSt ^ totidem kgatas procubtuase. 
N<m enim se proditione, neque adveraua feminaa gravidas, 
sed palam adversus arfnatos helium iractare. Cemi adhuc 
Germanorum in luds iigna Bomana^ quae diia patriis 
suspenderit, CoUret Segestes victam ripam, ^redderetfilio 
sacerdotium Bomanum: Germanos numquam satis excU' 
saturos, quod inter AUnm et Rhenum virgas et secures et 
togam viderint. ^Aliis gmtibus ^ignorantia imperii Eomani 
inexperta esse suppUcia, ^nescia tributd: quae quoniam 
exuerint, irritusque discesserit Ule inter , numina dicatus 
Augustus, ills 7 delectus Tiberius, ne imperitum adolescen' 
tulum, ne seditiosum exercitum pavescerent. Si patriam, 
^parentes, antiqua mallent, quam dominos et ooUmias 
^novas, Arminium potius glorias ac libertatis, quam Seges- 
tem Jlagitiosae servitutis ducem sequerentur, 

LX. Conciti per haec ^ non modo Cherusci, sed con- 
terminae gentes, tractusque in partes Inguiomerus, Ar« 
minii patruus/ veteri apud Romanes auctoritate; unde 
major Caesari metus. Et ne bellum mole una ingrueret, 
Caecinam cum ^ quadraginta cohortibus Romanis distra- 
hendo hosti per 'Bructeros ad flumen ^Amisiam mittit, 
equitem ^Pedo praefectus ^finibus ^Frisiorum ducit. 
Ipse impositas navibus quattuorlegiones per ^lacus vexit ; 
simulque pedes, eques, classis apud praedictum amnem 






convenere. Chauci cum auxilia pollicerentur, in commi- 
litium asciti sunt. Bructeros sua urentes ezpedita cum 
manu L. Stertinius missu Germanici fudit: interque 
caedem et praedam repperit undevicesimae legionis aqui- 
1am cum Varo amissatn. Ductum inde agmen ad ulti- 
moB Bructerorum ; quantumque Amisiam et ^ Lupiam 
i^amnes inter, vastatura, i^haud procul Teutoburgiensi 
saltu, in quo reliquiae Vari legionumque insepultae 

LXI. Igitur cupido Caesarem invadit solvendi su- 
prema militibus ducique, permoto ad miserationem omni 
qui aderat exercitu, ob propinquos, amicos, denique ob 
casus bellorum et sortem hominum. Praemisso Caecina, 
ut occulta saltuum scrutaretur pontesque et aggeres hu- 
mido paludum et fallacibus campis imponeret, incedunt 
maestos locos visuque ac memoria deformes. Prima 
Vari castra lato ambitu et dimensis iprincipiis^trium legi- 
onum manus ostentabant ; ' dein semiruto vallo, humili 
fbssa, accisae jam reliquiae consedisse intelligebantnr : 
^ medio campi albentia ossa, ut fugerant, ut restiterant, 
disjecta vel aggerata.. Adjacebant fragmina telorum, 
equorumque artus, simul truncis arborum ^antefixa ora. 
Lucis propinquis barbarae arae, apud quas tribunos ac 
primorum ordmum centuriones mactaverant. Et cladis 
ejus supersites, pugnam aut vincula elapsi, referebant 
hie cecicUsse legatos, illic raptas aquilas ; primum ubi vul' 
niLS Varo adactumy ubi infelici dextra et 8uo ictu mortem 
invenerit; quo tribunali contio7iattis ArminiuSy quotpatibula 
capttvis, quae ^scrobea ; utque aignis et aquilis per super- 
biam illuserit 




LXII. Igitur Romanus qui aderat exercitus, sextum 
post cladis annum, trium legionum ossa, nuUo noscente 
alienas reliquias an suorum humo tegeret, omnes ut 
conjunctos, ut consanguineos', aucta in hostem ira, m^esti 
simul et infensi condebant. Frimam exstruendo tumulo 
cespitem Caesar posuit, gratissimo munere in defunctos 
et praesentibus doloris socius. Quod Tiberio hfiud pro- 
batum, seu cuncta Germanici in deterius trahenti, sive 
ezercitum imagine caesorum insepultorumque tardatum 
ad praelia et formidolosiorem hostium credebat, neque 
^mperatorem, auguratu et vetustissinm caenmoniis prae- 
ditum, * attrectare feralia debuisse. 

LXIII . Sad Germanicus cedentem in avia Arminium 
8ecutus,ubi primum copiafoit, evehi equites ^campumque, 
quem hostis insederat, eripi jubet. Arminius coUigi 
suos et propinquare sil\'is monitos vertit repente : mox 
signum prorumpendi dedit iis^ quos per saltus occultave- 
rat. Tunc nova acie turbatus eques ; missaeque subsi- 
diariae cohortes, et fugientium agmine impulsae, auxerant 
consternationem ; ^trudebanturque in paludem 'gnaram 
vincentibus, iniquam nesciis, ni Caesar productas legi- 
ones instruxisset. Inde hostibus terror, fiduciamiliti: et 
^manibus aequis abscessum. Mox, reducto ad Amisiam 
exercitu, legiones classe, ut advexerat, reportat; pars 
equitum littore ^Oceani petere Rhenum jussa; Caecina, 
qui ^suum militem ducebat, monitus, quamquam notis 
itineribus regrederetur, ^Pontes longos quam maturrime 
superare* Augustus is trames vastas inter paludes, et 
quondam a ^ L . Domitio aggeratus : cetera limosa, ^ tenacia 
gravi coeno aut rivis incerta erant ; circum silvae paulatim 



acclives, quas turn Arminius implevit, compendiis 
viarum et cTto agmine onustum sarcinis annisque militem 
cum antevenisset. Gaecinae dubitanti, quonam modo 
ruptos vetastate pontes reponeret, simolque propulsaret 
hostem. castra metari in loco placuit, ^^ut opus et alii 
praelium inciperent. 

LXIV. Barbari perfringere stationes seque infeire 
munitoribus nisi ^ lacessunt, circumgrediuntur occursant. 
Miscetur operantium bellantiumque clamor.' Et cuncta 
pariter Homanis adversa, locus uligine profunda, idem 
ad gradum instabilis, procedentibus lubricus, corpora 
gravia loricis ; neque librare ^pila inter undas poteraot. 
Contra Cheruscis sueta apud paludes praelia, procera 
membra, hastae ingentes ad vulnera facienda quamvis 
procul. Nox demum 'inclinantes jam legiones adversae 
pugnae exemit. Germani, ob prospera indefessi, ne turn 
quidem sumpta quiete, quantum aquarum circum surgent- 
ibus jugis oritur, vertere in subjecta ; mersaque humo, 
et obruto quod effectum uperis, ^duplicatus militi labor. 
^Quadragesimum id stipendium Oaecina parendi aut im- 
peritandi habebat, secundarum ambiguarumqne reram 
sciens, eoque interritus. Igitur futura ^volvens non aliud 
repperit, quam ut bostem silvis coerceret, donee saucii, 
quantumque gravioris agminis, anteirent. Nam medio 
montium et paludum porrigebatur planities, quae tenuem 
aciera 7pateretur. Deliguntur legiones, quinta dextro 
lateri, uiietvicesima in laevum; primani ducendum ad 
agmen, vicesimaniis adversum secuturos. 

LXV. Nox per diversa inquies, cum barbari festis 
epulis, aeto cantu aut truci eonore subjecta ^allium ac 


resultantes saltas complerent ; apud Romanos ^invalidi 
ignes, ^intemiptae voces, ^atque ipsi passim acyacerent 
yallo, oberrarent tentoriis, insomnes magis quam pervi- 
giles. Dacemque termit dira ^quies : nam Quintiliiim 
Varum, sanguine oblitum et palndibus emersum, cernere 
pt audire visus est velat vocantem, non tamen obsecutas, 
et manum ^intendentis reppulisse. Coeptaluce missae in 
latera legiones, metu an contumada, locum deseruere, 
capto propere campo humentia ultra. Neque tamen 
Arminius, quamquam libero incursu, statim prorupit. 
Sed, ut baesere coeno fossisque impedimenta, turbati 
circum milites, incertus signorum ordo, utque tali in 
tempore ^sibi quisque properus et lentae adversum im- 
peria aures, irrumpere Germanos jubet, clamitans. En 
Varus et eodem iterum fato '^vmctae legkmea! ^Simul 
haec, et cum delectis scindit agmen, equisque maxime 
vulnera ingerit. Illi sanguine suo et lubrico paludum 
lapsantes, excussis rectohbus, disjicere obvios, proterere 
jacentes. Flurimus drca aquilas labor, quae neque ferri 
adversum ingruentia tela neque figi limosa humo po- 
terant. Caecina, dum sustentat aciem* sufiEbsso equo 
delapsus circumveniebatur, ni prima Icgio sese oppossuis- 
set. Juvit bostium aviditas, omissa caede, praedam 
sectantium : enisaeque legiones vesperascente die in 
aperta et solida. Neque is miseriarum finis. Struendum 
vallum, ^petendus agger : amissa magna ex parte per 
quae egeritur humus aut exciditur cespes : non tentoria 
manipulis,non fomenta sauciis:. infectos coeno aut cruore 
cibos dividentes, ^^funestas tenebras et tot hominum 
milibus unum jam reliouum diem lamentabantur. 


LXVI. Forte equus abruptis vinculis vagus et cla- 
more territos quosdam occurrentium obturbavit. Tanta 
inde constematio irrupisse Germanos credentium, at 
cuncti ruerent ad portas, quarum ^decumana maxime 
petebatur, aversa hosti et fugientibus tutior. Caecina, 
comperto vanam esse formidinem, cum tamen neque 
auctoritatet neque precibus, ne manu quidem, obsistere 
aut retinere militem quiret, projectus in limine portae 
miseratione demum, quia per corpus legati eundum erat, 
clausit viam. Simul tribuni et centuriones falsum pavo- 
rein esse docuerunt. 

LXVII. Tunc ^contractos in principia, jussosque dicta 
cum silentio accipere, temporis ac necesbitatis monet. 
Unam in armis salutem, sed ea consilio temperanda, 
manendumque intra vallum, * donee expugnandi hostes spe 
propius succederent; mox undique erumpendum y ilia 
sruptione ad Rhenum perveniri, Quodsi fugerent, plures 
silvas, prqfundas magis paludes, saevitiam hostiufn super- 
esse: at Victoria decus, gloriam. Quae domi cara, 
^quae in castris honesta^ memorat: reticuit de adversis. 
Equos dehinc, orsus a suis, legatorum tribunorumque 
nulla ^arobitione fortissimo cuique bellatori tradit, ut hi» 
mox pedes, in hostem invaderent. 

LXVIII. Haud minus inquies German us spe, cupi* 
dine, et diversis ducum sententiis ^agebat, Arminio, 
sinerent egredi, egressosque rursum per humida et impedita 
circumvenirent, suadente : atrociora Inguiomero et laeta 
barbaris, vi vallum armis ambirent : promptam eapugna^ 
tionem, plures captivos, incorruptam praedam fore, Igi- 
tur ortadie ^proruuntfossas,injiciunt crates, summavaUi 


prensant, raro super' milite et qua^i ob metum defixo. 
Postquam h^sere munimentis, datur cohortibus signum, 
comuaque ac tubae concinuere. Exin clamore et impetu 
tergis Germanorum circumfandantur, ezprobrantes, non 
hie silvas, nee palttdes, sed aequis locts aeqma deos» 
Host! facile excidium et paacos ac semermos cogitanti 
Bonus tubaruiu, fulgor armorum, quanto inopina, tanto 
majoraoffunduntur: cadebantque, ut rebud secundisavidi, 
.ita adversis incauti. Arminius integer, Inguiomerus post 
grave vuLius pugnam deseruere : vulgus trucidatum est, 
donee ira et dies permansit. Nocte demum reversae le- 
giones, quamvis plus vulnerum, eadem cibommegestasfa- 
dgaret, vim, sanitatem, copias, cuncta ia victoria habuere. 
LXIX. Pervaserat interim ctrcttTrwenti exercitus fama, 
et infesto Germanorum agmine Galliaa peti: ac ni 
Agrippina ^impositum Rheno pontem solvi prohibuisset, 
erant qui id flagitium formidine auderent. Sed femina, 
ingens animi, ^munia ducis per eos diesinduit, militibus- 
que, ut quis inops aut saucius, vestem et fomenta dilargita 
est. Tradit ^C. Plinius, Germanicorum bellorum scrip- 
tor, stetisse apud principium pontis, laudes et grates 
leversis legionibus habentem. Id Tiberii animum altius 
penetravit. *Non enim simplices eos euros, nee adversua 
extemos militem quuieri. Nihil relictum imperatoribus 
ubi femina manipulos intervisat, ^igna adeat, largitionem 
tentet ; tamquam parum ambitiose JUrum ducis gregali 
habitu cireumferaty Caesaremque CaUgulam appellari 
vdiL Potiorem jam apud exercitus Agryppinam qwxm 
legatos, qvrnn duces; eompressam a muliere seditionem, 
cut nomen principis ohsistere non quiverit, Accendebat 


haec onerabatque Sejanua, peritia morum Tiberii, ^odia 
in longam jaciens, quae reconderet auctaque promeret. 

LXX. At Germanicus legionum^ ^ quas navibus vexe- 
rat, secundam et quartam decimam, itinere terrestri P. 
Vitellio dacendas tradit, quo levior classis vadoso mari 
innaret vel ^reciproco sideret. Yitellius primum iter 
sicca humo aut modice allabente aestu quietum habnit : 
mox impulsu aqnilonis, simul ^sidere aequinoctii, quo 
maxime tumescit Oceauus, rapi agique agmen. £t opple- 
bantur terrae : ^eadem freto, litori, campis fades, neque 
discerni poterant incerta ab solidis, brevia a profimdis. 
Stemuntur fluctibus, hauriuntar gurgitibus jumenta, sar- 
cinae ; corpora exanima interfluunt, occursant. Fermis- 
centur inter se manipuli, modo pectore, modo ore tenus 
exstantes, aliquaado ^subtracto solo diqecti aut obruti. 
Non vox et mutui hortatua juvabant, adversante unda : 
nihil strenuus ab ignavo, ^sapiens abrudi, consilia a casu 
differre : cuncta pari violentia involvebantur. Tandem 
Yitellius in editiora enisus eodem agmen subduxit. Per- 
noctavere sine 7 utensilibus, sine ignit magna pars nudo 
aut mulcato corpore, baud minus miserabiles quam quos 
hostis circumsidet : quippe iUis etiam honestae mortis 
usus, his inglorium exitium. Lux reddidit terram, pe- 
netratumque ^ad amnem Amisiam, quo Caesar classe 
contenderat. Impositae dein legiones, vagante feuna 
submersas, nee fidea salutis, antequam Caesarem exerci- 
tumque reducem videre. 

LXXI. Jam Stertinius ad accipiendum in deditionem 
^ Segimerum, fratrem Segestis, praemissus, ipsum et filium 
ejus in civitatem Ubiorum perduxerat. Data utrique ye- 


nia, facile Segimero, cunctantias filio, quia Quintilii 
Van corpus illusisse dicebatur. Ceterum ad supplendd. 
exercitus damna certavere Galliae, Hispaniae, Italia, 
quod cuique promptum, anna, equos, aorum, offerentes. 
Qaorom laudato studio Germanicus, armis modo et equis 
ad bellum sumptis, propria pecunia militem juvit. Utque 
cladis memoriam etiam comitate leniret, circumire sau- 
cios, facta singulorum extollere ; vulnera intuens, alium 
spe, alinm gloria, cunctos alloquio et cura sibique et 
praelio firmabat. 

LXXII. Decreta eo anno ^triuraphalia insignia A. 
Caecinae, L. Apronio, C. Silio, ob res cum Germanico 
gestas. Nomen patris patriae Tiberius, a populo saepius 
ingestum, repudiavit; neque ^in acta sua jurari, quam* 
quam censente senatu, permisit, cuncta mortalium m- 
certa, quantoqae plus adeptus foret^ tanto se magis in 
Ivbrico dictitans. Non tamen ideo faciebat fidem civilis 
animi . Nam ' legem majestatis reduxerat ; cui nomen apud 
veteres idem, sed alia in judicium veniebant, si quis 
proditione exercitum, aut plebem seditionibus, denique 
male gesta re publica ms^estatem populi Romani minuis- 
set. Facta arguebantur, dicta ^impune erant. ^Primus 
Augustus cognitionem de famosis libellis, specie legis 
ejus, tractavit, commotus ^Cassii SeveriTlibidine, qua viros 
feminasque illustres procacibus scriptis diffamaverat, 
mox Tiberius, consultante Pompeio Macro praetore, ^an 
judida majestatis redderentur, exercendas leges esse, 
respondit. Hunc quoque asperavere ^carmina, incertis 
auctoribus vulgata, in saevitiam superbiamque ejus et 
discordem cum matre animum. 



LXXIII. Hand pigebit referre ill Falanio et Rubrio, 
^ modicis equitibus Homanis, praetentata crimina : at 
^quibus initiis, quanta Tiberii arte, gravissimum exitium 
irrepserit, ^dein repressum sit, ^postremo arserit cuncta- 
que corripuerit, noscatur. Falanio objiciebat accusator, 
quod inter cultores Augusti, ^qui per omnes domos, in 
modum collegiorum, habebantur, Cassium quemdam, 
minum corpore infamem^ asdvisset, quodque venditis 
hortis statuam Augusti simul mancipasset. Rubrio crimini 
dabatur ^inolatum perjurio numen Augusti, Quae ubi 
Tiberio notuere, scripsit consulibus, non ideo decretum 
patri suo caelum, ut in pemtdem civium is honor vei-te- 
retur, Cassium histrionem solitum inter alios ejusdem 
artis interesse "^ludis, quos mater stui in memoriam Au- 
gusti sacrasset ; nee contra religiones Jieri, quod effigies ejus, 
ut alia numinum simulacra, venditionibus hortorum et 
aomuum accedant. Jus jurandum perinde aestimandum 
quam si Jovem fefellisset : deorum injurias dis curae, 

LXXIV. Nee multo post Granium Marcellum *prae- 
torem Bitbyniae Quaestor ipsius Gaepio Crispinus ^ma- 
jestatis postulavit, ^subscribente Romano Hispone; *qui 
formam vitae iniit, quam postea celebrem miseriae tern- 
porum et audaciae bominum fecerunt. Nam egens, igno- 
tus, inquies, dum occultis libellis saevitiae principis 
adrepit, mox clarissimo cuique periculum facessit, po- 
tentiam apud unum, odium apud omnes adeptus, dedit 
exemplum, quod secuti ex pauperibus divites, ex con- 
temptis metuendi, perniciem aliis ac ^postremum sibi 
invenere. Sed Marcellum insimulabat sinistros de Ti- 
berio sennones habuisse: inevitabile crimen, cum ex 


moribus principis foedissima quaeque deligeret accusator 
objectaretque reo. Nam, quia vera erant, etiam dicta 
credebantur. Addidit Hispo statuam Marcelli altius 
quam Caeaarum sitam, et ^alia in statua, amputaU" 
capite Avgusti, effigieni Tiberit inditam. 7 Ad quod exarsit 
adeo, at rupta taciturnitate proclamaret se quoque in ea 
causa ^ laturum sententiam palam et juratu7n ; quo ceteris 
eadem necessitas fieret. Manebant etiam turn vestigia 
morientis libertatis. Igitur Cnaeus Piso, Quo. inquit, loco 
censebis, Caesar ? si primus, habebo quod sequar; si post 
omneSy vereor ne imprudens dissentiam* Promotus bis, 
9quantoque incautius ^^eiferverat, ^^paenitentia patieos 
tulit ^absolvi reum criminibus majestatis. De pecmiiis 
repetmidis ^^ad recuperatores itum est. 

LXXV. Nee patrum cognitionibus satiatus jiidiciis 
assidebat ^in cornu tribunalis, ne praetorem curuli depel- 
leret ; multaque eo coram adversus ambitum etpotentium 
preces constituta. Sed dum ^veritati consulitur, libertas 
corrumpebatar. Inter quae Pius Aurelius 'senator 
questus, ^mole publicae viae ^dvctuque aquarum lahefactas 
aedes suas, auxilium patrum invocabat. Resistentibus 
^aerarii praetoribus subvenit Caesar, pretiumque aedium 
Aurelio tribuit, 7 erogandae per bonesta pecuniae cupiens : 
quam virtutem diu retinuit, cum ceteras exueret. Pro- 
pertio Celeri praetorio, ^veniam ordinis ob paupertatem 
petenti, decies sestertium largitus est, satis comperto 
patemas ei angustias esse. Tentantes eadem alios probare 
causam senatui jussit, cupidine severitatis, in iis etiam 
quae rite &ceret acerbus. Unde ceteri silentium et pau* 
pertatem confessioni et beneiicio praeposuere. 


LXXVI. Eodem anno continuis imbribas ^aacti;8 
Tiberis plana urbis stagnaverat : relabentem secuta est 
aedificiorum et hominum strages. Igitur censuit Asi- 
nius. Gailus ut ^ libri Sibyllini adirentur, ^ Renuit Tiberius, 
perinde divina hamanaque obtegens. Sed ^remedium 
coercendi fliiminis Ateio Capitoni et L. Amintio manda- 
tam. ^Achaiam ac Macedoniam onera deprecantes levari 
in praesens proconsulari imperio ^tradique Gaesari pla- 
cuit. Edendis gladiatoribus, quos Germanici fratiis ac 
sao nomine obtulerat, Drusus praesedit, quamquam vili 
sanguine nimis g^rudens ; quod in vulgus formidolosum, et 
pater arguisse dicebatur. Cur abstinuerit spectaculo 
ipse^varie ^trahebant : alii taedio coetus, quidam tristitia 
ingenii et metu comparationis, quia Augustus comiter 
interfoisset. Non crediderim ad ostentandam saevitiam 
movendasque populi ofPensiones concessam filio mate- 
riem, quamquam id quoque dictum est. 

LXXVII. At tbeatri licentia, ^ proximo priore anno 
coepta, gravius tum erupit, occisis non modo e plebe, 
sed militibus et centurione, vulnerato tribuno ^praetoriae 
cohortis, dum probra in magistratus et dissensionem vulgi ' 
prohibent. Actum de ea seditiona apud patres, dice* 
banturque sententiae ut praetoribus jus virgarum in hia- 
triones esset, Intercessit Haterius Agrippa tribunus 
plebei, increpitusque est Asinii Galli oratione, silente 
Tiberio, qui ea simulacra libertatis senatui praebebat. 
Valuit tamen intercessio, ^quia divus Augustus immunea 
verberum histtiones quondam responderat, neque fas 
Tiberio infringere dicta ejus. ^De modo lucaris, et ad- 
versus lasciviam ^fautorum, multa decemuntur : ex quis 



maxime insignia: ^ne domos pantotnvnorum senator tn- 

troiret ; ne egredtentes inpvhlicum equttes Eomani cingerent, 
ami, alibi quam in theatro spectarentur ; et spectantvum im^ 
Tnodestiam exsilio multandi poteatas praetorUms fieret. 

LXXVIII. ^Templum ut in colonia Tarraconensi 
Btrueretur Augusto peientibus Hispanis permissum, 
datumque in oinnes provindas ezemplum. .Centesimam 
^renim venalium ^postbella dviliainstitutam, deprecante 
populo, edixit Tiberius, militare aerarium eo suhaidio 
niti; smul Hmparem oneri rem pvhlicam, nisi vicesimo 
miUtiae anno veterani dimitterentur, Ita proximae sedi- 
tionis male consulta, quibus ^sedecim stipendioruin finem 
expresserant, ^abolita in posterum. 

LXXIX. Actum deinde in senatu ab Arruntio et 
Ateio, an ob moderandas Tiberis exundationes verteren- 
tur ^flumina et lacus, per quos augescit; auditaeque 
municipidrum et coloniarum legationes, orantibus Flo- 
rentinis, ne ^Clanis sotito alveo demotus in amnem ^Armim 
tnmsferretur, idgne ^is pemiciem aferret. Congruentia 
his ^Interamnates disseruere: pessum ituros fecundis- 
simos Italiae campos, si amnis Nar (id enim parabatur) 
in rivos diductus superstagnavisset. Nee ^Reatini silebant 
Velinum lacum, qua in Narem efPunditur, obstrui re- 
cusantes, quippe in adjacentia erupturum: optume rebus 
mortalium consulvdsse naturam, quae sua ora fluminibus, 
suos cursus, utque ortgmem, ita fines dederit : spectandas 
etiam reUgiones sociorum^ qui sacra et lucos et aras ^patriis 
omnibus dicaverint, Qain ipsum Tiberim nolle prorsus 
accoUs fiuvOs orbatum minore gloria fluere, 8eu preces 
coloniarum, seu difficultas operum, sive superstitio valuit, 

183 TACITUS, • 

ut in sententiam Pisonis concederetur, qui nil mutandam 

LXXX. Prorogatur ^Poppaeo Sabino provinda 
Moesia, additis Achaia ac Macedonia. Id quoqae mo- 
rum Tiberii fuit ^continuare imperia, ac plerosque ad 
finem vitae in iisdem exercitibus aut ^jurisdictionibus 
habere. ^ Causae variae traduntur : alii taedio nowie 
curae semel placita pro aetemis servavisse ; quidam invidia, 
ne plures fruerentur. Sunt qui existiment, ut callidum 
ejus ingenium, ita anxium judicium. Neque enim emi- 
nentes virtutes sectabatur, et rursum vitia oderat: ex 
optimis periculum sibi, a pessimis dedecus publicum me- 
tuebat. Qua haesitatione postremo eo provectus est, 
'^ut mandaverit quibusdam provincias, quos egredi urbe 
non erat passurus. 

LXXXI. De comitiis consularibus, quae ^tum pri* 
mum illo principe ac deinceps fuere, vix quidquam 
firmare ausim: adeo diversa non modo apud auctores, 
sed in ipsius orationibus reperiuntur. Modo, subtractis 
candidatorum nominibus, originem cujusque et vitam 
et stipendia descripsit, ut qui forent intelligeretur : ali* 
quando, ea quoque siguificatione subtracta, candidatos 
hortatus ne ambitu comitia turbarent, suam ad id curam 
poUicitus est. Plerumque eos tantum apud ae profeasos, 
disseruit, quorum nomina consulibus edidisset : posse et dUos 
projiteri, sigratiod aut mentis confiderent. Speciosa verbis, 
re inania aut subdola, quantoque mtgore libertatis ima- 
gine tegebantur, tanto eruptura ad infensius servitium. 


Chap. I. — * Genhania, — Tacitus assigns t(» Germany too great 
an extent. He must have deriyed his knowledge of the coun- 
tries and of the Elbe only from hearsay; and therefore his state- 
ments respecting the people east of this nver must be received 
with great caution. Indeed, there is good reason for believing 
that almost the whole of the country east of the Elbe was^ in the 
earliest period, inhabited by Slavonians, and not by Grennans. 
It may be proved that the tract of country between the Elbe and 
the Vistula was peopled by Slavonians in the ninth and tenth 
centuries; and we have no historical accounts, and no traditions, 
of the expulsion of Germans from this region by Slavonians, 
between the time of Tacitus and the tenth century, Tacitus had 
fair grounds for including Denmark, Sweden, etc, in Germany, 
as these countries appear to have been peopled from the earliest 
times by Germanic tribes. 

Germania was sometimes called Germania Traturhenana 
(Germany beyond or on the east side of the Rhine), to distin- 
guish it from the tract lying between the Rhine and the Scheldt, 
which was called Germania Cisrhenana (i. e. Germany on this 
side or west of the Rhine), after it had been inhabited by some 
German tribes, which had crossed the Rhine, or had been 
brought over by Agrippa and Tiberius. The latter was also 
divided into Germania superior, or prima, extending along the 
Rhine from Bingium beyond Argentoratum; and Germania tn- 
feriory or secunda, reaching from Bingium to the sea. Plin, iv. 17. 
Uio, liiL 13. 

^ Rhaetisque et Pannoniis, — We have two conjunctions, because 
the Rhaeti and Fannonii are more closely connected with one 
another than with the Galli The Rhaeti occupied the upper por- 

1 84 NOTES ON 

tions of the valleys of the Licus, Aenus, and Athesis. The 
Roman province of Rhaetia included also Vindelicia (c. 41. Suet, 
Tib. 9. Hor. Carm, iv. iv. 17); and Tacitas seems to have in- 
cluded Noricum also under this name {Hist. iii. 5). Psnnonia 
extended from Mount Cetium, by which it was separated from 
Noricum, to Aenona, and the point where the Tibiscus ( Theisa) 
falls into the Danube; comprising the western part of Hungaria, 
Slavonia, and a large portion of Lower Austria, Moravia, Styria, 
Camiola, Croatia, and Bosnia. 

' Sarmatia Vacisque, — The European Sarmatians, the Slavo- 
nians of a more recent age, were but little known to the Romans. 
They are supposed to have occupied Poland, Lithuania, the east- 
em part of I^russia, Livonia, and Russia. The Daci lived lietween 
the Danube and the Carpathian Mountains; about the rivers 
Tibiscus and Marisus ( TTieiss and Marosch). in the upper part of 
Hungary, Transylvania, Moldavia, Wallachia, and Bessarabia. 

* Mutuo metu. — There were no natural and fixed boundaries 
between them, but desert plains, which neither ventured to occupy 
{Caesar, B. G. vi. 33). Thucydides has a corresponding phrase 
to the above (Book II. c. 11), ivTiiraXov deoQ, 

* Montibus, — The Carpathian Mountains. 

^ Cetera. . complectens, — The Greeks and Romans looked upon 
that part of Europe north of Germany as composed of islands, 
not as forming part of the continent. 

^ Sinus.— This term is applied to anything that makes a bend 
{Serv. ad Virg. Mn. xi. 626). It is most frequently used of any- 
thing which is hollow, as a valley or gulf; but it also means a 
promontory or a neck of land, where the boundary line makes a 
bend or sweep ( Fir^. Gfor^. ii. 123. Ifor.ijp. i. 13). So Sinus 
imperii (c. 29); eundem Germaniae sinum (c. 37), which (c.35) 
Tacitus calls ingentem flexum. Here it is used in the latter sense. 
The Cimbric Chersonese, or Jutland, is here meant. If sinus be 
taken to mean a gulf, we must supply efficiens, by zeugma from 
complectens. Not unfrequent^y, however, stnus seems to signify 
nothing more than a^ very remote part 

® Insularum. — Funen, Zealand, Lan gland, etc., with. Norway 
and Sweden, which Tacitus supposed to be islands. 

^ Quos beUum aperuiU — The knowledge which the Romans 
possessed of Germany and the western parts of Europe, was 


derived principallj irom Ihe expeditions of Julias Caesar 
Drnsus Germanicus, and Ahenobarbns. Drusos, the brother 
of Tiberias, made fonr expeditions into Grermanjr, and dug 
the canal between the Rhine and the Chisala (Ysul). He 
was the first who navigated the German Ocean, bat did not 
advance farther than the mouth of the Amisia (^Ema\ in the ter- 
ritorj of the Chauci. Grermanicas, the son of Drusos (a.d. 14-16), 
made four expeditions into Germany, and advanced still farther; 
he was shipwrecked on the territory of the Frisii (AxnaL i. 49-53. 
55-59. 60-71. ii. 5-36. 41-46). L. Domitins Ahenobarbns, the 
grandfather of the emperor Nero, had at an earlier period 
crossed the Elbe, and penetrated farther into Germany than any 
of his successors {AnnaL i. 6^ iv. 44. Suet Ner, 4.). On the south 
side of Germany, the Romans made no conquests beyond the 
Danube; but they obtained some geographical knowledge 
through the journeys of the traders who procured amber from 
the shores of the Baltic, and from their wars with the Daci, 
Marcomanni, and other tribes on this frontier. 

^ AperuiL-^Bo in Greek, dvoiyvvvai {Soph, (Ed, CoL s^^ 
Eur, Ion, 1563). 

*^ JRkenua. . ortus. — The Rhine, according to both Strabo (iv. 
p. 193) and Ptolemy (ii 9. §5)» rises in Mount Adula. The Rhine 
originates in three branches; and the one called the Hinter 
Rhein was probably regarded by the ancients as the true origin 
of the river, since it has the more direct course from S. to N. 
Hence Mount Adula would signify the lofty mountain group 
about the passes of the Spliigen and S, Bernardino, and at the 
head of the valley of the Hinter Rhein, rather than the Mount 
8t, Gothard, as supposed by most modem geographers. See 
Smithes Diet of Geogr. vol L p. 28. 

*' Versus had better be looked upon as a participle than as a 
preposition, unless, with some, we omit in, 

'^ Miscetur. — *' Mixes itself" should be regarded rather as a 
middle than a passive verb. On the use of middle verbs in 
Latin, see note on nee obligantur, in c. 21. 

^* MoUi.Jugo. — Comp. ^nna/. xii. 33. So mollis clivus (Virg, 
Eel. ix. 8). CoUis moUiter assurgens {Cdum, a. ii.). The Danube 
rises' on the eastern declivity of the Black Forest, about 34 miles 
from the Rhine, at an elevation of about 3,000 feet above the sea. 


near a place called Donaueschingen. The portion of the river 
between its source and Vienna usually bore the name Danubiug* 
the remainder being called the Ister, 

" Abnobae. — The MSS. have Amobae; but the true name was 
Abnoba. It is the northern part of the Black Forest The words 
DiANAE Abnobab occur on two altars found on the mountain 
itself, and the name is spelt with a 6 on another stone dug up in 
the Black Forest, Abnoba mona Istro pater est^ cadit Abnobab 
hiatu Flumen {Avieni Descr, Orbis, 437)* 

'* Plures populos adit — On the right bank the Vindelici, No- 
rici, Pannonii, Illyrii, Moesi; on the left bank the Hermupdnri, 
Narisci, Marcomanni, Quadi, Daci, and Moesi. 

'^ Sex meatibus erumpat. — The historian disregards the usual 
distinction observed by others with regard to donee in the sense 
of " until," which is followed by an indicative when an actual 
fact is expressed, and a subjunctive when a mere possibility or 
purpose is implied. See Hist iv. 35, and Zumpt^ § 575. 

Chap. II. — ^ Ijidigenas^zAvToxQovaQ, Indigena is compounded 
of induf an old form of in, and gen, root of gigno, 

' Quia nee terra olim, etc. — It is, however, well established, 
that the ancestors of the Germans migrated by land from Asia. 

* Nee. . et — Nee. . et very frequently occur for et non. . eU So 
neque. . et {AnnaL ii 51. xv. 38). Neque-ac {Agric. 10). So in 
Greek, oure. . H, and iir\Tz. . rk. 

^ Adversus Oceania, — Adversus probably means here " hostile, 
unfavourable f<Sr navigation." Others interpret it, " over against, 
opposite, in a diiferent quarter of the globe." 

* Orbis noster may mean our part of the world, or, perha}>s, the 
Roman empire, as in Hist i. 55. Agric, 13. 

* Tuisconem. . conditoresque. — Just as the Greeks fabled Pelas- 
gus, Hellen, and Aeolus, to have been the ancestors of the 
Pelasgians, Hellenes, and Aeolians. The name Tuisco is pro- 
bably connected with the name Teutones, which occurs in vari- 
ous forms. Some read Tristonem, on MS. authority, others 

"^ Manna., vocentur, — From Mannus some derive manniaho, 
mensch, man. Others connect it with Menes and Manes, Mona^ 
and Menai, which last is interpreted thus: Men^Ai, the land of 


JHfenes, The names of the three sons were, according to Grimm, 
Ing (Ingo, Inguio, whence Ing^omeros), Isco (Iscio), and Her- 
mino. Comp. Plin, iy. 14. or a8. Germanorum genera qutnqtie : 
VandUif q^iorum pars BurgundioneSf Varini^ Carini^ Guttones, 
Alterum genus Ingtievones^ quorum pars Cimbri, Teutoni ac 
Chaucorum gentes, Proximi autem Rheno Istaevones quorum 
Cimbri, Mediterranei Hermionesj quorum Suevi^ Hermunduri, 
Ckattif Cherusci, Quinta pars Peuctnt, Basternae, supra dictis 
contermini Dacis. 

^ Deo^zMannoj not Tuiscone» 

* Marsos. — The Marsi are supposed to have lived at first in 
the neighbonrhood of the Albis {Elbe) and Yisurgis {Weser); 
then between the Rhine and the Chisala ( Yssel), from Paderbom 
to the Yisurgis; and at length, when driven out by Drusus, to 
have settled in the lands of the Bructeri and Sigambri, between 
the Amisia {Ems) and Luppia {Lippe): but from Annal, i. 45-50. 
516. ii. 6. 7. 25. 26. it has been conjectured, that their settlements 
are to be looked for in the neighbourhood of the river Logana 
{Lahn), The Marsigni (c.43) are perhaps the same race, or 
their descendants. Orelli connects Marsi with Marsch (English 

*® Gambrivios, — This tribe is mentioned by Strabo, who joins 
it with the Cherusci and Chatti, but leaves its precise locality 

" Vandilios. — These lived at first on the shores of the Baltic, 
between the Albis and Vistula, in Pomerania, and the west of 
Poland; but being forced to evacuate their possessions in their 
wars with Aurelian and Probus, they first settled in Dacia and 
Sarmatia, then in Pannonia and Gallia, and in the year 406, 
together with the Alani, they migrated to Spain. Being after- 
wards overpowered by the Goths, they took refrige in Africa, 
and were there subdued by Justinian in the year 534. This is 
the only passage in which they are mentioned by Tacitus. In 
Pliny the form VandUi occurs. 

" Germaniae vocabulum. — The name Germani is probably of 
Celtic origin, and had come into general use among the Celts in 
Gaul before the time of Caesar, who there heard it applied to the 
whole nation dwelling on the east of the Rhine. Hence it may 
be connected with the Gaelic goir or gair, " to shout"; gaire^ 


•*a Bhout"; gairrnj " a war-cry"; gairmeanj ** a 8hoater''s=a war- 
rior or hero, /3oi}v 6.ya96Q, 

*' Qvontdm. . vocarentur, — The text of this sentence is donbt- 
fiiL The meaning of it, as it stands, is, " Since those who first 
crossed the Bliine, and expelled the Gauls, and are now called 
Tungri, were then called Gennani. So widely (some affirm) did 
the name of a single tribe, not of the whole race, by degrees 
extend itself, that, adopting a name first invented by the victo- 
rious tribe (which crossed the Rhine), on account of the terror 
it excited, and afterwards by themselves, all called themselves 

Chap. HE. — * Herculem, — See c. g. Ann. ii 12. By Hercules, 
Mars, and Mercurios, Tacitus means deities with attributes 
similar to those ascribed to these Roman deities. 

* Virorumfortiitm=demi'god8 or heroes. Verses of the kind 
here alluded to are mentioned Ann, ii, OS, This custom was 
long maintained among the Germans. 

' i2e/ate«.— Recital, or chanting. Found only in the ablative. 
Hist L 30. 

* Baritus, — ^Formed from the German baren, or the Frisian 
baria^ ** to shout** This is the cantus trux which he speaks of 
Hist ii. 23. 

* Futuraeque..augurcuitur, — "For they cause terror or are 
frightened, according to the nature of the sound which proceeds 
from the army.** 

' Concentus is plural, as in DiaL de Or, c. 15, concentibus scho- 

"^ Asciburgium, — The modem Asburg, or the neighbouring 
hamlet of Essenburg or Orsoy, 

^ Grtiecis Utteris inscriptos, — See Caes, B, G. i. 29. v. 48. vi 14. 
The Gauls seem to have learnt the art of writing from the 
Fhocaeans, who colonised Massilia. 

Chap. IV.— »/n/ecftM.—** Mixed,** or "intermingled.** The 
words inficerBf vtft'are, corrumpere^ like fucdvuv, ^Otipuv, do not 
always imply a change for the worse. See c, 2^ H, d. 141. Virg. 
Georg, ii 466. 


* Truces et caendei octdi — Caes, B» 6r. i. 39. Juv, Sat xiii itil^. 
Plutarch, Mar* 11. Horat. Epod, xii 7. 

' Hutilae comae.— -The Gauls and Germans frequently used 
artificial means to make their hair red. Hist iy. 61. RutUatum 
crinem (^Strab,yu,p,'2gio), Agr, 11, Suet iv, 47. Zucan ii. 51. 
Herodian iv. 7. 

* Tantum ad impetum vaJida, — Ad brevem impetum validum 
(Liv, V. 44). 

^ Ca^lo Sohve, — The particles ve and vel always have a dis- 
junctive force. Here caelo is to he referred to frigoray solo to 
inediam, which could not be the case if ve were equivalent to 
que. ** Cold and hunger they are accustomed to endure by their 
climhte and soil** 

Chap. Y. — ^ Aliquanto, aUquantum^ and the other compounds 
of a/t, which refer to number or space, aknost invariably imply 
greatness of some kind (£m. ad Suet, Ceies. 86). 

' Paludibus foeda, — Especially in Westphalia and Lower Sax- 
ony. The cause is to be traced to the large forests, which hinder 
the drainage. 

^ Satis is not an adverb, but a 8ubstantive=«e^eh'6tw. Virgil 
has the same construction, Geor. ii. 222, terra ferax deo. 
. * Arborum impatiens. — Some editors conjecture pattens, because 
the contrary is asserted by Dio. xlix. 36. Strabo iv. 6. 8. vii. 5. 11. 
Plinp xii. 3. and Tacitus himself (c. 10. 23. 26). But Tacitus here 
means, that there are no trees producing such succulent and 
sweet fruit as in southern regions. As regards the construction, 
compare incuriosus famae, improvidus consilii (^Hist i. 49. iii. 56). 
Improvidus futuri (^Hist, i. 88). Immodicus laetitiae (^Annal, xv. 
33). Impiger, militias {Hist 1. 87). 

' Improcera. — " Abounding in cattle, but generally of a small 
size." The construction should have been, pecorum/ecunda sed 
pUrvmque improcerorum ; but, to avoid the repetition of the sound, 
he changes the construction, sed plerumque improcera (^sunt), 

' Ne armentis../rontis, — Tacitus does not mean that they have 
no horns, but that they are stunted. 

' Nee tamen affirmaverim, etc, — It is now well known that 
Germany abounds in these veins. The first was discovered in 
the reign of Otho L 

1 90 . NOTES ON 

" Perinde ot proinde, — ^Equivalent to ofiolug. We must supply 
in sense ac nos Momani et omnes/ere aliae nationes, or something 
of the kind. ** They do not desire the possession and use of 
them, like other nations." Comp. ^nna/.i. 13.73. ii. i4.%88. 
Non in totidem digerunt species (c. 26). Quippe Persis quoque 
in totidem dies discriptus est annus (Curt iii 3. 10). But Orelli 
translates haud perinde by non admodum^not particularly, and 
refers to c. 34. Hist ii. 84. iv. 63. 

* Est videre, — So ccrri or i^zori in Greek. " You may see 
among them silver vessels, which are not more valued than 
those made of earth." 

*® Non in alia:=:eadem, pari, 

*'' Quamquam proximi. . hahent — See c. 15. 17. 23. 04. 41. 45. An- 
na!, ii. 63. Caes, B, G, iv. a. 3. " Although those living on the 
borders value gold and silver.*' 

" Serratos, — Coins, the edges of which are notched like a saw 
{serray, higatos, coins stamped with the figure of a two-horse 

'* iScgwMnftir.— Seek after. So Cic. Off, i. 1. 37. Caes, B, C, 
i. 1. 3. 

Chap. VI, — ' Superest. — ^** Abounds." jfiTisti. 51.83. Agric,^^, 
Superare is used in the same sense. 

^ Ex genere telorum, — Tela are weapons; arma, defensive 
itrmour. "As may be inferred from the nature of their wea- 

' Majoribus lanceis. — Some have quoted, in opposition to this, 
Ann, i. 64. ii. 14 and 31. and v. 18. where Tacitus speaks of the 
Germans as having ingentes, enormes, praelongas Iiastas; but it 
is plain, from this passage, that he makes a distinction between 
the hasta and the lanceaj the latter having a broader point and 
heavier make than the former, and being used as a pike. Varro, 
according to Aulus Gellius (xv. 30), says, lancea is a Spanish 
word; and Diodorus (v. 30) calls U a Gallic one. 

* Frameas, — Framea even now means ** a missile weapon** in 

* Vibrant — So 9r(iXX£tv, and contorquere (Hist iii. 30. iv. 15), 
Ritter omits in before immensunit on the authority of a MS., and 
quotes Ann, iii 30. 53. iv. 37. 40. vi. 37. 


* iVucft aut sagulo leves.^^PeUibus aut parvis rhenonum tfgi' 
mentis utuntur, magna corporis parte nuda {Caes,B, G. yi.3i)* 
^Each man has a great number of missile weapons; and they 
hurl them to an immense distance, being naked or lightly covered 
with a small cloak." Sa^luntf diminutive of sagum, 

^ Scuta. . distinguunt — Scuta colore fucata {AnnaL ii. 14). I>«- 
monsiravi digito pictum Galium in Mariano scuto Cimbrico dis* 
tortum, ejecta lingua^ buccisfluentibus {Cic. de Orat. ii. 66). Diod» 
T. 30. Lectissimis coloribuSf " conspicuous colours," chosen with 
a view to striking contrast. 

' Cassis aut gtUeeu — The cassis was made of metal, the galea 
had a leathern basis. 

' Dextros, — Equivalent to in dextrum latus. 

" Plus penes peditem roboris, — The German cavalry, however, 
was generally superior to the Boman in their encounters. 

" MixtL — Ca£s. J?. G. L 48. This mode of fighting was 
adopted by Caesar in the battle of Fharsalia. Caes, B» C. 

iii. TS* 

" Centeni. — *'A hundred from each canton." Idque ipsum, 

** that very name" (i. e. centeni); the districts or townships were 

called Hundreds. The centeni mentioned in c. 12 have reference 

to civil, and not to military affairs. 

*' Consilii quamformidinis. — ^ They consider a mark rather of 
prudence than of fear." So Pa^cem quam bellum probabam {An- 
naJ, L 58). Miseratio quam invidia augebatur (iii. 17). Ne me* 
moriam nostri per moerorem quam laeti retineatis (v. 6) The 
same construction appears in a different form in quanto inopina, 
tanto majora (^AnnaL L 68). 

** Nee aut sacris adesse. — Comp. Caes. B, G. vl 13. '* Many 
surviving the wars, have put an end to their infamy by the 

Chap. VII. — * Ex nobilitate, — So Distinctio poenarum ex delicto 
(c. 13); ex modo virium (c.34). 

* Animadvertere. — " To kill." Caesar, however ( J3. G. vi. 23), 
says, Quum bellum civitas aut iUatum defendit aut infert, magis- 
tratuSi qui ei bello praesint, ut vitae npcisque haheant potestatem, 

' Effiqiesque . . lucis.—** Taken (by the priests) from the groves." 


* Turnui, — A squadron of cavalrj; cunetu, a battalion of in- 
&ntr7 (drawn np in the form of a wedge). 

* In proximo (scil. loco). — ** Close by." 

* Unde . . tn/anA'um.— Had Tacitus supplied paterat after audhi^ 
he would have enfeebled the sentence; while, on the other hand, 
he would have been guilty of an affected brevity if he had omitted 
audiri, according to Bitter's supposition. 

' Nee illae nvmerare aut exigere. — So Neque miki aut vobia 
{Armal, iii. 54). Neque paci aut proelio paratum (xiii. 39). 

^ Exigere, — To compare and examine minutely. See Hist» 
iv. 18. A sight which would be alarming and repulsive to Roman 
women was grateful to the German women. 

* Cibosque et hortamina. — " Food and encouragement." Two 
different things connected with one verb, gesture, as in c. 1. Mutuo 
metu aut tnontibus separaiur. 

Chap. VIII. — * Memoriae proditur . . restituttu-^^ That some 
armies already giving way and ready to fly have been restored 
by the women.'* 

' Objectu pectorum,— By presenting their breasts to their hus- 
bands and brothers, begging death at their hands rather than 

« Nomine,—'* For the sake of." 

* Vidimus, — See notes on c, 29. From this passage it has 
been erroneously supposed that Tacitus had himself been in 

* Veledam, — She was surrendered to the Bomans by her country- 
men, perhaps by Civilis himself. Yelcda dwelt in a cave at a 
place now called SpiUenburg, on the right bank of the Luppia. 

* Aurinia (or Alurinia or Alioruna). — This seems to have been 
a common, and not a proper name ; it occurs nowhere else. 
Jomandes speaks of Gothorum magas mulieres, Aliorunas cogno- 
minatas. The northern nations gave the name Ahrunae to women 
of this kind, which some interpret as meaning omniscient; from 
afl, and runen^ to know. ' 

' Facerent deus, — Supply ** sed ut quae re vera essenC The 
senate out of flattery, /octe^a^ deas, as Drusilla, the sister of Cali- 
gula; and the daughter of Nero and Poppaea, when she was only 
four months old. Ann, xv. 23; xiv. 3; Dion, Ixiii. 


Chap. IX — ^ Deorum* — Scarcely anything is known about the 
religion of the ancient Germans. The few notices we have respect- 
ing it are chiefly in the writings of the Greeks and Romans, who 
did not understand their language, and with very few exceptions 
had never visited the country; or in those of the Christian fathers 
and ecclesiastics, who were more eager to condemn the super- 
stitions of the pagans than to make minute researches into their 
character and origin. 

* Jtfercunicm.— The deity whom Tacitus calls Mercurius seems 
to have been the Wodan or Odin of the Germans. Ann. xiii. 57. 
The Gauls and Thracians also honoured Mercury above all the 
other gods (^Caes B.G, yi. 17. ai. Herod, v. 7). Mercwrii dies is 
Wodenstag or Wednesday. 

' Cui humani8..ho8tiia titare feu habent. — ''Whom on certain 
days they consider it lawful to propitiate with human victims 
also." Mars appears to be identical with Thor or Thoron. Comp. 
c. 20" 48. AnnaL i. 61. xiii. 7. Others prefer Tlyr, a warlike deity, 
from whom the third day of the week is named in most Teutonic 
languages. Thus, in Old Norse, Tira-dgr, Tisdagr; Swedish, 
Tisdagr; Danish, Tirsdag; Anglo-Saxon, Tyrsdoeg, Tyves-dctg^ 
Tives-detg; English, Tuesday. In Latin it is Dies Mortis. Her- 
cules is by some thought to be Thunar or Thor. 

^ Concessis aninudibiu. — i, e. such animals as are usually per- 
mitted: concessis is in opposition to humanis. 

* Pars Suevorumet Isidi sacrificat. — ^All kinds of conjectures 
have been formed respecting this Isis, and her connexion with 
the Suevi. The most probable appears to be, that by Isis was 
meant the moon, which was worshipped by the Germans. Ger- 
mani Deorum numero eos solos ducunt^ qvos cemunt, et quorum 
aperie opibus Juvantur, Solem, et Vulcanum, et Lunam {Caes.. 
B. G. vi. 31). The symbol of Isis would resemble either a pin- 
nace, or the crescent moon. - 

^ Nee cohibere..arbitrantur. — "They do not consider it in 
accordance with the greatness of celestial beings to restrain," etc. 
The same is said of the Persians by Herod, i. 131. 

^ Lucos ac nemora consecranL — ^The templum Tanfantu (Annal. 
i. 51) was perhaps a grove. Templum, like rkfuvog, merely im- 
plies an enclosure. Nemus is the same as vkfioi, and probably 
means a pasture ground. 


^ Deorumque nominibtu appellant^ i,e. groves are seyerally con- 
secrated to particular gods, whose names they bear. Ann. iL 13. 
iv. 73. Germ. 40. 

Chap. X. — * Sortium conaueiudo. — ^A similar method of divina- 
tion was practised by the Scythians. Herod, iv. 67. ** They cat 
the branch of a fruit tree into small pieces, and throw them with- 
out order and at random, after they have been marked distinctly, 
upon a white garment." See also Caes, B, G. i. 53. 
' Sipublice consuletur, — ** On behalf of the state." 
' Ter ainguhs toUit, — Not *' takes up each three times," bat, 
" three times takes up a lot" — takes up three lots one after ano- 
ther. Whence four different auguries were obtained; for either 
they were all favourable or all unfavourable, or two favourable 
and one unfavourable, or one favourable and two unfavourable. 

* AdhvLC, — ** In addition, a confirmation by omens is re- 

^ Avium. — This was the most common mode of augury among 
the Bomans, whence etiam hie in Germany as well as at Borne. 

® Proprium genti8.^H.e here speaks principally with reference 
to the Bomans, by whom this was more practised. The same 
custom is recorded of the Persians. Xen, Cyrop. viiL 3. 6. 34. 
Anab. iv, 5. 35. Herod, i. 189. vii. 55. 

^ Preasos sacro curru. — So presaos temone equos {Ovid. Met. 
xiv. 819. i. 34. xii. 77. Amor. i. a. 14* 

^ Hinnitus.. observant. — Compare the story of the manner in 
which Darius Hystaspis is said to have obtained the kingdom, 
Herod, m. 85. 

* Sed apud proceres, — Sed, for eed et, or sed etianu 80 (c. 15) 
sed publice. 

*^ Saeerdotes.— The Germans had no distinct order of priests, 
like the Druids. Germani multum ah hoc consuetudine differunt; 
nam neque Druidee hahent. . neque aacrificiie student {Caes. B, G, 
vi 21). Though from this chapter it seems that in each state 
there were men invested with both a sacred and a magisterial 
character, who were frequently of noble or even kingly descent. 
In cases of minor importance the head of the fiimily performed 
the necessary rites. JTZm, '* the horses." 

^* Committere, ccmparare^ and componere, are properly applied 


to matching two combatants together. So, Ineompositits, "sot 
well matched." De Or. D. 36. 

Chap. XI. — ' Ut ea quoque . » pertractentvr, — Praetrttctentur, 
like wpofiovXtifstrBcUf has been conjectnred hj some, and is pro- 
bably correct. 

' Aec dierum . . computant.^^G<iUi se omnea ah Dite patre prog- 
natus praedicant^ idque ab Druidilnu proditum dicunt Ob earn 
causam ^atia omnis temporia nan numero dierum, sed nocthtm. 
finiunt; dies natales et mensium et annorum sic observant, ut4U)ctem 
dies subsequatur {Caes. B. G. tL 18). A trace of this mode of 
reckoning appears in the words se'nnight Bnd fortnight. ''And 
the evening and the morning were the first daj" {Gen. i. 5). ** In 
the ninth day of the month at even, from even unto even, shall 
ye celebrate your Sabbath*' {Levit. xziii 33). 

' Non stmid.^absumitur. — With regard to the Treviri, on the 
other hand, Caesar {B, G, y. 56) says, Qui ex iis novissimus venit, 
in conspectu mtdtitudinis omnibus cruciatibus affectus necatur. 

* Ut placuit, -^ Ut, with the perf. ind. means, " the moment 

' Sacerdotes quibus coercendi jus est — ^Who have at this time 
as well as at other times {turn et). See c. 13, neque animadoertere 
. . nisi sacerdotibus permissum. 

Chap. XIL — * Concilium, — These assemblies were convened 
chiefly to discuss matters relating to war, and the offences tried 
before it were principally such as affected the military interests 
of the nation. Other crimes were placed under the cognizance 
of the principeSf who were elected to administer justice amongst 
the different cantons and yiUages. Discrimen capitis, i. e. " a 
capital charge." See Smith* s Diet of Ant p. 956. 

' Corpore infames. — *♦ Those guilty of unnatural crimes." 

* Eliguntur reddunt—Qom^. Caes. B.G. vi. 33. 

* Per pagos vicosque. — Comp. Caes^ B. G. iv. 1. In like man- 
ner the state of the Chotti was divided into cantons and villages. 
AnnaL L 56. Helvetia was divided into four cantons (Caes. B, G, 
L 13. iv. i). A similar division was adopted by the Saxons in 
England. Meddere jura, ** to administer justice." The praetor 
at Bome was said ji» dicere,jura reddere. 


^ ConsUivm simul et auctorita8=zWho at once give them advice 
and increase their influence with the people. 

Chap. XIIL — * Nihil,. tigunL — "They transact no business, 
either public or private, without being armed." Comp. Caes, 
B.G,Y.^. ThvcydA.6. 

* Moris. — "Is a part of their customs." 

» Suffeciurum,—'* That he will be equal to the task." 

* Probaverit — Implies that some kind of proof of his capabili- 
ties was to be given by the young man. 

^ OrnanL-^Omat would accord better with the conj. veL 

* Toga. — The toga virUis. Smith's Diet. Ant pp. 631. 1137. 

"^ Honos very commonly means " a public office." See Cic. ad 
Div. X. g. 10. De Amic. 6. 10. Pro SuUa, 18. etc. Hence Horace 
(5af.i. vi. 5) speaks of the populus "qui stultus honores saepe 
dat indignis." 

* Insignis nobilitas..aspici. — The meaning of this sentence 
seems to be that a man*s nobility or achievements give his sons a 
right to be accounted of princely rank, or induce the prince or 
chief to confer upon them the honour of surrounding his person, 
even before they are old enough to have distinguished themselves 
in the field; and accordingly they associate as comites with young 
men who have reached a more robust age. and have already dis- 
tinguished themselves. If this were not the meaning ofprincipis 
dignationem assignani, there would hardly be any sense in the 
expression, nee rubor inter comites adspici; for, c. 14, does not 
prove that all the comites were of noble birth; and the contrary 
may be inferred from Caes. B. G. vL 93, and IHod. v. 29. 

^ Nee rubor aspiei. -So, Pudor est {Liv. xL 27). Bubori est is 
the more conmion phrase, and is used by Tacitus (Annai. xL 17. 
xiv. 55). 

^ Haec dignitas. — This sentence consists of parallel members: 
decus corresponds to dignitas, and praesidium to vires. 

1^ Expetuntur,.prqfliganL — The like is related of Indntiomanu 
by Caesar {B. G. v. 55); of Segestes, by Tacitus {AnnaL i. 57); 
of Flavins, the brother of Arminius {Annal. ii. 9) ; and of Ingnio- 
mems (Annal. ii 45). 

'* BeUd prqfligant—See AnnaL xiv. 36. Prqfligare is "to cause 
to totter," not " to knock down." Hence it is frequently followed 


by conficere. From thu has been derived the meaning of *< nearly 
to finish;** as, Prq/ligaia Jam haec, etpaene ad exitum perducta 
quaeatio est (Sen. de Benef, yii. 15). In the Monumentum Aneyra^ 
num, Angnstns says, Coepta prqfligataque opera a poire meof 

Chap. XIV. — ' Jam vera, turn vero, always introduce the cli- 
max. See Cic. CaHL iii. 9. Pro Z. Man, 11. Virg, Aen, i 485. 
AnnaL iv. 17. Turn utique (Ltv, zzi 54). 

' Sacramentum means here ** a sacred duty,** or the mode of 
performing the oath to the chief. The military oath taken by 
the Boman soldiers was called scuaramentum. 

' Tveare, — So, Quiescas {c, 36). Acciperes, coerceaa, assequare 
(^AnnaL ii. 90. iiL 54. tL 8). 

* lUum beUatorem e^«m=:that horse so much desired, and to 
obtain which such dangers are encountered. So bellator taunu 
( Virg, Georg, ii. 145). 

^ Nam epulae. . apparatus, — " For banquets and entertainments, 
although homely, yet plentiful, serve instead of pay.** Epulae et 
apparatus:=epularum apparatus, by hendiadys. 

^ Annum, — The produce of the year zzannona (Lucan, iii 45a. 
Stat, SUv, iv. 3. 33). 

Chap. XV. — ^ Venatibus,,per oiium. So, Per obsequium., 
praeliis (c. 40). Virtute out per artem (Agric, 9}. Temeritate 
out per ignaviam {Agr, 41). Per acies out proscriptume {Annal, 
L 3). This passage seems contrary to Caesar {B, G, vi. 31) : Vita 
Germanorum omnis in venationibus atque in studiis rei militaris 
consumitur; and (iv. 1} where he says, the Suevi multum sunt in 
venationibus. Hence some, with Lipsius, omit non. But Caesar 
is showing how they endeavoured to strengthen themselves for 
hardships; while Tacitus intends to denote that, although they 
sometimes engaged in hunting, yet they spent more time in 
inactivity, sleep, and eating and drinking. 

' Delegata. .familia, — Delegare or legare, properly " to com- 
mission another to act for you.** 

' Penatium, — This term is used to signify the house over which 
the penates presided. 

* Familia. — ^Properly " the gang of slaves.** Here it merely 
means *• family.*' 


* Hebent — So OHo iorpere (c. 14). 

' Armentorum vel/rugum, — Fartitive genitiTe. 

' Jam etpecuniamt etc. — The Romans had not onlj procured 
the friendship of ArioTistns, Segestes, Malovendus, and others, in 
this way, bat had also begun to purchase peace of the Germans. 

Chap. XVL — * NuUcu .. sedea, — ^Towns are, howerer, men" 
tioned by Tacitns (AnnaL U.G2), Caesar (B. G. iy. ig), etc; bat 
these were very different from what the Bomans onderstood by 
vrbes, which were sorroanded by walls, and had temples and 
forams, baths, eta 

' Colunt,.phcuit, — Compare Qtes. B, G. vi. 30. The houses 
were not joined nor arranged in any regnlar order. Similarly, 
Cicero says, duo loca di^uncHssima nuucimeque diversa (Pro Lege 

* Ne caementorum . . luus. — Caementa are properly the chips 
made in hewing stones (from caedo), 

* Materia. — " Timber.*' Tarde senescunt quorum eriapa ino- 
teries ut acer, pabna, popvhts {Plin, xvi 38). 

* dtra speciem, — ^This means that they took no pains to make 
it look well. Citra implies stop|Hng short of something; it coold 
not have been used if they had taken pains to make it ogly. 

' DUigentius iHinunt — DiUgenter means ** with great care and 
accuracy." It orig^ally implies being very nice and particular 
in the selection of any thing. Cicero verborum diligentissimMs 
(Ge27. xiii.24). Multo diligentius meliusque dixit (Ornde Clar, 
Or, as). Diligenter et propefastidiosejudicare (Be Or. 36). 

Chap. XVlL — * The sagum was a sort of cloak which covered 
the shoulders and back, and amongst the Bomans was worn 
chiefly by soldiers (Smith*8 BicL Ant. p, looa). 

' Spina consertum, — Coneertum tegumen spinie, Vtrg, Aen, iii 

' Cetera intectu — ** Without any other covering." 

* Nonfluitante . . Parthi, — *• Not flowing loosely.'* 

' Artus exprirnente. — " Exhibiting the shape of each limb." 
' Bipae, — Bheni et Danubii. So, Nostra ripa (Agric, 98). 
^ Proximi..negligenter..cuitu8. — Without using much care in 
selecting the skins and fiirs. Those in the interior, having no 


means o procurmg other kinds of dress by means of commerce, 
are compelled to be more particular. 

* Maculis peOibuaque. — Spots made out of the skins of wild 
aTiiTnala, and fastened on for the sake of variety. 

* Purpvra. — This colour was obtained, not from the miirex, 
but from a plant mentioned by Fliny (ii: s6. 97): HycKinthus in 
GaUia maxvme provetUt Hoc ibijvco hysginum tingunt, 

^^ JBrachia ac lacertos, — Brachium was the part from the hand* 
to the elbow: lacertuSf the part from the elbow to the shoulder. 

Chap. XVILL — * Severa UHe nuUrimonia, — ** Incontinence is 
checked by severe laws." 

' Oh n6btlitatem,.ambiuntur. — ^As in the case of Ariovistus 
(Coes. ^.G.i53). Virgil (.^len. vii 33} uses connubiia ambire 
in a somewhat different sense. 

* JDotem, . o/fert— Amongst the Germans wives were bought, as 
appears from the Saxon laws. Compare Caea. B, G. vi. 1^ 

^ Comatur, — Como is not derived from eHma^ the hair, but is a 
compound of c(^con) and emo, signifying **to put together," 
" arrange," ** adorn." It is a word especially applied to ladies. 
Than moliuntur, dum comuntur, annus est (^Ter, Heaut n. ii. 1 1). 

* In haec munera. — ^ Upon these presents being given;" or, 
** upon condition of these presents being given." In like man- 
ner. In has leges foedus ictum et renovatum {Liv. xxiii 31. xlii 62). 
In haec etinid data fides (Liv. zzadi. 34. 30). 

* BeUorvm . . indpwutis forms a hexameter verse. 

"* Acdpere.^referant — The words qua^.,referantur depend 
upon qiuu . . digna reddaty where there is a kind of zeugma^^uoe 
liheris inviolata servet et digna facitU, quae^ etc. 

Chap. XIX — ' Septae pudidiia, — So, Omnia pudore septa 
{Liv, iii. 44). Several editions have septa, which would imply 
that a strict guard was kept over them, to preserve them from 
corruption; whereas septae means that their own modesty was a 
sufficient defence against all attempts upon their honour, which 
agrees much better with the general sense of the description. 

* NuUis..eorruptae. — On the influence of the Boman games 
and entertainments, see Juv. L 55-57. xi 16a. 301. 303. 

^ Litterarum secreta. — Various interpretations are given to 


these words; but thej probably refer to a clandestine correspond- 
ence by means of writing. Juv, vi. 377. 

* Pawd88ima..adxitena. — ** Adultery is extremely rare.*" On 
the fireqnency of this crime at Borne under the emperors, see 
^ntioiL ii. 85. «/«t7. yi 488. ix.32. 

* AceisU crinibua, — "With her hair cut short" Aecidere is 
** to cut deep inta" See Caea. B, G, yL 37. where he gives an 
account of the mode of catching the creatures called alcea. Ad 
has the same force in arrodo, which should be restored in Per- 
sius SaLT,G^ Crudwn..unguem arrodena. Compare 1 Corin« 
xi.5. kUrxP^ ywoMi t6 KiipaoOai ^ ^vpaoBcu, Qrelli reads 

« Saeculum,--^ The fashion of the age." 

^ Meliua quidem adkuc eae cwUatea* — Sc agunt Mdiua,,adr 
hue. ''Still better." Cicero would have used etiam, Adhue 
pando minua {Sen. Epiat. 49). Adhuc tenuior eat (^JSpiat 57). Si 
adhttc viliorem nuUeriam attuUaaea (JSput85). Adhuc concitO' 
tior (Qiftiic^ /}i«t iu 15. 98). Ampliar adhuc.. cumidua {Suet 
Tib. 17}. Qttt cMftvc ea dUigentiua tractavere (P/tn. zyiii. 4). 

' J?atf..n«&ii]if.— A practice similar to that of the suttees in 
India is recorded to have prevailed amongst the Heruli 

' Cum ape..tranaigitwr. — So Tranaigite cum expeditionUma 

^^ Semel.^** Once for all" Denique ut aemd finiam {Quimct 
Inat ix. 4). 

" Ex agnatia. — ^By agnati Tacitus means children bom after 
there was already an heir to the name and property of the 
father {HiaL y. 5). On the general meaning of <tgnaH, see Smith*a 
Diet. Ant. p. 309. On the frequency of infanticide among the 
Bomans, see Annal. iii. 35. 36. xr. ig. Juv. ii. 33. vi 366-379. 

^^ Huaque.Jegea, — **And good habits have more influence 
there, than good laws elsewhere." The Germans first began to 
use written laws in the fifth centuiy. 

Chap. XX. — ' Nudi ae aordidi. — Neither of these epithets is 
to be taken strictly. Nudua in Latin, like yvpvSc in Greek, 
often merely denotes the absence of an upper garment, and 
means, " slightly clothed, with nothing more than a tunic or vest.*' 
That aordidua does not here imply filth, is plain firom c. 33. 


where Hie Germans are said to wash every day. It simply 
means, that at home they contented themselves with old clothes, 
reserving their better dress for public assemblies and battles. 
' Ubera is generally nsed when speaking of animals. 

* Delegantur, — Tacitos elsewhere (JDiaL zxix.) remarks upon 
the injurious practice of handing over children to servants, 
without seeing that they receive proper attention. 

* Dcminum ac aervum. — The subject-class among the ancient 
Germans may be divided into three branches: — i. Tributaries, 
composed of those who, when any country was conquered, re- 
tained their possessions, but paid an annual tribute to the con- 
querors for this privilege. 3. Serfs (adacripH gkbae), 3. Com- 
mon household slaves (mancipia). 

* Aettu separet — When both have grown up, their dress and 
mode of life distinguish the one from the other. 

* VirUu agnoscat — ** Causes them to be recognised." Orelli 
considers that there is here a sort of prosopopeia, and translates 
thus : *' Until virtue acknowledges them as her own,** a rheto- 
rical expression for "until, by their excellence, they render 
themselves distinguished." Here and in the preceding verb, as 
in c. 1, we find Tacitus using a subjunctive mood after doneCf 
though what is expressed is an actual fact. 

^ Sera juvenum Venus, — Qui diuiissme impuheres vertManse- 
runt (Cae«. £. In Italy, and other southern coun- 
tries, the sexes arrive at maturity much sooner than amongst 
the northern nations. Cicero's daughter was betrothed at ten 
years of age, and married probably about thirteen or fourteen. 

* Robora. . referunt — Filia quae non minus mores ejus (patris), 
quam os vultumque referebaty totumque patrem mira similitudine 
exacripserat {Plin, Ep, v. 16. 9). 

' Sororum. . honor, — On the death of the father, either the son 
became the guardian of his mother and the rest of her children, 
or the unde on the mother's side (avunculus) of his sister and 
her children. It is worthy of remark, that among the heirs of 
one who has left no chOdren, no mention is made of his father. 

»• In accipiendis.,exigunt, — In taking hostages from Miy one, 
they demand the children of his sister rather than his own chil- 
dren; because, in this way, not only the uncle of the hostages 
but also their father and his relations, are bound. Besides, the 



husbands of the chief's sisters were in every state reckoned 
amongst the nobles. 

'^ .Heredes. . Uberi. — Under the term liberi are here indnded the 
nepotes and pronepotes, 

^' Quanta plua..numeru8, — Propinqui are those with whom 
there exists any relationship by bloodi cognati, relations by the 
mother's side; agnati, relations by the father's side; affines^ 
relations by marriage. 

*' Nbc uUa orbitatis pretia, — " Nor any advantage in being 
childless." As among the Romans. See Annal xiii.52. zr. 19. 
Juv, xii. gg. 

Chap. XXL — ^ Luitur enim. . domus. — Compare Horn, IL tr. 497. 
foil. So Ajax, when he would set the implacable anger pf 
Achilles in the strongest light, observes, that a man is nsed to 
accept a compensation from the murderer of his brother or son; 
so that the one remains in his country after having paid a heavy 
price, and the vindictive spirit of the kinsman is stayed. 

' JRecipitque satisfactionem univer&i domus, — Some interpiret 
this to mean, that the whole of the family of the injured party 
receive part of the fine; others, that by the payment of the fine 
to the prosecutor the vengeance of the whole family is satisfied. 
The true meaning seems to be, that the whole family of the 
offender become respobsible for the payment of the fine. Such 
a law did exist in Germany anciently, as we learn from the Lex 
Tal. tit 61. leg, 1. 3. It was afterwards abrogated by King Chil- 
debert A similar institution prevailed amongst the Canadian 
Indians, by which the village to which the offender belonged 
became responsible for the payment of the penalty. The use of 
recipere in the sense of ** to make one's self responsible for," is 
not uncommon. Promitto, recipio, spondeo, C, Caesarem talem 
semper fore civem, quaiie hodie sit {Cic, PhU, v. 18). Mihi dili- 
gentissime «e, ut annui essemus, defensurum, receperat {Ad, Att 
V. 17). Si pcLx turn impetrata ah sentttu foret^ obsides pecdniam'- 
que reddi PhUippo receptum est {Liv, xzziiL 13). 

' Utiliter in publicum, — So, In commune ahcres {Annal, xv. 13). 

* Juxta libertatem, — "When united with freedom" — "in a free 

* Conviciibus,,excipit, — Hospites viohre, fas non putant; qui 


quaque de causa ad eoa venerint, ah injuria prchibent, ganctosque 
habent; iis omnium domus patent, victuaque communicatur (jCaeM, 
jB. G, vi 03). 

* Quemcumque, — Qutcumque, for *' any one, no matter who,** is 
fotmd in Flantns and the old poets, and in the later writers; but 
not nsoally in Cicero, who inlhis sense uses quiois or quiUbeU 

' Cum defecere, — So. epulae. 

* Hospes means both host and guest In its proper and origi- 
nal signification it meant nothing more than stranger, Hostis 
had the same meaning, and contains precisely the same root. 
The interchange of p and t appears in the words hospes, and its 
derivative host. 

' Monstrator hospiHi et comes, — ** Shows him another house 
where he may be entertained, and accompanies him thither." 

'® Abeunti. .faciUtas, — ** It is the custom to give to him who is 
departing anything he may ask, and there is the same freedom 
in asking in return." Comp. Hom, II C. 315-335. Virg, Aen, 

'* Sed nee data imputant — *<But they neither consider that 
they confer an obligation by what they give." Imputare means, 
to enter in one's account against a person. Necobligantur, 
^nor do they hold themselves 'bound by what they receive." 
Middle voices not unfrequently occur in Latin: e,g, Nequeo con- 
tineri (^Plaut Men. 170), ** I cannot restrain myself." Devortitur 
(181). In Caesar and livy, armari is frequently used of the 
soldiers arming themselves. Statim e sommo. . lavantur (c, 33). 
Moveare {Pers, Sat, v. 133). And many of the verbs which are 
called deponent are properly middle verbs; as, nt/or, ** I support 
myself"; adverser, " I oppose myself"; apricor, ** I sun myself"; 
arbitror, properly, ''I constitute myself an arbiter" i comitor, **1 
make myself a comes** (accompany); hospitor, ** 1 make myself a 
hospes** (lodge); peregrinor, **I make myself a peregrinus**; 
invehor,**! inveigh against"; pascor, **1 feed myself." Then 
the ablative which follows many of these verbs becomes nothing 
more than the ablative of the instrument. 

^' Victus inter hospites eomis, — Some editors look upon this 
sentence as a mere gloss, or marginal note, which has got in- 
serted into the text. Orelli observes, that this would be the 
only instance of such a gloss or brief argument in the whole 


work, and that it is not easy to say why any one shonld have 
thought of putting this in the margin. Nor does he think it in 
the style of a gloss, particularly the word comis, which he trans- 
lates by ** is never disturbed by brawls.*' Walther also defends 
the words by saying, that, though Tacitus had explained the 
way in which strangers were received and sent away, he had 
not told us anything about their mode of life with guests. 

Chap. XXIT. — ' iS'ftxtiiR..exlraAvnt— So, DtdiH somno ciboqw 
(c. 15). 

* E aomno.Sj ** immediately after"; so, U in Greek. TcXay 
U ruiv wp6ir9ev Scuepvwv (Xen. Cyr, i 4. 38). Ab is used in the 
same sense by livy (xxii. 40). Ab hoc semume profectunL 

' Saepius. — Supply quamfrigida (sc. aqua). 

* PluHmum, — "• The greatest part of the ye6r.*' 

In almost every circumstance mentioned in this chapter, the 
habits of the Bomans were opposed to those of the Germans* 
They used to rise before daylight; to play at ball or take exer- 
cise of some kind before they washed or bathed; at dinner to 
use seats which were joined together, so that three reclined at 
the same table; by the laws of tlie XIL Tables they were for- 
bidden to appear in anns in the city; to drink in the day-time 
was esteemed disgraceful; and, lastly, mutual diffidence and 
distrust prevailed at their banquets. 

* Diem, .probrum, — See AnnaL xi. ifi. ConHnuare is to make 
continuous. ** To keep drinking day and night without inter- 
mission is disgraceful to no one." 

' Vinolentos. — This word is applied to those who have in- 
dulged in other drink than wine, such as beer^ which the Ger- 
mans used. Ann, xi 16. 

^ Sed et de reconcUiandis in vicem inimicis,,ptienimque in convt- 
viia consultant— lEeroAotaB (i 133. ii. 73) relates the same of the 
Persians. Homer (il c. 335} and Plutarch (5ympos. vii. 9} of the 

* In vicmr-^ Mutually." 

' Tamquam, . uiealleseat— Fomttem esse qwnidaim et ignitahuhan 
ingenii virtntisquef si mens et corpus hominis vino fiagret (i%sto 
ap. Macroh. Sat, iL 8). See Hor, Od, i. 31. 11. is. Ovid. Met 
ii. 87. 


'^ StrnpUcet,'^^ Sincere, ingennons, nndisgiiised.*' Simplex is 
opposed to obscurtu {CHcde Off, iii. 13), and duplex (^Hor. Od, 
i. 6. 7). For the derivation, see note 5 to c. xxiii 

" Astuius. — ^From d<rrv. 

** CaUidue (from caBeo, like avidus frt»n aveOf iurgidtu from 
iurgeot tumidus from turned), signifies, originallj, **hard" or 
** callous," and is applied to a workman whose hands have be- 
come hard by labour. Then frY)m the notion that practice 
begets skill, its later meaning is derived. Cujus tanquam manus 
operey sic animus usu concaUwit (^Cic. N, D. iii. 10). 

" Aperit adhucjoci. — ** Open, moreover, the secrets of their 
breasts in the freedom of festivity." Aperit praecordia Liber 
(^Hor. Sat L 4. 89). 

^*Detecta et nuda.,men8, — Evduta integumeniis dieeimulationis 
(^ Or.u,98'), Sine involucria simulaticnum et dissmuk^ 
tionuin{Cic,adQuinctFrA,i). Mens mast here be taken as 
meaning ** plans and opinions." The passage means, that, after 
having deliberated and determined in a free and open-hearted 
way over their cups, on the following day they again consider 
the matter. ^ 

'^ Et salva utriusque temporis ratio est — Salva ratio is pro- 
perly nsed when the debtor and creditor sides of an account 
balance one another. So here Tacitus means to say, that by the 
method they pursued of deliberating when they knew not how 
to dissemble, and deciding when there was no chance of their 
erring, they kept the balance even; so that their rashness and 
caution mutually checked and restrained each other. 

Chap. XXTTT. — * Humor,. corruptus. — "Ale and beer." 

' Frumentunif originally frugmentum, meant any kind of frmt; 
the meaning was afterwards restricted. It here means " wheat," 

' Corruptus does not necessarily imply being spoilt; it would 
be applied to any natural production the character of which is 
completely changed by art to adapt it to the use of man. A 
similar beverage was in use among the Egyptians. See Herod, 

* Proximi ripae Hheni et vinum mercantur. — "Those who 
border on the Bhine also buy wine." Suevi tnnum ad se omnino 


importari nan sinuntj quod earead laborem ferendum remdllescere 
homines atque effeminari arbitrantur (^Caes, B, G, iy. 3). 

' Simplex is derived from the root sin, meaning one (which 
occurs in singtUi, and is identical with the Greek tv), and pUca, 
which meant properly a flat surface. The same was the case 
with the English/o^i, which is the same in origin ssjield. 

' Pomum is a very general term, and includes any eatable 
froit. Agrestis is opposed to mitts, the term applied to the frnit 
of the cultivated apple-tree. 

^ Recens /era. — •* Fresh venison." Major pars victus eorum 
in lacte, caseo, came consistit (^Caes, B. G, vi aa). The Bomans 
had a different custom, as appears from Hor, Sat, ii. 8. 6. 

• Lac concretum,—.^* Cheese,*' or rather ** curds," Vvrg, Georg, 

' Blandimentis, — Seasoning and other stimulants to appetite, 
such as are enumerated by Horace (^Sat ii. 8). 

^^ Vitiis, — Tacitus elsewhere mentions two instances in which 
the Germans were overcome in this way. Hist iv. 79. Ann, 
i. 6o* 

Chap. XXTV. — * Nudijuvenes, quibus id ludicrum est, — ^ The 
young men who have to take part in these entertainments." 
With regard to nudus, see note 1 to chap. xx. 

* Infestas means, *' pointed at them." There is nothing in the 
word itself which implies hostility. Festus is only the old par- 
ticiple oi fero; like gestus, from gero. 

• Scsaltujadunt"-^ Throw somersets." Notice the position 
of the tmemphatic word se in this sentence, and the efiect it has 
in making gladios more emphatic. See Smith's Diet Ant s. v. 

* Non in.,mercedem.^^ Not as a trade, or for hire," as was the 
case with the Homan mountebanks and jesters. 

' Aleam. . exercent — ^Although the Bomans were much addicted 
to gambling (see Juv, i, 88. viii. to, xi. 174), it was esteemed dis- 
reputable, and was forbidden by the laws, except during the 
Saturnalia. Cic, Phil ii. 23. Hor. Od, iii. 34. 58. 

' Extremo ac novissimo, — In a similar way, Cicero joins exfre- 
mum atque ultimum {Be Divin, ii. 43). 

^ Venire, — ^From veneo. 


* Pervicacia, — ^Applied properly to a person who maintains a 
contest till he gets' the yictory. 

' Ipsi fidem vacant, — The good faith of the ancient Gteimans 
in keeping their promises was proTerbiaL 

Chap. XXV. — * Nim in nostrum nutrem.-^The Romans went 
to a very great length in appointing different slayes to superin- 
tend the yarious departments of their domestic economy. 
Amongst the wealthy in later times, there was scarcely a single 
household duty that was not allotted to some particular slave, 
who attended to that and nothing else. 

* Quisque. — '* Each slave.** This is a rhetorical mode of ex- 
pressing the fact, that the slaves live in separate dwellings, and 
not, as frequently among the Romans, in the same house as 
their masters. 

' Servus hactentu paret — " Is not bound to render any other 
services." This is not to be understood strictly. 

* Verberare.,rarttm, — Yaripus laws were enacted by Servius 
Tullius, Augustus, Hadrian, and others, to check the cruelty of 
the Bomans towards their slaves. See interpp. Juv, vi. 319. P/tn. 
Nat Hist, ix. 33. 

^ Non discipUna et aeveritctte^^Non severitate digciplimie {Hist 
i. 51). 

* Nisi quod impune,— '* Except that they can do it [kill their 
enemy] with impunity.*' 

^ LiberH, etc. — ^A manumitted slave was Libertus (that is, /i6e- 
raius) with reference to his master; with reference to the class 
to which he belonged after manumission, he was Zibertinus. 
According to Suetonius (^Claud. c. 24), libertinus was the son of 
a libertus in the time of the censor Appius Claudius, and for 
some, time after ; but this is not the meaning of the word in the 
extant Boman writers. Smithes Diet, Ant p. 705. 

^ JRaro atiquod momentum, — So, Grande momentum (^Hist i. 59). 

* Quae regnantur, — " Which are governed by kings." Tacitus 
here alludes to the Marcomanni and Quadi, the Gothones and 
the Suiones. Even among these nations, it was only through 
the temporary favour of the king or ruler, that the liberti could 
have any weight See c. 43-44. The ordinary condition and 
influence of the libertini among the Germans, is strongly con- 








place. Orelli thinks that what is here stated applies only to the 
public lands which were occupied in tarns by the citizens, who cast 
lots to determine what portion they shonld occupy for the year; 
the better and larger portions, however, being reserved for the 
chie& and nobles. 

' Terra is opposed to mare and cadwn; eoUan is ** the ground " ; 
coiiqnw is ** a plain," or ** field"; ager is properly ** the territory 
round a city'*; armtm is ** ploughed lane*" (arvMn, anciently 
aruuttij derived from aro; like ptucuum from paaeo), 

^ Nee enm,,contendunt — **Nor, indeed, do they attempt, in 
their exertions, to rival the fertility of the soil"; Le, they do not 
endeavour, by laborious cultivation, to make the soil more pro- 
ductive than it is by nature. 

^ Ut pomaria c<mserant=:to plant grounds with rows of trees 
arranged in carefrQ order. 

^ ImpereUur, — ParOf in these compounds, means '*to put"; 
eeparare,^ to put asunder"; imperare,*^ to put upon." Hence 
imperare means, "to impose as a burthen, tax," etc. Here 
** com alone is imposed upon the land" t. e. ** the land is required 
to furnish com alone." 

^ Auctumni. . bona, — ^Particularly the grape and olive. Charle- 
magne appears to have introduced the word herbst or harveaty 
calling September Herbiat mtmath, which afterwards assumed 
the forms kaerfest, harvest, herpiet, harfstj herbsU Herbst or 
herbist (harvest) appears to have been its name. It is worthy of 
remark, that we have no Saxon word for this season, as we have 
for the other three; but are obliged to use one from the Latin. 

Chap. XXVn.— > Fun«rtt»i nuBa awfttVw.— "They take no 
pride in expensive funerals." At Home, frmerals were often 
extremely expensive and magnificent, and plays were acted, and 
gladiatorial combats exhibited, in honour of the deceased 
(^Smith's Diet Ant p. 5qq). The "Adelphi" of Terence was 
acted at the foneral of Aemilius Faulus. Sumptuary laws were 
enacted at various times, to restrain the lavish expenditure on 
these occasions. Annai, iii. 3. Hist iv. 47. 

' Certis lignis. — Those species of wood set apart for this pur- 
pose by law or custom. Charlemagne abolished the custom of 


* Sua cuique.,adjicitur, — The deceased were snpposed to fol- 
low the same occupations after death as in life. Similar enstoms 
are obsenred by the Indians, for the same reason. Ck)mp. Herod, 
iv. 71. AeschyL Ag. 1 156. Cass, B, G. yL ig. Hor, Od. n. ziiL 21-40. 
On opening the tomb of one of the old Frank kings, a horse- 
shoe was found; the earliest specimen of the kind known. 

* Septdcrtan caespes erigitssseptdcntm e caespite erigitur, — So, 
Banc domum utrum aiespes erexerit, an varius lapis (^Seru JSp. 8). 
Tumulij or ** barrows," containing urns in which the ashes were 
deposited, are of frequent occurrence in Britain, Germany, and 
other countries. 

' Monumentorum.,€upemantur. — Arduum is, properly, ** steep." 
The mausoleums of Augustus, Hadrian, etc., are well known. 
See Cic,de.Legg,u.QQ-vj. 

' Gravem dejuitctis, — ** Pressing heavily on the deceased." It 
is not uncommon to find upon monuments, Sit tiln levis terra; 
or. Sit tUti gravis terra; or, Urgeat ossa lapis; or, Kov^q y^ 
Toirrov coXvirroi. 

^ Feminis.,memini8se,—^f Vir prudens meminisse perseveret, 
lugere desinat (^Sen, Ep, gg). 

^ Singularum gentiunL—Gens and nafio include properly those 
who have a common origin; populus and civitcu, those who have 
the same constitution, and obey the same laws. 

' Instituta ritttsque=<aYiX customs and religious ceremonies. 

Chap. XXVULI. — ^ In enumerating the different tribes of Ger- 
many, Tacitus follows this order: — ^In c. a8, he speaks of those 
who did not properly belong to Germany; in c. og-Zi* ^^ those 
who inhabited the banks of the Hhine, towards the west; in 
c. 35-37f of those who dwelt on the banks of the Bhine, towards 
the north; in c. 38-41, we hare the members of the Suevic league 
enumerated; in c. 43.43, those who dwelt along the Danube; in 
c. 44. 45, those who bordered on the Northern Ocean; inc. 46^ 
those who dwelt beyond the ocean, partly fabulous people. 

Our information concerning the geography of ancient Ger- 
many is very scanty and uncertain. The Greek and Boman 
writers, from whom our knowledge of it is derived, knew veiy 
little about it themselves. (For the sources of their information, 
see Notes on c. 1. 3.) Caesar's acquaintance with the localities 


and habits of different tribes, which he gained chiefly from re- 
XX>rt, and not ^m personal obserration, is extremely imperfect, 
and often incorrect. Strabo wrote in the age of Tiberins, when 
the Romans possessed a more accurate knowledge of Germany 
than at any other time* throngh the expeditions of Tiberius, 
I^nisns, and Germanicus. Ajfter this period, the Bomans were 
ahnost entirely shut out of Germany. Strabo, however, is ex- 
ceedingly careless. He did not read even Caesar's Gallic War 
with sufScient attention to understand it; and confuses almost 
everything which he extracts from the aooounts brought home 
hj X^ptheas. Oar difficulties are, moreover, increased by the 
inaccuracy of the text. Pomponius Mela is worth nothing. 
Pliny, likewise, was veiy careless, as we see even in what he says 
of Italy; we cannot, therefore, look for much accuracy in his 
account of Germany. His work is principally valuable for the 
proper names. The imperfect character of the geographical 
knowledge which Tacitus possessed of Germany, is manifest 
from this work of his upon the subject Ptolemy has ventured 
to give a map of Germany, and to lay down the latitudes and 
longitudes of a number of towns and mouths of rivers. The 
greater part of these he never visited himself; and who, in that 
age, could have furnished him with the requisite information? 
Indeed, his map bears but a faint resemblance to the actual 
shape and features of Germany; and in the majority of instances 
it can with difficulty be determined whether the towns he men- 
tioned existed at all. There is this additional disadvantage in 
his book — ^that he defines positions by numbers, which, of all 
things, are the most liable to alteration through the mistakes of 
the transcribers. One of the most valuable geographical monu- 
ments of antiquity, Antoninus's Itineraiy, compiled under the 
direction of Julius Caesar and Antony or Augfustus, is available 
only for a few roads on the frontier. The Peutingerian Table is 
frequently of use in making maps; since, though the countries are 
excessively distorted, the distances between the towns laid down 
on it are given: but it is of scarcely any service in the case of 
Germany. Inscriptions and coins, again, which afford some of 
the best means of defining the situations of places, are of rare 
occurrence in Germany. But, in addition to all these difficulties 
and disadvantages, the wandering and unsettled character of the 


GermimB thenuselTes renders it totallj impossible to lay down a 
map which shotdd represent the relatiye positions of the tribes 
at any one period, or for any length of time, though we can 
generally determine the position which indiridnal tribes occa- 
pied at some time or other. This is seen from the wide discre- 
pancies between Tacitns and his contemporaries, and Ptolemy, 
and from snch glimpses as history affords us of the migrations 
of seyeral of the tribes. (See Notes on the Boii, Usipii, Tencteri, 
Dolg^bini, Canci, Langobardi, Gothini, etc.) 

' VeUidiores, . tradit, — See Caes. B, G, yi. 34. Nam GaUoa quo- 
que in bonis floruisse aecepimtu: mox segnitia cum otio intravit, 
amissa virtute pariter ac libertate. Quod Britannorum dim victis 
evenit (^Agr, 11). Some read gummua auctor, as being more in 
accordance with the practice of Tacitns. 

* Eoque. . transgressos. — See Caes. B, G, ri. 34. 

* Divisas, — Some MSS. haye diversas. Diversi is used in the 
sense of separated in Annai, xy. 56. 

* Igitur, — For a similar use of igitur at the beginning of a 
period, see Agr, 13. 

^ Hercyniam silvam, — ^This was the general name of the large 
motmtain chain which separates the interior of Germany from 
the tracts adjacent to the Danube; commencing with the Black 
Forest, running northward till it crosses the Mayn, then east- 
ward, comprising what are now called the Spessart Wald and 
Franken Wald, through Bohemia and the north of Hungary. 
Cties. B. G, yi. 25. Strabo, yii.|jp. 207. 290. ogs. Plin, xyi. 2. PtoL 
ii. 11. These writers, howeyer, do not all quite agree in their 
description. Caesar*s account of it was deriyed from report: at 
a later period the Bomans, in their wars with Maroboduus, 
whose possessions lay among the Bohmer Wald Mountains, be- 
came personally acquainted with it. Different names were after- 
wards giyen to the seyeral subdiyisions of this chain. * 

^ Helvetiif ulteriora Boii, CraUica utraque gens, tenuere. — See 
Caes, B, G, i. 1-6. 25. 28. 29. The Boii extended along both sides 
of the Danube from its source eastward, probably as far as the 
mouth of the Enns; towards the south, stretching to the moun- 
tains which separate Tyrol from Bayaria. The eastern part of 
Swabia, with the whole of Bayaria and Bohemia, which took 
their names from them (Bayaria haying been originally BoiO" 


aria\ belonged to them. They also occupied part of Moravia, 
and had settlements on the banks of the Po. Whether Ganl or 
Germany was their original country, is uncertain: if the former, 
it would seem that they accompanied the first Gallic migration 
mentioned by livy and others, and followed Segovesus into 
Germany, settling in Bohemia; but the facts that, for the most 
part, the tide of migration set in westward, and that Bohemia 
has retained its name to this day, seem to point to Germany as 
their original home. From Bohemia they were expelled by the 
Marcomanni, and settled in Noricum and Bavaria, where Boio- 
dunun (Innstadt) took its name from them. At some })eriod or 
other, but when is uncertain, they crossed the Alps, and estab- 
lished themselves in Italy, between the Tarns, the Silaros, and 
the Apennines. They were subdued by the Bomans xmder 
Scipio Nasica, and afterwards removed to the banks of the 
Drave. After this, they were almost subdued in wars with the 
Gretae, and an extensive tract in this part was called Deaerta 
Boionan (P/i'n. iii. 34). Some of the Boii accompanied Brennus 
in his invasion of Greece, and joined that part of his army which 
passed into Asia Minor, and settled in the country called from 
them Galatia, where one of the three divisions of the people bore 
the name Tolistoboii Some of the Boii also joined the Helvetii 
when they migrated into Gaul, and were allowed by Caesar to 
settle amongst the Aedui. 

' Boiemum^ or Boiohemvm (^Bqjenheim\ probably means, ** the 
home 'of the Boii*' (Aet'm, heimath). Some, however, suppose 
that, by Boiemum is meant what Caesar calls appidum Boiontm 
(B. G, vii. 9) in Gallia, now Beaujolois. 

' Mutatis evltoribus. — Instead of the Boii, the Marcomanni 
under Maroboduus had settled hc^ in the time of Augustus. 

'® Sed uirum..comnugravermt.—Thete is something faulty in 
this sentence. Ab Osis, Gtrmcatorvm noHone^ is contradicted by 
. what Tadtns says in c. 43. Oto$ Panmonica lingua coarguit turn 
use Germanos, Hence Bitter reads natio. Orelli translates 
Germanorum natione by ** a nation commonly reckoned among 
the Germans." Some editors, however, suppose that in this 
passage their settlements only are referred to. The Aravisd are 
pUced by some between the Arabo (Baab) and the Danube; 
and the Osi in Austria, below the mouth of the Anisia (Enns). 


" Utriusque rtpoe.—" There were the same advantages and 
disadvantages on both sides of the river"; t. e. the Dannbe. 

" Treviri et -ZVeruit.— The Treviri dwelt between the Mease 
and the Bhine: their chief town was Augusta TreTerorum 
(TVter, Treves), The Nervii lived between the Mosa (^Meusey* 
Scaldis (Scheldt), and Sabis (Samhre). See does, J9. G. IL 4 

" Circa,. originis. — See Caee, ^. G. vi 94. So, PubUca circa 
honaa artee aocordia (Annal. xi 15). 

^* A 8imilitudine..8eparentur, — See c. 39. Agr, 11. 

** VangiUneSf TribOci, Nemetes, — Caes, B, G, i. 51. The capi- 
tal of the Yangiones was BorbetomaguSj now Worme, Next to 
them were the Nemetes, whose capital was NomomoffuSf now 
Spires, The Triboci appear to have occupied the Lower Bhine, 
and their capital was Argentoraturrif now Strasbourg, 

^' Ne Ubii quidenu — The Ubii were the allies of Caesar against 
the Suevi (Caes. B. G. iv. 8. 11. 16. 19), and were afterwards trans- 
ported to the left bank of the Bhine by Agrippa (B.a 38). Bj 
crigine is meant their German origin, before they became a 
colon J ; since it was hardly likely that a people, who had been 
made a colony by the Bomans, and placed in a post of trust, 
as Tacitus says, ut arcerent, non ut custodirentur, should blush 
for this honour. Some editors, however, have referred origine to 

" Conditoris sui nomine. — The town was generally called Colo- 
nia Agrippina (now Cologne)', and it would appear, from this 
passage, that it was founded by Agrippa. But we learn, from 
another passage (Ann, xii. 37), that Agrippina, the wife of Clau- 
dius, and daughter of Germanicus, who was bom at the town of 
the Ubii while her father commanded in those parts, prevailed on 
her husband to send a colony of veteran soldiers there, and from 
that time the place had her name. 

^' Experimento fidei, — So, Per octo annos capto experimento 
(Ann, iii. 56). 

*' Arcereni—Sc Transrhenanos, 

Chap. XXIX.— '^atotn.. co/unt— The Batavi occupied the 
island formed by the Y ahalis ( TFoo/) and Mosa (Meuse); and 
also that formed by the Bhine, the Waal, and the ocean. They 


occnpied also a small tract on the banks of the Bhine, not in- 
clnded in the insula Batavomm, as it is called by Caesar (^B, G, 
iy. 10). The Batavi became the allies of the Romans xmder 
Augustus. Dmsns, the brother of Tiberius, dug the canal called 
the Fossa Drustana, which joins the Bhine and.TsseL On the 
north-western part of the island dwelt another people of the 
same origin as the Batavi, the Canninefates (Hist. iv. 15). The 
name Batavi is preserved in that of Betuwe^ the name of the 
district included between the Bhine, the Waal, and the Lek. 
After the death of -Galba, when the armj on the Bhine followed 
Yitellius to Borne, Claudius Civilis roused them to a revolt, which 
was shortly afterwards suppressed. They were employed by 
Agricola in his wars in Britain {Agr, 96). The changes which 
have taken place in the land in this quarter, render the geography 
somewhat difficult. In the time of Tacitus, most of the Zuyder 
Zee was dry land. The rivers, espedally the Bhine, have very 
much altered their courses. The quantity of the penultimate in 
Batavi is doubtfuL Juv, viii 51. Lucan L 43. 

* Non nudtum ex ripa does not mean, ** not far from the bank "; 
but, that the Batavi did not occupy much of the bank beyond 
the island which was their special residence. When ripa is used 
alone, in speaking of the Bhine, it generally means the left 

* Chattonan quondam popidus, — Some take Batavi to be a cor- 
mption of Chatti; others think it a compound from Bat and 
auc^humUe pratum, 

* In qttilnis..Jierent=:unde factum est, utfierent 

' Antiquae eocietatis insigne, — This was a figure, in silver, of 
two hands joined in token of firiendship and fidelity. Hist, i. 54. 

^ Oneribu8 et co2ZatHmt5i».— The former of these words denotes 
ordinary taxes, and the latter eztraordinaiy contributions, either 
voluntary or forced. 

7 Mattiacorum gens, — The Mattiaci, like the Batavi, probably 
a branch of the Chatti, dwelt on the right bank of the Bhine, in 
Wetterau and Hesse Darmstadt, the tract possessed by the Ubii 
before they crossed the Bhine, between the Moenus (JMayn) 
and Logana {Ldhn), They are first mentioned by Tacitus 
(Annal, xi. 30) ; for Strabo and Dio speak of the Chatti as 

flfi6 NOTES ON 

inhabiting this region. In the war of the Batavi, together with 
the Usipii and Chatti, thej besieged Magontiacum (^Mayence), 
Ajfter their territories were occupied bj the Alemanni, their 
name was aknost extinguished. Their capital was Mattinin 
(^nn. i.56)) the site of which is not well determined, perhaps 
Maden. Aquae Mattiacae, or Mattiaci Fontes ( Wiesbctden), was 
another of their towns. Thej are here mentioned, not because 
thej were near the Batavi, but because they were in similar 
subjection to the Romans. 

« Ultra Rhemm.,termino8,'--PopidiB(mani tmperium Rhenum 
finire (Ca£s,B, G, iy. 16). 

^ Nisi quod.,animaniur, — ^'^ Except that, from the nature of 
the land and climate itself, they stiU retain more spirit." Their 
country is mountainous. 

^^ Vecumates agros. — This is not a proper name belonging to 
any tribe or place; but was applied to lands conquered by the 
Romans, in which, for the sake of security, that no hostile tribes 
might dwell close to their borders, they allowed Gauls or Roman 
soldiers to settle, who were charged with the payment of a tithe 
to the Romans. The Romans very commonly exacted a tithe 
from those who occupied the public lands: the greater part of 
Sicily was taxed in this way. Compare AnnoH. xiii. 54. Com, 
B. G, yi. 33. Cic, in Verrem, iii. 6. Such lands are usually called 
decvamani; but Tacitus employs a new word here, because the 
lands in question did not form a distinct province, but were an 
appendage to Upper Germany. These lands « lay in the angle 
east of the Rhine, and north of the Danube; but their exact 
boimdaries cannot be determined. They seem to have been 
protected partly by a moimd from Ratisbon to Lorch, and partly 
by a mound from Lorch to the Rhine, in the neighbourhood of 
.Cologne. Towards the end of the third centiuy, these lands 
were wrested from the Romans by the Alemanni, whom Julian 
and Yalentinian in vain endeavoured to expeL 

" Dubiae poasessionis. — At first these lands lay beyond the 
Roman boundaiy, and were unprotected against the incursioDS 
of the hostile Germans. 

"Ztmtfcm o^ere.— **To run a boundary line." See Smith*s 
Diet Ant p. 39. 

^ Sinu8 imperiL — ** A nook or comer of the empire." The 

The germania. 217 

meaning of sinus here resembles that in c. i. and^a tract of coun- 
try extending beyond the ancient boundaries of the empire, into 
xerritory fonnerly occupied by the Germans. 

^* Pars provinciae. — The province of Germania Cisrhenana, or 
of Raetia, 

Chap. XXX.^ — ^ Ultra hos,^u e. those who occupied the agri 
decumates. Ultra means, farther from the Bhine. 

* Chatti, — The Chatti were separated from the Cherusci by 
the Forest of Bacenis (c. 35. Caes. B. G. yi. 10). The Chatti 
extended from the Mayn on the south, to the Yisurgis ( Weser) 
on the north, and inhabited exactly the modem country of 
Hessen, which is perhaps the same word. C in Latin becomes 
h in German; as in caput haupt, cants hund, cannabis hanf, etc.: 
s and t are freely interchangeable; as in dcu that, es it, wasser 
water, etc. The Chatti were defeated by Drusus; but, some 
time afterwards, they destroyed Varus and his legions. In the 
reign of Tiberius, Germanicus overran the country; but they 
continued in arms against the Romans for many years after, and 
aided the revolt of the Batavi in the reign of Yitellius (^AnnaL 
i. 55. 56. ii. 7. 25. Hist, iv, 37). They were also engaged in war 
with the Hermunduri, by whom they were nearly extirpated 
{Annal. xiii. 57), and with the Cherusci (G. 36). See Affr» e. 39. 
note. ^nna/.xii38. 

^ Effusis is nearly equivalent to porrectis, or planisj ^ broad, 

* In guas Germania patescit — ** Into which Germany spreads 

^ Durant.,rarescunt — Since the lulls here are not isolated 
hills; but continue for a long distance, and gradually subside. 
Virg, Aen. iii. 41 1. 

® Prosequitur.^-When a magistrate left Rome to take the com- 
mand of a province, it was usual for his friends to escort him 
part of the way: the term used for this was prosequi. 

7 Deponit — ^Where the ridge sinks down, and the chain is 
broken. It then bends to the east, and leaves the Chatti. There 
is a prosopopeia in the words suos prosequitur, and deponit 
** The Hercynian forest at once accompanies and leaves behind 
its Chatti." 

2i8 NOTES. ON 

« StricH arttis.—^ Compact limbs." 

* Ut inter Germanos. — ** Considering they are Germans." The 
Germans, generally, were deficient in these qualities. 

*® Praeponere, — ** They place over them chosen men, and obey 
those who have been placed over them." 

" Occaaiones, — ^" Fitting opportunities," So, Agr. 14. 18. 97. 

^^ Disponere diem, — ^'' They station the army in suitable places 
by day." So, Pers, v, 43. 

" VaUare noctem, — ^** They keep the soldiers within camps and 
intrenchments by night." 

^^ Nee nisi Bomanae discipUnae concesaum, — In the age of 
Tacitus, the wars carried on by the Romans were only against 
undisciplined barbarians; so that order and discipline might, 
with some reason, be claimed as peculiar to the Bomans. 

IS Ferramentis. — As axes, spades, pickaxes, etc. 

^* Copiis, — ^Provisions and com, 

'^ Alios. . videos, — PrcuHiumy ** one battle." BeUum, ** a succes- 
sion of battles." 

" Cito cedere ** Quickly to give up the victory." 

** Velocitasjuxtaformidinem. — ** Speed borders upon fear." 

Chap. XXXI. — * Et aliis. . vertit,—" And, what is rarely done 
by other tribes of Germans, and only by the individual boldness 
of each, amongst the Chatti has become a regular and received 
custom." Vertit for conversum est. See Bend, ad Hot. Carm, 
ly. X. 5. TpcTTc is used in a neuter sense by Soph. Ant. iioy. 
So, liiratrrpk^Hv (^Eur. Hipp. 1326). Tacitus uses the subjunc- 
tive dddeverint and absolvaty a little farther on, because he is 
speaking of a custom. 

* Ohligatumque virtuti oris habitum. — ** By which they have 
bound themselves to a life of daring." 

^ Bevelant frontem. — ^By cutting their hair and shaving their 

* Pretia nascendi rettulisse, — " That they have paid the debt of 
their birth — ^the debt they owed to their country and parents for 
having been bom." The perfect of the verbs rrfero, reperio, 
repeUoy should be written with two consonants, having been ori- 
ginally retetulij repeperi^ repepuli. 

* Fortissmu8..gestat^lt was very common, in the middle 


agesy for those who were under ft tow of penance, to wear an 
iron ring till they had fulfilled it. 

' Phirimia Chattorum hie placet habitu8,^Yery many retain this 
appearance even after they have slain an enemy, as though they 
were bonnd by a row from which they conld only be released by 

' Jam^ve.— ** And at last.** 

" Visu nova, — ^Because this cnstom prevails only among the 
Ghatti. Nova is here equivalent to inusitaia. So, NttUo hosHum 
sustinente novum ac velut infemum aapectum (c. 43)."" 

' Aliqua cura,"^ e. of getting a living. 

^° Donee, .faciai, — This is another instance of the use of the 
subjunctive after donec^ though an actual fact is expressed. 

Chap. XXXTT.~»' Cerium jam alveo Rhenum. — Where the 
stream is now confined within fixed limits, and does not form so 
many branches and lakes as in the country of the Batavi Alveo, 
the bed of the river. 

' Quique terminus esse auffieiat — The river being deeper, pre-f 
sents fewer fords to the TranarJienanij and therefore requires 
fewer fortifications. 

• Usipii (tc Teneteri. — These two tribes generally go together, 
both in geography and history. They frequently changed their 
settlements. When driven from their own possessions by the 
Chatti, whom Caesar calls Suevi {B. G, iv. 1-15), after wandering 
in Germany for three years, they came to the Rhine; and having 
crossed it, seized upon the lands and dwellings of the Menapii, 
Eburones, and Condrusi, between the Bhine and Moselle. From 
this point they spread farther into Gaul; but having been put 
to flight by Caesar, after a great slaughter, the greater part of 
the remainder perished in attempting to cross the Rhine. A 
part of the cavalry, which had not been engaged in the battle, 
took refuge in the territories of the Sigambri. When the Sigam- 
bri removed to Gaul, the Usipii and Teneteri became masters of 
their possessions on the Lupia (^Zippe). The Usipii (or Usipe- 
tes, as they are called in Annal, i. 51. and Ca^s, B. G. iv. 1) at 
first dwelt on the east bank of the Rhine, from its eastern mouth 
to the Lippe, in the tract which the Chamavi and Tubantes 
occupied before them; but they gradually moved southwards. 


In the time of Claudius and Nero, they dwelt between ihe Sieg 
and the Lahn, where they were still in the time of Taicitos. 
The name of the Usipii disappears from history after the time of 
Agricola; they became mixed up with the Alemanni The 
Tencteri lived south of the Lippe, in the region opposite Cologne 
and Bonn. At the time of the expeditions of Drusus and Tibe^ 
rius, they had removed eastward; but returned after the defeat 
of Yams: and in the age of Tacitus, their possessions extended 
northwards to the lippe, where they bordered on the Bructeri, 
and southwards to the Sieg. Caes, B, G. iv. 1-18. 

* Equestris disciplinae arte praecellunt. — See Caes* B. G. iv. 2. 
11. 12. 16. 

Chap. XXXm. — ^ The Bructeri, in all their wars with the 
Romans, never changed their seats. Towards the west, they 
reached to the Yech; towards the south, to the Lippe; towards 
the east, almost to the Weser; and towards the north, they bor- 
dered on the Frisii and Chauci. For some time, while the Bomans 
were superior in this quarter, they seem to have retired from the 
Lippe; but they afterwards returned. The Bructeri were divided 
into the B, Majoresy who dwelt on the east, and the B, Minorest 
who dwelt on the west of the Amisia (Ems). They remained in 
their old setttlements till the Cherusci, under the common name 
of Franks, united all the tribes of this part in one league, and 
henceforth we find them on the banks of the Bhine. Towards 
the end of the first century, they were subdued by the Chamavi 
and Angrivarii, and, according to Tacitus, extirpated. But in 
this he is most probably mistaken; for we find the Boman com* 
mander, Spurinna, engaged with them in the reign of Trajan; 
and in later times they appear as a powerful people among the 

The original country of the Chamavi was the tract which ex- 
tended northwards to the Yech, eastward to the Ems, southwardB 
to the Lippe, and westwards to the eastward mouth of the Rhine. 
At a later period, they lived between the Weser and the Ham 
Mountains, in Eichfeld, and a part of Grubenhagen and Hohen- 
stein. In the third century they are again found on the Rhine, 
as members of the Frank league; and in the next century they 
spread themselves along the WaaL Tacitus has most probably 


committed a mistake in placing them in the country of the 
Bmcteri (vide supra). 

The Angriyarii dwelt on both ades of the Yisnrgis (Weaer), 
bnt mainlj in the territoiy between that river and the Elbe. 
They were between the Chauci and Chemsci. Traces of their 
name are stfll found near the Mbe, in Angern, Engent, Engerg- 
hauseriy Angermiifide^ etc. They are mentioned in Annai, ii. 04. 

' Nam ne apectactdo quidem prodii invidere, — Spectaculo is in 
the ablative case; invidere governs a dative of the perspn: **For 
the gods did not begmdge ns even in the matter of allowing us 
to be spectators of a battle." This event, which is not men- 
tioned by any other author, must have taken place between ▲.». 
70 and '98, the date of the publication of this work; for at the 
l)eginning of Vespasian's reign, the nation and state of the Bmc- 
teri were yet flourishiag, as is clear from Hist, iv. 31. 61. 77. 
V. la 

' Urgentibus imperii fatis. — " When the empire is in a critical 
state"; allusion being made to the slaughter of the Romans by 
CiviHs and his allies, a.d. 6^. 70, the civil wars, and the misfor- 
tunes of Domitian's reign. 

Chap. XXXrV.—M ter^ro.— On the east. 

• DM^'6int.^These people are placed by Ptolemy on the cast- 
em bank of the Weser; but this was not the position in which 
Tacitus knew them. He places them in the rear of the Chamavi , 
and Angrivarii, in what was once the territory of the Bructeri 
(see c. 33); accordingly, their territories would lie between the 
Ems and the Lippe, where the town of Dulgibinum (Dulmen) 
was situated. They belonged to the Cheraaci, and were appa- 
rently driven eastwards by the same eruption of the Chauci as 
that which expelled the Angrivarii. 

' Chasuari, — Ptolemy places their settlements on the western 
side of the Weser, between the Haase and the sources of the 
Lippe, in Osnaburg and Paderbom. They were a tribe of the 
Chemsci; and afterwards appear among the Franks on the west- 
em part of the lower Rhine, in the dukedom of Gelders. They 
were conquered by Tiberius and Germanicus. Veil, ii 118. 

* Aliafique gentes. — As the Ansibawi, Tubantes, Turonii, Ner- 
tercani, Danduti, Marvingi, etc.- 


* Frisii, — The FrisH Mmores inhabited the tract north of the 
Insula BcUavonimf comprising Oberjssel, Grelders, Utrecht, and 
the greater part of the province of Holland* The Frisii Majo- 
res dwelt between the Tssel, the Ems, and the country of the 
Bmcteri in West Friesland, and Groningen. The Frisiabonest 
mentioned by Fliny, probably formed a part of the same race, 
and seem to have dwelt in the islands of the Znyder Zee. From 
their first acquaintance with the Romans, they long continued 
their most zealous friends in this part: they rendered Dmsus 
the most actiye service; and not only supported Germanicus 
themselves, by their advice and service, but brought over the 
Chauci also. The cause of this friendship is, probably, to be 
found in the hos^ty which existed between them and the Che- 
msci, against whom all these enterprises of the Bomans were 
directed* It was interrupted, however, in consequence of the 
Bomans building forts in their territories, and attempting to 
levy tribute. They rose upon the Romans, massacred the sol- 
diers who were among them, and destroyed most of their strong- 
holds. Corbulo, the Roman general, proceeded against them; 
but the jealousy of Claudius Caesar stopped his conquests, and 
he was obliged to withdraw to the left bank of the Rhine. From 
this time forward, the Romans no more entered their countiy. 
In the fourth and fifth centuries, we hear of them as members of 
the Saxon league; and by this time they had greatly extended 
their possessions. They accompanied the Saxons in their inva- 
sion and conquest of Britain. Their descendants, who still 
retain their name, inhabit the small islands on the western coast 
of Schleswig. No other writer than Tacitus mentions the dis- 
tinction between the Majores and Minores Frisii, Annal, iL 34. 
iv. 70. 73. xi. 18-ao. xiii. 54. Hist iv. 15. 

" Preietexuntur, — ^literally, •* Are edged." 

^ Immensos insuper locus. — These lakes, formed at the mouth 
of the Rhine, are now collected into the Zuyder Zee. Upon 
them the Roman armies made several expeditions to the ocean, 
and into Germany along the Ems. Ann, i. 6a 6^ 70. ii 8. An- 
ciently, the Zuyder Zee was mostly dry land, consisting of 
islands formed partly by the sand heaped up by the sea, and partly 
by the depositions of the Rhine. These islands were afterwards 
overflowed ^y the sea; but may still be traced in the numerous 


shallows and sand-banks with which this sea abounds. Annal, 
ii 6. Caes, B. G, ir. 10. 

^ Hamanis ckutibus naingaioa. — Annal. L 70. ii. 5. 

' Temptavimus^ — ^In the best MSS. of Tacitus, this verb is 
always written tempto, and not tento. 

*° Hereidis cchtmntu, — ^At the Sound, between Denmark and 

" Druso Germanico. — Dmsos was the brother of Tiberins, and 
step-son of Angostos. Bitter reads, Dnuo ac Germanico, on 
the ground that the remark of Tacitus applies with eyen more 
force to the son than the father. 

Chap. XXXY.— ' iVatnmt».— *< We have examined." 
' Ingenti Jlexu, — ^This bend is formed by the Cimbiic Cher so - 
nesns; which Tacitus conceived to be rather curved and round, 
than angular and pointed. 

' Chauconm, gen8,-^The Chauci dwelt along the ocean, from 
the Amisia (^Ernma) to the Albis (JElbe), and reached southwards 
somewhat below what is now Ostfriesland, Oldenburg, and Bre- 
men. Pliny and Ptolemy divide them into the greater and the 
less: though Tacitus does not make this distinction here, he 
alludes to it in his Annals (xi. 19); and we gather from him, 
that the Chauci Majores dwelt between the Amisia and the Vi- 
surgis ( Weser)', accordingly, the Chauci Minorca must be looked 
for between the Yisurgis and the Albis. Ptolemy assigns them 
rather narrower Ihnits; as in his time the western Chauci were 
more confined than in the age of Tacitus. The Chauci were 
friends of the Bomans in the expedition of Drusus, and still 
more so in that of Tiberius (^Annal. L60. ii. 17). Even after the 
disaster of Varus, they continued their friendship; and Germa- 
nicus made all his expeditions against the Cherusci from this 
side. But here again the Eomans roused the enmity of their 
allies, by pursuing the policy which we have seen attended with 
similar results in the case of the Frisii. Under Gannuscus, they 
crossed the Bhine, and made incursions on the Boman province 
of Germania Inferior (^AnnaL xi. 18); but were repulsed by Cor- 
bulo. They afterwards aided Civilis in the Batavian war {Bist, 
iv. 79. V. 19). Even after the expulsion of the Romans, they 
continued the enemies of the Cherusci, and felt themselves 


powerfnl enough to drive this people from the west bank of the 
Weser, while they ejected the Ansibarii (^nna/. xiii. 55), and 
perhaps some more southerly branches of the Chemsci, from 
their possessions along the Weser; and it is only after this that 
the remark of Tacitus applies to them, that the southern angle 
of their territory bordered on one side on the Chemsd, and on 
the other, on the Chatti. But the Langobardi, pressing west- 
wards to the Bhine, established themselves in all the lands which 
had belonged to the Chemsci and their allies; and in the time 
of Ptolemy, the Chauci were reduced within their original boun- 
daries. Their name is still preserved in that of their harbour, 

* Lateribus obtenditurj—Tids means, that the Chauci occupy 
the east of the above nations, as far as the Elbe. 

^ Sinuetur, — 1. e. towards the south. . 

* Impotentia, i e. impotentia suu — ^Want of command over one's 
passions. Mtdiebris impotentia (^nno/. i. 4). Mater tH^tens 
(^Annal. v. 1). See Cic, Tusc, iv. 15. Nunquam potentia sua ad 
impotentiam uevs ( Veil ii. 39). 

^ Nulla provocant bdla. — So, Hist, ii. 61. Agr, 43. 

^ Id praedpuum. . assequuntur. — ^ This fact is a principal proof 
of their valour and prowess, that," etc So Thucydides makes 
the Corinthians say: T6 ydp fi^ iiuceiv to^q o^otovc Ifrxypwrkpa 

Chap. XXXVL— > CAenwci.— The tribe of the Chemsci must 
be carefully distinguished from the league of the Chemsci. As 
a tribe, their possessions lay in the Harz Mountains, and on 
both sides of them, but chiefly on the south, where the north- 
west part of the Thiiringer Wald separated them from the 
Chatti. The Sala (Saale) probably formed their eastern boun- 
dary; so that their territory comprehended the duchies of Bruns- 
wick and Magdeburg, with the principalities of Halberstadt, 
Schwarzburg, Gmbenhagen, and Calenberg. The name Harz is 
derived from that of Chemsci. See Caes, B, G. vi 10. Ptolemy 
places them only on the south side of the Harz Mountains; but 
the expeditions of Germanicus show that they dwelt on the north 
side also. A wall built between the Steinhuder See and the 
Weser separated them from the Angrivarii {Annal, ii. 19). They 


were at first in alliance with Home; and Arminius commanded 
a squadron of German cavalry in the Roman anny, and so far 
distinguished himself, that he was made a Boman knight Af- 
terwards, roused bj this leader, the Cherusci joined the Chatti 
and others in the attack upon Varus; for a history- of which, see 
Annal, i. 59-63. ii. 9-26. They were afterwards defeated by Ger- 
manicus {Annal U. 17). Their strength, however, was not much 
broken; for the following year they defeated the Marcomanni 
under Maroboduus, and were now, through the courage and 
conduct of Arminius, the first people in Germany. The Che- 
ruscan league included the Bulgibini, Ansibarii, Chasuarii, Cha> 
mavi, Tubantes, and Marsi. These and other small tribes are 
frequently called Cherusci Thus the land between the sources 
of the Iipx>e and the Weser, in all the accounts of the transac- 
tions before the defeat of Varus, is called the land of the Che- 
rusci. But the power and influence which Arminius had acquired, 
roused the jealousy of other princes, and he was murdered by 
some of his own family. With him fell the greatness of the 
Cherusci. Internal dissension^ ruined the whole family of their 
ancient princes. In the reign of Claudius they sent to Borne to 
ask, as king, Italicus, a descendant of the family of Arminius, 
T^ho was bom at Rome. Being, however, looked upon as an 
alien, he was driven out, but was reinstated by the Langobardi 
(^nna/. xi. 16. 17). Their league was speedily dissolved; feuds 
arose between them and the neighbouring tribes, and a consider- 
able portion of their territory was wrested from them by the 
Langobardi, and they were driven from the west of the Thiirin- 
ger Wald by the ChattL 

' Impotentes, i. e. impotentes «ut.^— See c. 35. 

' Uhi manu agitur. — "Where matters are decided by the 

* Modestia. . sunt — Probitas, " mildness ": probus is connected 
with the Greek TrpafvC' Tmprobus labor ( Virg. Georg. i. 146) 
merely means, " violent labour." Moderation and mildness are 
ascribed, not to the weak and inactive, but to those who pos- 
sess the power of injuring their neighbours without abusing 

* OUm bani aequique Cherusci. — ^When the Cherusci were in ^ 
flourishing condition, they were reputed boni, or brave, and 



aequi on account of their moderation. On their reverse of for- 
tune, they were called inertes, or cowardly, and stidtL 

^ Nunc inertes ac stulti vocantur. — Thuringi, derived &om the 
word thoring, ** stupid.*' 

^ Chattia victoribus. — See Annul, xii. aS. Dio. Ixvii. 5. The 
meaning is: ** The success of the Chatti, which was due to their 
good fortune, has, since they gained the mastery, been placed to 
the account of their wisdom." 

^ Fosi. — The name of this tribe is perhaps connected with that 
of the river Fusa, which flows into the Aller near Zelle. They 
were annihilated by the LangobardL They are not mentioned 

Chap. XXXVIL — ^ JEundem Germaniae sinum. — This is what 
Tacitus calls ingentem flexum in c. 35. Also in c. 1 we have 
lato8 sinus, and c. 39, sinus imperii, Codanus is the name given 
to it by Pomponius Mela. Super Albin Codanus, ingens sinus 
magnis parvisque insulis refertus est. In eo sunt Cimbri et Teu- 
toni vltimi Germaniae Hermiones (iii. 3). 

' Cim^n.'^The original abode of the Cimbri is uncertain. We 
afterwards find them in the Chersonesus Cimbrica, the modem 
peninsula of Jutland, which is called by Fliny the Fromontorinm 
Cimbrorum. Many writers, misled by the similarity of names, 
have identified the Cimbri with the Cimmerians; but this sup- 
position has been justly abandoned by modem scholars. The 
Cimbri were probably Kelts; and their name is preserved in 
Cymry, the national appellation of th^ Welsh. In conjunction ^ 
with the Teutoni and Ambrones, a Grermanic people, they mi- 
grated south with their wives and children, and caused the 
greatest alfum at Bome. In b.c. 113 they defeated the consul 
Cn. Papirius Carbo, near Noreia, and then crossed over into 
Gaul, which they ravaged in all directions. In 109 they defeated 
the consul Junius Silanus; in 107, the consul Cassius Longinus, 
who fell in battle; and in the same year, Aurelius Scaums. In 
105 they gained their most brilliant victory, near the Bhone, 
over the united amiies of the cdnsul Cn. Manlius and the pro- 
consul Servilius Caepio. Instead of crossing the Alps, the 
Cimbri, fortunately for Bonie, marched into Spain, where they 
remained two or three years. The fiomana, meantime, had 


been making preparations to resist their formidable foes, and 
had placed their troops under the command of Marius. The 
barbarians returned to Gaol in 103. In that year the Tentoni 
wece defeated and cut to pieces by Marins, near Aquae Sextiae 
(^Aix)t in Gaul; and next year (101) the Cimbri and their allies 
were likewise destroyed by Marius and Catnlus, in the decisive 
battle of the Campi Baudii, near Verona, in the north of Italy. 
In the time of Augustus, the Cimbri, who were then a })eople of 
no importance, sent an embassy to the emperor. 

' Ripa. — On the banks of the Danube and the Rhine, spacious 
camps (ccutra ac spatid) were found in the time of Tacitus. 

* Molem refers more to the power, mamu to the numbers of 
the Cimbri. 

* Exittts, — ^** Migration.** Ctc. Parad, ir. 1. Cats, B. Civ. iiL 6^ 

* Akerum, . canstdatum. — ^a.d. 98. 

^ Tarn tUu Germania vincitur, — The present tense shows that 
Tacitus was engaged in writing this book at the tune he speaks 
of (A.D. 98). 

* Non Higpaniae, — ^The two Spains. The Iberus formed the 
boundary between these two proYinces. Wars were carried on 
here by the Romans agamst the Spanish allies of the Carthagi- 
nians, against Viriathus, the Numantini, Sertorius, and others. 

* Galliae, — GaUia IVansalpina and Gallia Cisalpina. 
>^ Admonuere, — ** Have reminded us** of our weakness. 

*^ Quippe regno Arsacis. . Uhertas. — ^ No doubt it is because 
the impatience of control which characterises the Germans, is 
more -rigorous (is a greater stimulus to exertion) than the des- 
potism of Arsaces." Compare Anjied. ii 44. 88. xiii 50. 

^ Caedem Crassi, — M. licinius Crassus was defeated and slain 
by the Parthians, b.c. 53. When Augustus was staying in Asia 
(b.c. 30), Fhraates, fearing war might be declared against him, 
restored the captires and standards which had been taken in the 
defeats of Crassus and Antonius. P. Yentidius Bassus was the 
lieutenant of Antony; he had originally been a mule-driver, and 
had risen to the command of the Roman armies solely through 
the favour of Antony, whom he joined with three legions after 
liie battle of Mutina. Juv» xi. 13. He conquered Pacorus, the 
eldest son of Orodes, b.c. 39, on the very same day (June 9) as 
Crassus had been slain fourteen years before. 

2'i8 NOTES ON 

" At Germani Carbone, — These defeats are mentioned in note 
3 above. The praenomen of Carbo is here omitted, having been 
mentioned just before. 

" Cnaeo quoque Manlio. — ^All the old MSS. and editions have 
M. quoque Manlio. Cn. and M. are frequently confounded in 
the MSS. It had been decreed after the death of M. Manlius 
Capitolinns, who was accused by the patrician party of aiming 
at royal power, that no one of this family should bear the name 
of Marcus {Liv, yi. 90. Cie. Phil i. 13). 

*^ Caesari (i. e. Augusto) abstuhnint, — ^▲.d. 9. See Suet Aug, 23. 

*^ Divus Julitts in GaZ2ta.~For the campaigns of Julius Caesar 
against the Germans, see Cae8,B,G»i.2^^. ii> 1-33. iv. i-ig. 
vi. 9-28. 

" Drusus ac Nero et Crermanicus. — Nero is the emperor 
Tiberius. The conjunction tic is changed, because Drusus and 
Nero are more closely connected with one another than with 
Germanicus. Dmsns and Tiberius Nero were brothers. Ger- 
manicus was the son of Drusus. See notes on c. 1. 

'^ Max. — ^A.D. 39. 
Caii Caesaris (Caligulae) minae in ludibrium versae, — " The 
mighty threats of Caligula terminated in ridicule." See Hi^ 

iv. 15. 

^ Inde oiium. — During the reigns of Claudius and Nero. But 
compare Annul, xi. 18*20. xii. 27-30. Snet Claud. 24. 

^^ Civilium armorvm. — The wars carried on by Galba, Otho, 
Vitellius, and Vespasian. 

^ Expugnatia legionum hibernis.'-^A.D, 6g, by tihe Batavi under 
Claudius Civilis {Hist iv. 12-15. v. 20). The passage in Agricola 
(41), tot militares viri, etc., does not refer to this event, but to 
the wars carried on fifteen years before by Domitian against the 
Marcomanni and DacL 

*® Proximis temporibus. — Not only in the reign of Domitian, 
but also in those of Nerva, Trajan, and Hadrian. 

^ Triumphati magis quam mcft'. — See Agr, 39. Pers. vi 43-50. 
Suet, Co/. 47. The cognomen of Germanxcusy and the honour of 
a triijmph, were frequently, out of flattery, conferred on the 
emperors, or their sons and favourites; sometimes, as in the case 
of Caligula and Domitian, upon men who had never even seen 
the enemy. 


Chap. XXXVIII. — * According to TacituB, the Saevi pos- 
sessed all the land from the ]t>anks of the Danube northwards to 
the Baltic Sea, between the Elbe and the Yistnla. Through the 
midst of their territories stretched a chain of mountains, the 
name of which we do not learn from Tacitus (c.43); but which, 
from his description, appears to be identical with the Ascibur- 
gian range of Ptolemy, and the modem Riesen Gebirge, Caesar 
makes their possessions extend to the Rhine, along the north 
bank of the Moenus. The reason of this was probably owing to 
the fact, that on the north side of the Main, an army of Suevi 
had come to the aid of Ariovistus, which afterwards retired 
(Coes. P. 6r. i. 37.54. iv. 1-3). The Chatti were the tribe to 
which Caesar gave the name of Suevi Strabo even speaks of 
Suevi on the Rhine, when all the tribes in that quarter had 
already become known through the expeditions of the Romans 
{Anncd. i. 44. ii. 36. 44. Agr. 28. Ptol, ii 11). Suevi was the col- 
lective name of a great number of German tribes, which are 
enumerated by Tacitus (c. 38-45). After the time of Tacitus, 
the name seems to have been nearly lost; but in the third cen- 
tury we find a people bearing the name, who dwelt in the coim- 
try called from them Stutbia. 

^ Insigne gentvi, etc — ** It is the peculiar custom of the Suevi 
to comb their hair back over the head, and to fasten it up in a 
knot upon the crown. Among other tribes, this custom is rare, 
and practised only by the youth; but amongst the Suevi by the 
old men also, who comb back their bristly grey hair, and fre- 
quently bind it in a knot upon the crown itself," t. e. " just on 
the crown," and nowhere else, 

^ Sic Suevorum ingenui a servis, separantur. — Among the 
Franks, the oommonalty and serfs had their hair cut short. 

* Ea cura format, — " Such is their attention to their personal 

^ In altiiudinem quamdam et terrorem, — ** To make themselves 
appear tall, and so strike terror into the enemy." Compare Nam 
primi in omnibus proeliia oculi vincuntur (c, 43). 

Chap. XXXIX. — * Vetustissimos. .memorant— The Semnones 
lived between the Elbe and the Oder (see notes on c. 38), inha- 
biting the tract which comprises what is now Mecklenburg and 

fl30 NOTES ON 

Brandenburg, with part of Saxony, Bohemia, Lusatia, Silesia, 
and Poland. They belonged to the kingdom of MarobodntiB. 
The Bomans first came in contact with them in the expeditionfl 
of Tiberias, and the wars against Arminios, to whom, together 
with the Langobardi, they went over from Maroboduus (^Annal, 
it 45.46); then in the time of Domitian, when a king of theirs, 
Masyus, whom they had driven out, came to Borne. 

' In sUvam. — This is supposed to be the Sonnewald and Fin- 
sterwald, between the Elster and the Spree. 

* Augurii8..8acram, — These trords form an hexameter line. 
See Anrud, i. 1. Nineteen instances of this sort hare been noticed 
in Tacitus. Auguriia, See c. 10. 

^ Ckiesoqae pMice homine, — ** On behalf of the nation." See 

* Minor. — ^ Inferior"; Ijrrbtv, See Annul, xv. 16. Hor. Ep. i. 
X.35. 0<f. iii.6. 5. 

* Evolvuntur. — ** They roll themselves out." 
^ Indessfrom. the ground (c. 3). 

* Adjicit auctoritatem. — ^Understand, SupersHtioni iUi. Adji- 
cere is also used absolutely, meaning, ** to increase." 

' Centttm pagia habitant. — Caesar (P. G. i. 37. iv. 1) says the 
same of the Suevi. Both writers probably only drew their in- 
formation from some vague traditions. The name does not occur 
in history after the reign of Antoninus Fhilos. 

"^ Magnoque corpore (sc. civitaiia), — So, Hist iv. 64. Liv. xxvi 
16. xxxiv. 8. 

Chap. XL. — ^ Langobardoa. — The Langobardi frequently 
changed their settlements. At first they dwelt in the neigh- 
bourhood of the lower Elbe, in the tract called Bardengau^ 
between Magdeburg, Liineburg, and Hamburg, where the town 
of Bardwick stands, and in which they were subdued by Tibe- 
rius, who moved them beyond the Elbe. They then advanced 
more into the interior of the country, to the neighbourhood of 
the Semnones; and, together with these, revolted from Marobo- 
duus, under whose dominion they then were, to Anainius {AnnaL 
ii.45.46. xi.'i7), and assisted Italicus, the banished king of the 
Cherusci {Annal, xi 16. 17). But in the Marcomannic war, having 
crossed the Danube, they were defeated by Vindex and Candi- 


dus. Afterwards, on the decline of the power of the Cheroflci, 
they extended themsdves to the Bhine; and here thej are placed 
hy Ptolemy, between the Bructeri and Tencteri. They did not, 
however, remain here long; the Saxon league drove them back 
to the Elbe. In the fifth century they took possession of part of 
Hungary, on the northern bank of the Danube; and in the sixth 
century they crossed this river, and established themselves in 
Pannonla. Then, at the invitation of Narses ( a.d. 568), they set- 
tled in Lombardy, which Charlemagne subdued (a.d. 774), having 
taken Desiderius, tlhe last king. Tacitus has here omitted the 
Burgundiones, as in his time they were unknown to the Romans. 
They afterwards, with the Langobardi, settled upon the Decu- 
mates agri. Thence they made an irruption into Gaul, and 
seized upon the lands which still bear their name. 

' Paucitas nobUitat. — Because, though few in number, they 
maintained their ground against the tribes by whom they were 
surrounded (the Cherusci, Marcomanni, Senmones, Hermunduri, 
Chauci, and Marsi), not through obsequious submission to their 
neighbours, but by battles and by daring. 

' Reudigni. . Aviones^ — The position of these people is uncer- 
tain. They probably lived near Lauenberg. 

* The Angli are not mentioned in the exx>editions of Drusus 
and Tiberius, and therefore probably were at that time on the 
east of. the Elbe. Ptolemy places them on the west, in what is 
now Magdeburg. Their name does not appear separately in 
history till they joined the Saxons in the conquest of Britain. 
Part of them remained behind in Denmark, where a tract of land 
in Schleswig still bears the name of Angeln. 

^ Fannt.— The Varini are placed by Ptolemy along the sea 
from the mouth of the Trave to the Wame, which doubtless 
took its name from them. They were afterwards driven inland 
by Slavonian tribes, and united themselves with the Saxons. 
We find some tribes of the Varini in Thuringia, others on the 
banks of the Elbe, and others in the neighbourhood of the 
Ehine, where they were subdued by the Franks. They also 
appear on the south of the Danube, for they served as auxiliaries 
under Narses in Italy. 

^ Eudoses, — The Eudosea are by some placed in Holstein, 
where Eutinum, the river Eydora (Eyder), and Ending took 


their names from them; others on the banks of the river 

^ Suardones, — The Suardonea seem to have lived near Lilbeck, 
by the river Sckwartau, 

^ Nuithones, — The Nuithones seem to have dwelt somewhere 
in Holstein. 

' Herthum, —Hertkus is manifestly the same word as the Ger- 
man JErde, and the English Earth, Bitter has Ertham; Orelli, 
Nerthum (on MS. authority), which W. Miiller derives from the 
Celtic ner^A=strength, power ; and hence he assigns a Celtic or 
Gallic origin to this divinity.. It is probably the same as is men- 
tioned c. 9. 

*® Invehi poptdis, — " Visits the different nations." Inveho is 
sometimes constructed with the dative case. See Annal. ii. 33. 
Similarly the Scandinavian god Freyr or Fro, was conveyed in 
solemn state among the people every spring. 

" In insula oceani. — There are various opinions respecting the 
situation of this island, but Bugen is most probably the island 
meant. The wood spoken of seems to be that of Stubnitz, and 
the lake the Burgsee. In this forest is a lofty rock, to this day 
called Hertha's rock, with a lake at the bottom of it in shape 
nearly circular, of immense depth, and surrounded by very thick 
woods. Among the northern nations, islands were almost mva- 
riably selected for the performance of their religious rites; as was 
the case with Anglesea, the Isle of Man, Holy Island, lona, etc. 

" Castum. — " Unpolluted." So, Luci panan casti (Hor, Od. 
I. xii. 60), and Casta penetralia. Nearly all the circumstances 
mentioned here concerning the worship of Herthus, agree with 
those practised at the worship of the deity of the earth (called 
Ceres, Bhea, Ops, Demeter, Cybele, or Isis), in Thrace and 
Phrygia, by the Cabiri, Corybantes, and Idaean Dactyls. At 
Pessinus festive days were kept, in which the image of the god- 
dess was drawn in a car by cows, through the towns of Phrygia 
( Virg. Aen, vi. 785). At every place she passed through, sacri- 
fices were offered; and at last the car of the deity was purified 
in the water of Almon. 

^^ Dicatum, — Dicare is, properly, "to bind"; and thence 
means, " to dedicate," " to consecrate," and is the same in origin 
as ligare, ligattis (Eng. tight). 


** PenetraU.—'TbjB refers to oeAtcv/um, the oorered car; not to 
the grove, which Tacitiis soon after calls templum, 

'^ Buintsfeminis^zfemale oxen. 

'^ Noh heUa ineunL — ^A festival, called AUa nuama Jrith (i. e. 
AUmaniCB friede), in which they abstained from war, continued 
to be celebrated in Gothland, even after the introduction of 
Christianity. Twice every year peace was observed for ten days. 

'^ Pax et quie8,-^PaT refers to foreign wars; quies, to internal 

*" Deam temph reddoL — Templum does not imply any build- 
ing; it merely means a space marked out {Gr, rifuvog, from the 
root refA (cut), in rl/ivoi); it was applied to the portion of the 
heavens which the augur marked out by his wand when taking 
the auspices. 

*' Idem kuna haurit—^'^ Swallows up.*' 

^ Sanctaque ignorantia. — ^ A holy ignorance of what that can 
be, which is only seen by those persons who are doomed to 


Chap. XLL — * Propiw. — Nearer to the Boman provinces on 
the right bank of the Danube. 

^ Hermundurorum dviUu. — The Hermunduii appear to have 
dwelt originally in the north of Bohemia and the neighbouring 
mountains, since Tacitus places the sources of the Albis (JEHbe) 
in Bohemia and the neighbouring moimtains. Aft;er the over- 
throw of Maroboduus and Catualda, they spread in a north- 
eastern direction, and occupied the country about the sources of 
the Main and Saale; that is, the part of Franconia as far as 
Eissingen, and the south-western part of the kingdom of Saxony 
(JFlumen Albia, qui Semnonum Hermundurorumque fines praeter- 
fluit F«fl.ii.io6). 

' Fida Romania, — TJntQ a.d. 153, when a general conspiracy 
against the Romans was entered into by the Marcomianni, Quadi, 
and other tribes. 

* Penitus, — In the interior. 

^ Splendidis8ima.,colonia. — This is generally supposed to be 
Augusta Yindelicorum (Augsburg). Tacitus here comprises the 
Vindelici under the Rhaetl; in Armed, ii. 17 he joins the two, 
^lihaetorum Vinddicorumque," 

2 34 NOTES ON 

' Sine cuitode, — Hist, iv. 64. 

"^ Non concupiscaUibus,^—** Without exciting their ayarice.** 

^ In Hermundwris Albis (Elbe) oritur, — The Vandals after- 
wards inhabited this part; whence Dio says (1y. 1), *0 'AX/Sis 
pu U rdv OifavSciXjxiSv dpuiv. The original source of the Elbe 
is farther east and north than the Hermnndori extend on the 
confines of Bohemia and Silesia. Hence it is thonght» Tacitus 
here speaks of the JEger, a tribntary stream rising in Eranconia, 
and flowing into the Elbe. 

* Notum oUm, — Through the expeditions of Drusns, Domitins, 
and Tiberius. .^Inii. iy. 44. ii 41. 

Chap. XUL— >iVamct.— They dwelt at the foot of the 
Eichtelgebirge, south-east of the Hermnnduri, in the north- 
eastem part of Bayaria. 

' Marcomani, — The name is more usually written MarcomannL 
Their name signifies ''men of the march** or ''border.*' We 
first hear of this people in the army of Arioyistus, when he 
was at war with Caesar and the Helyetians (^Caes, B, G, i. 
51) on the Bhine; then between the Main and the Neckar. 
After Caesar's death, they dwelt between the Danube and 
the Draye, in Austria and Hungary, till the Bomans con- 
quered Pannonia and the Noric Alps, when they withdrew to 
the opposite side of the riyer, into the country formerly occupied 
by the Boii, whom they expelled. This they did under the 
guidance of Maroboduus, who in his youth had come to Borne, 
and been educated at the court of Augustus. He raised his peo- 
ple to a high pitch of prosperity, and formed a league including 
a great number of the Sueyic tribes, of which the Langobardi 
and Senmones were the most northerly. His power had become 
formidable to Bome, and Tiberius prepared to inyade his domi- 
nions. But a sudden insurrection of the Pannonian and Dalma- 
tian tribes compelled Tiberius to conclude a treaty with him 
( VeXL ii. 108-1 10. Annal, ii. 16). The Langobardi and Senmones 
haying withdrawn fiK)m Maroboduus, and attached themaelyes 
to Arminius, the chief of the Cherusci, a war ensued between 
them. Inguiomerus, the uncle of Arminius, came oyer to Maro- 
boduus, who was defeated, and compelled to retire amongst the 
Marcomanni, and apply to Bome for assistance {AsmaL ii. 44* 46. 


63.63). It appears that a peace was then concladed between 
them. Marobodnus was soon after expelled by Catnalda, and 
forced to take refuge in Italy: he lived there, at Bavenna, for 
eighteen years. Catnalda was driven out by the Hermunduri, 
and also Oed to Tiberius for protection. The followers of these 
two princes were settled beyond the Danube, between the Mo- 
rava and Gran; and Yannios, from the tribe of the Quad!, was 
appointed as their king (^Annal. ii. 62, 63. xiL ag. 30. Hist. iii. 5). 
Peace was mamtained between the Romans and the tribes along 
the Danube till the reign of Domitian, when hostilities broke 
out, and continued almost uninterruptedly till the destruction of 
the Boman empire. M. AureUus was at war with them during 
ahnost the 'whole of his reign. After the death of Attila, in 
whose fumy they served, they are not any more heard of. 

^ Qttadi. — The Romans first became acquainted with the Quadi 
after the eonquest of Pannonia. They always appear in the 
closest connection with the Marcomanm. Their most ancient 
settlements on the Danube reached eastward to the Theiss, where 
they bordered on the Getaej but partly in consequence of the 
irruption of tke Jazyges, partly through the influence of Maro- 
bodnus, they withdrew westwards. The name Quadi was given 
to the mixed tribe composed of the followers of Marobodnus and 
Catnalda, settled by the Romans between the Mams and the 
Cusus. Towards the north they reached to the Carpathian 
Mountains, beyond which dwelt the Lygii. Their western limits 
cannot be determined with accuracy. The original tribe of the 
Quadi seems to have extended westwards beyond the Morava, 
and to have united with their brethren on the east They joined 
the Marcomanni in the great war with M. AureUus, and they 
were almost constantly engaged in hostilities with the Roman 
empire, till the fifth century, when they appear to have coalesced 
with other nations. 

* Agunt sc. aetnem or viiam, 

^ From est — i, e. opposite or in front of the Roman empire. 

' Tuder, or Tudrus, is not mentioned elsewhere, nor are other 
kings of the Marcomanni and Quadi spoken of, except by writers 
cf a later age. 

7 JSxtemos sc. reges. — As Catnalda, Yannios, Yangio, Sido 
(^nna/. ii.62.63. xii. 99.30). 



* Sed vta.,Itimana, — ^Partly on account of the support afforded 
them hy the Bomans against the different factions of their king- 
doms; partly because some of them owed their royalty to the 

9 Saepius pecunia. — In point of fact, the Bomans were some- 
times compelled to pay tribute to these princes, as to Decebalus, 
the king of the Daci, and his allies, the Marcomanni and Qnadi 
(^Dio IxviL 7. Ixviii. 9). Compare c. 15, etc. 

*• Nee minus valent, sc. than if they were assisted by our arms, 
for our money increases their influence with thdr neighbours. 

Chap. XLIII. — * Marsigni, Gothini, Osi^ JBuri, — These tribes 
lived near the Oder and Vistula, in the moimtains of Silesia and 
Bohemia. The Marsigni seem to have lived about Warsaw; the 
Gothini in Cracow, or on the banks of the Mams (March), as it 
is said that the Qnadi imposed a tribute upon them. The Osi 
were a tribe of the Boioarii, from whom, according to some, 
Housif or Ousgow, took its name ; according to others, they 
dwelt in the mountain region between the sources of the Yiadrus 
and those of the Granua, or between the Vistula and Mount 
Tatra, in Gallicia and Cracow. T^e Buri lived near the 
sources of the Viadrus and Vistula, extending as far as Briga 
and Cracow, or near to Troppau, in Silesia. In conjunc- 
tion, first with the Daci, and afterwards with the Marcomanni, 
they waged war with Trajan, Commodus, and M. Aurelius 
(c. 28). 

* Suevos referunt-^So, Rchora parentum liberi referuwt (c. 20). 
^ Sarmatae. — ^By the Sarmatae here are probably meant the 

Jazyges Metanastae, who dwelt in the neighbourhood of the 
Quadi, or else the Sidones. 

^ Gothini. , effodiunt. — The Greeks and Bomans generally em- 
ployed slaves to work in the mines. 

^ Quo magis pudeat. — ^Because the iron mines in their country 
ought to furnish them with arms with which to assert their free- 
dom, more especially as their masters could not easily procure 
iron, Neferrum quidem superest (c. 6). 

^ Vertices montium, — These are the Erzgebirge, Biesengdrirge, 
and the Sudetan mountains. 

^ Jugum alone, without montis, is seldom used. 


® Sueviam. — This name was probably first formed from the 
German by Tacitus. 

^ Continuum montium jugum. — ** An unbroken ridge of moun- 
tains.'* See notes on c. a8. 

*® Lygiorum nomen. — The Lygii, or ligii, extended from the 
sonrces of the Vistula to about the middle of its course. To the 
south they bordered on the Carpathian Mountains, to the west on 
the Riesengebirge, and to the north on the Burgundii; including 
the southern part of Silesia, the western part of Galicia, and 
some parts of Poland west of the Vistula. Some of tliem joined 
the Marcomanni and Hermunduri against the Quadi; others, 
during the reign of Frobus, under the guidance of their king, 
Senmo, with the Burgundii and Vandals, adyanced as far as the 
Rhine against the Romans. After this period their name dis- 
appears (AnjuU. xii. 29. 30). Some identify them with the Ligues, 
or Ligurians, in Gaul; and suppose that, having been conquered 
by the Gauls, they migrated first into Italy, and then into Ger- 

" Harios. , Naharvalos. — ^The positions of these subdivisions 
mentioned by Tacitus, are not determined with accuracy. The 
Harii are supposed to have lived by the Sudetan Mountains, in 
the neighbourhood of Amsdorf and Amsberg; the Helvecones, 
between Ukermark and Priegnitz; the Manimi, at the mouth of 
the Neisse; the Helisii at Oels, in Silesia; the Naharvali, between 
the Warta and the Vistula, near Petricau. 

*' Nomen Alois. — Alcisy dat. plur., like quibus nomen Philaenis 
erat (Sail, Jug, 79). 

^^ Venerantur is transitive; the passive was not in use except 
in the participle. 

^^ JEnumertUos paulo ante populos. — The Marsigni, Gothini, 
and Osi. 

'^ Arte., nigra acuta^ tincta corpora,-^Arte refers to their black 
shields and stained bodies; tempore to the murky nights chosen 
for theur engagements. Atra^ adprodia noctes legunt, 

** Lenocinantur. — " Increase the efiect of." Originally, " pan- 
der to.*' 

" Tincta corpora, — -This practice, which was unusual amongst 
the Germans, was probably borrowed from the Sarmatian tribes 
(See Herod, v. 6). Compare Caes. B, G. v. 14. Agr, 10. Feralis 


exercitussssai army threatening death, or apparently composed 
of ghosts instead of men. 

'* Gothones, — The name Gothones is the same as that of 
Goths. They were frequently erroneously confounded with the 
Getae and Scythians. Pytheas is the first who mentions them, 
when they lived on the right bank of the Vistula, and on the- 
coast of the Baltic, on the borders of Silesia and Poland, and 
afterwards a part of them in Scandinavia, where their name 
appears in Gothland, Gothenbtirg, Codanus Sinus, and Gedanunu 
Pliny and Tacitus do not make them reach to the sea. A por- 
tion of them were members of the Marcomannic league (^AnnaL 
ii. fo). They first appear under the name of Goths in the time 
of Caracalla. Somewhere about the middle of the second cen- 
tury, they seem to have wandered from the Vistula to the neigh- 
bourhood of the Dnieper and Dniester, and incessantly harassed 
the province of Dacia. In the year 36^ they were defeated by 
Claudius in Maesia. Shortly afterwards, Aurelian abandoned 
Dacia to them; and they were now divided into Osiro- Goths or 
East-Goths, inhabiting the shores of the Euzine, and Vtsi-Goihs, 
or West-Goths, who occupied Dacia. The Borysthenes formed 
the boundary of the two divisions. About the year 375, the Huns, 
under Attila, drove the Ostrogoths upon their western neigh- 
bours, who retired before them, and were allowed by the empe- 
ror Valens to settle in Maesia. Here disputes arose between 
them and Ihe Bomans, and Valens was killed in attempting to 
oppose them. In the reign of Honorius, Alaric, at the head of 
the Visigoths, invaded Italy, but was defeated by Stilicho. He 
soon returned, however, and made himself master of Bome. 
His successor, Ataulph, made peace with the Bomans, and with- 
drew to the south of Gaul, from which the Visigoths afterwards 
crossed to Spain, where they maintained their ground till they 
were conquered by the Moors. After the death of Attila, the 
Ostrogoths emancipated themselves from the dominion of the 
Huns; and, under Theodoric, defeated Odoacer and subdued 
Italy (a.d. 489). But their dominion here was overthrown by 
Narses, the general of Justinian, in 554, and the renmant of their 
race became amalgamated with the other inhabitants of Italy. 

^ Adductitts. — More strictly. This is a metaphor from draw- 
ing in the reins of a horse. Hist iii 7. Annal. xv. 40. 


^ Bugii et Lemooii, — The Rugii lived between the Oder and 
Vistula. The island of Bngen probsCbly took its name from 
them. After the death of Attila, tihey took possession of part of 
Anstria, Morayia, and Upper Hungary; but, in 480, were either 
destroyed or dispersed by Odoacer. The IjemoTii seem to have 
dwelt near the town and riyer Leba. They are not mentioned 

Chap. XLTV. — ^ Suiones. — ^This is the general name of the 
Scandinavians, and not merely of those who are now called 
Swedes. They inhabited the south of Sweden, which was sup- 
posed by the ancients to be an island. 

' IpM in Oceano. — The Baltic 

* Forma ttaviuM,.agit — ^Resembling the canoes still used by 
the Swedes and Canadians. Compare Annal. ii. 6. HiaL iii. 47. 
Caes. B. G. iii. 13. 

* Par€Uam..appulaui, — ** Beady for driving on to the beach." 

* MinistranHtr. — •* Are worked." Virg, Aen. vi 303. 

* In ordinem^ut ordojiat, so as to form a row. 

^ Solutum, — t. e, the oars are not fixed in the thowls. 

* In quibuadamjluminum, — So, Praecipua renim {Anwil. iv.41). 
^ JSoque tinttf. — i. e. he who possesseB most wealth, and is able 

to procure and support retainers. 

^° Nullis jam exceptionibus, — Jam implies, that as we go far- 
ther and farther northwards, the people degenerate more and 
more from the spirit of liberty which characterised the more 
southern tribes, till at last we come to a people with an absolute 

" Precario jure parendi, — Precarium jua is a right granted to 
a person's entreaties. /SeelTMtisa. Zt>. iii.47. Some editors 
take parendi in a passive sense, and adduce as parallel instances 
censendi caufta {Cic, Ferr. L18); celandi (7t'6u27. Lg.23). But 
this does not appear to bd necessary. It may be translated, 
with an abaciute claim upon their obedience, 

" Quia.,la8civiunt — This is the reason why arms are not 
allowed to the public without distinction; ertimvero^.utilitas est^ 
the reason why the charge of them is entrusted to a slave. Some 
editors give otioaa; but the construction of a singular noun of 
multitude with a plural verb, is only allowable when some clause 


intervenes and separates them. Such a phrase as turba ruunt 
would be inadmissible. Facile kuciviunt — ^As in the case of the 
Praetorian soldiers and the Janissaries. Compare Asstietus ex- 
peditionibus miles otio lascivit (^Agr. 16). 

" Regia utilitas est — " Is the policy of a king." 

Chap. XLV. — * Mare.,pigrum ac prope immotum, — ^ Sluggish 
and almost without any motion," where navigation is difiicult on 
account of the ice. Compare Agr, 10. Mare concretum (^Plin. 
zxxvii. a). Oceanus glacialis (Juv, ii. 1). It is the North Sea, 
towards the Shetland Isles, that is here meant* 

' Quod extremus..hebetet,^^ The last brightness of the setting 
sun continues so vivid till its rising, as to obscure the stars." 
Compare Agr, 13. Dierum spatia ultra nostri orhis mensuram, et 
nox clara, et extrema Britanniae parte brevis, ut finem atque ini- 
tium lucis exiguo discrimine intemoscas. Quod si nubes non offi- 
ciant, aspici per noctem solis Julgorem, nee occidere et exsurgerCj 
sed transire affirmant. Scilicet extrema et plana terrarum humili 
umbra non erigunt tenebraSf infraque caelum et sidera nox cadit. 
In the age of Pliny and Tacitus, the globular form of the earth 
was well known. Pliny (ii. 64) says, Orbem certe dicimus terrae, 
globumque verticibus includi /atemur, Neque enim ahscluti orhis 
est forma, in tanta montium celsitate, tanta camporum planitie, sed 
cujus amplexus, si capita linearum comprehendantur ambitu, figu- 
ram absoluti orbis efficiat And Tacitus considered the .earth, 
tli )ugh not completely spherical, as a globe at rest in the centre 
oi the universe, with the land completely surrounded by water; 
us Pliny (ii. 66} says. Est igitur in toto globo tellus medio ambitu 
praecincta circun\fluo mari. See also Plin, ii. 70. 75. The part of 
the earth from Britain to the pole, Tacitus conceived to be flatter 
than that from Italy to Britain, since there was no chain of 
mountains at all to be compared to the Alps: hence he talks of 
the extrema et plana terrarum. And as night is nothing else 
than the shadow of the earth {Plin, ii. 10), rising in the form of a 
cone, since the body illumined is less than the body that illu- 
mines it, the notion entertained by Tacitus Is, that at the time of 
the solstice, when the sun approaches nearer to the pole {Plin, 
ii. 75), and accordingly does not sink far below the horizon, the 
shadow of the flatter parts of the earth towards the pole cannot 


shroud the whole heavens in darkness (extrema et plana terrarum 
nan erigunt ten^cui); bat the surface only of the earth is dark- 
ened, while the sky and stars appear above the shadow, and are 
illnmined by the rays of the sun (infra caelum et sidera nox cadit), 
' Edurat—'' Lasts out." 

* Sonum,.adjicit — The sound here referred to is not that of 
the sun hissing as he sinks into the ocean, which, however, was 
the vulgar belief (Jut;, xiv. a8o), but that produced by the Aurof a 
Borealis; and the formae deorum et radios capitis i^fer likewise 
to the fancifiil shapes assumed by these electrical phenomena. 

^ Formas deorum is a poetical periphrasis. Ov, Met, L 73. 

" lUuc usque, et fama vera, tantum natura, — Tantum must be 
joined with lUuc usque. Et fama vera is a parenthesis. ** Only 
so far (and the account is probable) do the limits of nature 
extend." So with regard to the Indian Ocean, Curtius (ix. 9) 
says, Ne naiuram quidem longius posse procedere, Comp. Agric. 32. 
Tacitus here speaks like a natural philosopher, but one of an age 
when the ocean was supposed to be the boundary, of the earth, 
beyond which there was nothing. 

' Ergo, — ** To return, therefore." 

® Dextro, — This term is used because the writer imagines him- 
self looking towards the north. Similarly, Strabo speaks of rd 
deKid fxkpti TlSvTov, 

* Suevici maris. — The Baltic. 

^^ Aestyorum gentes. — Aestyi is a collective name, and signifies 
the East-men. It is preserved in the modem Esthen, These 
Aestyi were the inhabitants of the present coast of Prussia, and 
Livonia, and Courland, as is evident by what Tacitus says of 
their gathering amber, which is found only on this coast. The 
name Aestyii appears to have been given by the Germans to 
their Slavonic neighbours^ and was not the name used by the 
Slavonians themselves. 

" Lingua Britannicae propior, — This strange statement is 
explained by Dr. Latham, with much probability, by the suppo- 
sition, that the language of the Aestyi was called iVuMtan by 
the inhabitants themselves; and that the similarity of this word 
to British caused it to be mistaken for the latter. 

" Matrem deum, — The Isis or Her^us of the Suevi, the Frigga 
of the Scandinavians, and the Foseta of the Cimbri (eg. 40). 




" Formas aprorum gestant — The boar, as the symbol of fecun- 
dity, was sacred to this deity. Amulets of the same kind with 
which the Wends used to ornament the images of their deities, 
have been dug up in the neighbourhood, of the Frilwitch, a town 
of Mecklenburg. Many remnants of this superstition still remain 
in Sweden. At the time of the festival anciently celebrated in 
honour of Frea, the rustics make bread into the form of a hog, 
which is applied to various superstitious uses. 

^* Omniumque tutela. — ^A protection against all evils, like ^era- 
rum suffugium (c. 46), and veniam omnium (^Ann, iL 33). 

** Frumenta. . inertia. — " They cultivate com and other fruits 
of the earth with more industry than might have been expected 
from the usual indolence of the Germans." See c. 14. 15. 

** Laborant is here followed by accusatives, according to the 
usage of the poets. Hor, Epod, v. 60. 

'^ Succinum. — ^* Amber." So called, because it was believed 
to be the sap of a tree; from succus, 

^^ Glesum vacant — t. e. ** Glass," from its brightness (gleisaen, 
to shine); like ijXeKrpov, in Greek, from which the Gleasariae 
insulae (JElectridea, Gr.) received their name. P/m. iv. 37. 30. 
Herod, iii. 1 15. Diod: v. 33. 

'^ Inter vada, atque in ipso Utore, — On the shores of Pomera- 
nia, Courland, and Prussia. It first became known in the south 
of Europe through the Phoenicians. 

^ Nec.ut harhans..compertum, — "Nor have they inquired 
into or found out, as is usual among barbarians," etc.. Compare 
Agr. 1 1. 

^ Donee., nomen, — Conchylia et purpuras omnis hora aUerit, 
quihus eadem mater luxuria paria pa^ne etiam margaritis pretia 
fecit {Plin. ix. 35). See Juv. v. 38. vi. 573. Mart iii. 65. 

V Perfertur, — ^By traders through Pannonia to the Adriatic 
Sea, and thence to Borne. 

^ Succum. . intelligas. — Comp. Plin, xxzviL s. 3. It has been 
shown that this notion, though a common one, is incorrect, and 
that amber is bituminous in its nature, and is produce'd under- 
ground. The tree which is here spoken of is called Pinites Suc- 
cinifer. It is now extinct. 

^ Dhi tura. — ^In Arabia; baisamaque, in Judea and Arabia. 
Virg. Georg. ii 118. Bitter reads sudantj contending that, with 


the exception of sudatwr, sudatum est, and sudaius, there are no 
clear instances of the passiye use of this verb. A similar instance 
to the present, of its intransitive use, occurs Virg, Ec iv. 30. 

^ Quae.,expre8M, — SciL nemora bicique, ** which, squeezed out 
and rendered liquid hj the rays of the sun close to them, flow 
into the neighbouring sea, and are washed upon the opposite 
shores by the force of tempests/' The words qtute.,expre8ga 
agree grammatically with nemora lucosque, but logically repre- 
sent the exudation from them. 

^ Sitonum gentea, — The Sitones lived to the north of the 
Suiones, perhaps in Qneenland. Others place them to the south 
of the lake Malar, where Sigiun or Situn was formerly situated. 

" In tanium, — ** To such an extent.'* So, In quantum modum 
(^rnio/. XV. 35). Quantum {AnnaLyi. ai). In quantum (^Juven. 
xiv. 318). 

Chap. XLVL — ^ Peucinorum, — The Peucini, or Bastamae, 
occupied the country from the sources of the Vistula to the Car- 
pathian Mountains, which, firom them, were called the Baatamic 
Alps, and dwelt on the left bank of the Danube up to its mouth, 
in Transylvania, Gallicia, Hungary, Moldavia, WaUachia, and 
Bessarabia. They are classed among the Sarmatians by Ptolemy 
and Dio, amongst the Germans by Fliny and Strabo, who says 
that a part of them were called Peucini, on account of their 
living in the island of Pence, off the mouth of the Danube (viL 
3.17). Others derive the name from Mount Pence, situated 
above Dacia, near which, according to Ptolemy, they dwelt, 
livy (xL 47. xliv. 96), Diodorus, and Polybius (xxvi. g), who had 
not learnt the distinction between- the Celts and Germans, class 
them amongst the former. They first appear in history b.c. 179, 
serving under Perseus; then as allies* of Mithridates; afterwards 
as members of the Marcomannic league, and in connection with 
the Goths, with whom they seem to have coalesced, unless, as some 
have supposed, they were the originators of the Frank league. 

' Fennorvm* — These were on the north ofthe Yeneti, and were 
doubtless the same as the ^iw6i, or Finns, mentioned by Pto- 
lemy as situated in European Sarmatia. 

' Quidam Bastamus vacant, — Because the Peucini were a peo- 
ple of the Bastamae^ PUny iy. a8. Strabo vii 3. 5. 


* Procerum. .foedantur, — ** Through the intermarriages of their 
chiefs with the Sarmatians, thej are gradaallj assuming the 
disgusting character of that people/' 

^ Veneti multum ex morihus (sc. Sarmatarum) traxerunt, — The 
Yeneti liyed on the eastern bank of the Vistula, round what is 
now the Gulf of Dantzic. They were Slavonians, and their 
name is the same as that of Wend, which is the appellation still 
given by the Germans to all the Slavonians. 

• Hi tamen. . referuntur. — ^Ptolemy and others more correctly 
make them a branch of the Sarmatians. 

^ Demos fingunt — So, Luteum fingere opus (^Ovid, Fast i. 158). 
Finger e nidos {Cic. de Or, ii. 6). There is also another reading, 
Figunt, which implies that they were not nomads, and suits bet- 
ter with what follows. 

^ Quae omnia,, viventihus. — "All which customs differ from 
those of the Sarmatae, who pass their time in waggons and on 

' Ossibus asperunt, — i. e, they point their arrows with bones, 
as the South Sea islanders of modem times. 

^^ Ingemere agris. — Lucret v. 209. Virg, Georg, i. 46. 

" Ulaborare domibus, — To undergo the labour of building 

" Suas alicnasque. . versare, — ^To be harassed by the alternate 
hopes and fears of enriching or ruining themselves and others in 
trade and traffic. 

" Securi does not mean ** safe," but "without care and anx- 
iety," as those from whom neither men nor gods can take any- 
thing. Castrensis jurisdictio secura et obtusior, etc. {Agr.g), 
Quis sub Arcto Rex gelidae metuatur orae. Quid Tiridaten ter- 
reatf unice Securus (^Hor, Od. i. xxvi. 3). Nunquam apud vos 
verba feci, out pro vobis soUicitior out pro me securior {Hist iv. 

'^ Oxionas. — Tacitus occasionally uses this Greek ending, as 

in Helveconas (c.43); Suionas (c.45); Vangionas ac Nemetas 

(^nnof. xii. 37). Neither these nor the Hellusii are elsewhere 


^ Ora hominum,.gerere, — This fable may possibly have arisen 

from their wearing the skins of wild beasts. 

• ^* In medium, — ^Neither proved nor disproved. 


Chap. I. — The composition of this work may be fixed, from 
internal and external evidence, to a.d. 97, fonr years after Agri- 
cola's death. The first three chapters comprise the preface, the 
substance of which is this: — In ancient times, when there was no 
reason, as now, to dread men's ignorance of Tirtne, and their 
envj of her votaries, it was usual to hand down to posterity the 
exploits and characters of famous men ; and a man was not 
' found fault with even if he narrated his own life. But in times 
like these, when we have only lately seen, that to praise illus- 
trious men was a capital crimie, I must plead for favour and 
indulgence, which I should not have done, had not my path lain 
through times im'mical to virtue, in which even those remain 
unpunished through whose charges Agricola fell, and through 
whose means many have been calumniated. At length, how- 
ever, spirit and liberty are returning, though the desire of writ- 
ing springs up but gradually and slowly, since talents and zeal 
may be more quickly smothered and suppressed than roused 
again to vigour and activity; and sloth, at first the object of our 
hatred, ends with ingratiating itself into our favour. Hence I 
am led to hope, that I shall meet with excuse for having formed 
the design of writing this memoir. 

* Clarorum virorum. — Clarus is properly applied to those dis- 
tinguished, not by birth, but by personal merit, as warriors or 
statesmen ; cJciri gloria, and graves attctoritate, as Cicero says 
(De Or. ii. 37). 

' Quamquam incuriosa suorum aetas. — Unconcerned about its 
contemporaries. So, ^66vos yap roTj ^w<rt rrpbe t6 avrivciXov, 


t6 dk fiTJ kfivoSiji>v &vavTayovi(Tr(p svvoig, rsrifjiriTai ( Thuc, ii. 45). 
Vitio malignitatis hvmanae Vetera semper in laude, praesentia in 
fasHdio (JDidL de Oral, 18). 

* Omiait — This is not to be taken as the present perfect, or 
the aorist of narration, but as a present indefinite, expressing 
what is customary. The corresponding use of the aorist in Greek 
is exceedingly common. 

* Ignorantiam recti, — Rectum {6p96Vt 6p96rric in the Platonic 
sense) constans ex virtute et officio, dividitur in prudentiam,justi- 
tiam, fprtitudiiiem, modestiam (^Auct ad Herenn, iii. 3). Cic, de 
jFm. iii. 7. iv.6. 

* Pronum means, properly, ** down hill"; hence, ** easy." 

^ In aperto is here nearly equivalent to pronum, and means, 
"free from obstruction or restraint"; not, as in Sail, Jug. ^ 
^ evident, clear." The two expressions are again found com- 
bined in c. 33. 

^ Celeberrimue quisqtie ingenio, etc, — ^Besides Arulenus Busticus 
and Senecio (c, 2), Pliny the elder is named as the biographer of 
Fomponius Secondus; Claudius Pollio wrote a life of Musonius 
Bassus (P/m.£p. vii.31); and Julius Secnndus, a life of Julius 
Asiaticus {Dial de Or, 14). 

^ Gratia aut ambitione. — ** Predilection or sinister motives." 
Gratia refers to past, and ambitio to future favours. The former 
is more innocent than the latter, being merely a destre to please, 
^n. vi.4j6. 

' Plerique, in Tacitus, is frequently equivalent to ^roXXo* 
merely, as well as to ol ttoXXoc. ^ Many considered it rather as 
a confidence in tjieir integrity, than as a mark of arrogance, to 
write their own lives." Noins pleraque digna evenere (^Annal, 
vi. 7). See also AnnaL iv. ao. xv. 6^ Agr, 40. 

*^ TpW.— -Bitter regards this as in the same case as plerique 
by attraction; but it is, perhaps, better to explain it as an in- 
stance of the poetic usage of putting the subject of an infinitive 
in the same case as that of the finite verb upon which the infini- 
tive depends, when the two subjects are identicaL Zumpt, 
§ 612. 

'* Rutilio et Scauro, — ButHius, in addition to a biography of 
himself, composed a history and some orations. He was legatus 
in B.C. 95, under Q. Mucins Scaevola, proconsul of Asia. He was 


accused of malyersation hj Scanras, was unjustly condemned, 
and went into exile to Smyrna, of which place he became a 
citizen, and refnsed to return at the invitation of Sulla. He is 
introduced by Cicero in the De Repuhlica, and is extolled in 
CicdeOrati.^, as vir non sui aeculi, sed omnis aevi optimus, 
M. AemiHus Scaurus was consul with M. Caec. Metellus, b.c. 
115, and censor in 107, 109. He was one of the commissioners 
gent to Africa in the Jugurthine war, and suffered himself to 
be corrupted by Jugurtha. He was a violent opposer of Satumi-^ 
nus; and was charged by Varius with having been instrumental 
in exciting the revolt of the Italian allies, but was acquitted 
(Ctc. Brut 99}. It is not unlikely that Butilius, in his volun- 
tary exile, wrote his own life as a defence of his conduct, and 
that this induced Scaurus to write a biography of himself. 

^' Ciira fidem. — See Germ, 16. note. Citra JRomanvm aangtU' 
Item beOanU (c. 35). Ungi citra sudorem {CeUus i. 6). Compare 
Cic, Ep. V. 19, towards the end« £t verecundiua ipsi de sese scri- 
bant necesae est, etc 

^ Obtreetatiowu A disparagement. , 

^* At nunc narraturo mihi.,opus fitiU — Though, under Trajan, 
liberty ihad again dawned upon Borne, and men's courage had 
begun, to revive, Tacitus had still to fear the malicious accusa- 
tions of many, who would imagine that in portraying the crimes 
of the past 'age, a side reference was made to their own; and 
therefore,^ at the commencement of his memoir, he asks for 
security against all charges of this kind. The passage may be 
illustrated from the Annals (iv. 33). Nunc is here used indefi- 
nitely, as opposed to antiquitug; and refers to the time of Domi- 
tian, rather than the actual time of writing, as is evident from 
the phrase deJuncH hominia applied to Agricola, who died four 
years before Domitian, and from what follows. In c. 3, nunc 
denotes the time at which Tacitus wrote. Bitter says, cpus 
fuitzzopua Juissetf and implies that, if Tacitus had wished 
to write the life of Agricola immediately after his death, it 
would have been necessary for him to obtain leave from Domi- 

^ Quam nonpeti88em,.tempora, — Various readings and expla- 
nations have been given of this passage. As it stands in the 
text, it means, that Tacitus had not thought of asking Domi- 


tian's leave, because he would have irritated a man so imfdendly 
to virtue, when he came to touch upon times so fatal to all 
excellence. — ^ Legimu8,.Jui88e. — Both occurrences took place 
in Domitian's reign, a.d. 93 or 94. Busticus was put to death for 
studying philosophy, and calling Thrasea "holy"; and Senecio 
for writing the life of Friscus Helvidius. From the expression 
of Tacitus below (c. 45), it has been inferred that he was present 
at the death of Senecio. It is more probable, however, that 
Tacitus \vas absent from Home at the time; but, having been 
made a member of the senate, he is led to speak of its pro- 
ceedings as shaded by himself. The meaning seems to be, 
that aU, even those who were not present at the time, read 
accounts of these events either in the Acta Diuma or the letters 
of Mends. For the account of the death of Thrasea Paetus, of 
Patavium, under Nero, a.d. 67, see Annal, xvi. ai. Concerning 
Helvidius Priscus, the son-in-law of Thrasea, who was put to 
death by Vespasian, see HUt. iv. 5. 6. Dio Cass. Ixvi la. SneL 
Vesp, 15. With regard to Herennius Senecio, see c. 45. Plin, 
EpistAv. 11. vii. 19. Dio Ixvii. 13. 

^ Aruleno jRtMfoco.— See ^nno/. xvi. 35. 26. Among the ac- 
cusers of Arulenus, M. Begulus was subscriptor. The real 
accuser was Metius Cams. 

^ Triumviris, — The Triumviri Capitales. Smithes Diet Ant, 
p. 1167. 

* In comitio ac foro. — The comitium was the place of public 
execution. Nefas commisstan est; ad expiandum scdtu Triumvi- 
ris opus est, comitio, camifice {Sen, Cent, vii. 1). The forum, in 
its widest sense, included the comitium, or place of assembly for 
the curiae, and the forum in its narrower sense, or place of 
assembly for the comitia tributa. They were separated by the 

' rostra. Smith's Diet Ant p, 547. 

* Expvlsis, etc. — The philosophers were expelled by Domitian, 
AJ). 95. Dio Ixvii. 13. Suet, Dom. 10. 

^ Vetus aetaSf like prius aevum (^Hist i. 1), in Tacitus gene- 
rally refers to the period before the battle of Actium. 

^ Quid idtimum esset in libertate, — By the ultimum in lUtertate, 
we are not to understand the greatest happiness, nor the last 


remnants of libertj nnder Augustas and Tiberins; bat rather, 
unbridled licentioasness, the mmo<iera4a libertas of Cicero. 

Chap. IIL — * SaecuU ortu, — Saecnlum here does not mean a 
century; but a period of uncertain duration, lasting till another 
emperor introduced a new order of things. See Suet Oct 
c. 100. So Plinj (^Ep, X. 2) calls Domitian's reign, iristUsimum 
saeculum. Compare Magnum quidem iUud saeculi tut decus (P/tn. 
Pan. 6), 

^ Nerva Caesar, — Since Tacitus does not applj to him the 
term DivuSf it has been inferred that the life of Agricola was 
published while Nerva was alive; that is, between the 16th of 
September, a.d. 97, when Trajan was adopted, and the ayth of 
January, A.0.98, the date of Nerva's death. Orelli, however, 
refers it to the beginning of Trajan's reign, on the grounds, that 
Trajan shared the tribunicia potestaa with. Nerva only three 
months; that, being detained by the German war, he did not go 
to Bome till after Nervals death; and that Tacitus would hardly 
have assigned him higher praise than Nerva during the life of 
the latter. 

® Nerva Trajanug, — Trajan was so called when adopted by 
Nerva. There is a gold coin with the inscription, NEBYA 
TRAJAN. CAES. GERM. NERV. AUG. F. (filius) P. TR P. 
(pontifex tribuniciae potestatis) COS. IL; and on the reverse, 

* Nee spem. . assumpserit. — This is an instance of what the 
granmiarians call zeugma; assumpserit properly applies only to 
ipsius voti Jiduciam et robur. After nee spem modo ac votton, we 
must supply some such word as conceperit. Fiduciam ac robur •= 
robustam (Jmtum) fiduciam, 

^ Securitas is here personified; and there is an allusion to the 
medallions struck by the emperors, with the figure of the god- 
dess Securitas, and the inscription Securitas, or Securitati per- 

^ Per quindecim annos, — During which Domitian reigned; from 
A.D. 81 to 96. 

7 Promptissimus quisque, — " All those most distinguished for 
their readiness and activity." 

^ Pauci, . sumus,—^ A few of us have outlived not only others 

M 5 


(in a corporeal sense), bat even onrselres (in what relates to the 
mind), if I may ase the expression." Because, to use the wordB 
of Pliny (^Ep, yiii. 14), Ingenia nostra posterum quoqtie hebetatOf 
fracta, contuaa aunt 

* Quibua. . venimus, — Tacitus could not include himself amongst 
the latter class, as at this period he was about forty-five years 
old. By aUentium he means the repression of mental activity, 
referring to what he had said before, siudia oppresaeria facUius 
quam revocaveria, 

'° Memoriam prioria aermtuiis, — Namely, in his Histories and 
Annals. « 

" Teaiimonium praeaentitan bonorum, — In the history of Nerra 
and Trajan, which he intended to compose in his old age. See 
Hiat i. 1. 

^* Interim implies, that the publication of the Histories would 
soon follow. Pietaa generally means filial afibction. 

Chap. IV. — * Cnaeua Jvliua Agricola. — Contrary to his usual 
custom, Tacitus here uses three names. In general be employs 
only two on the first mention of a person of eminence, and one 
afterwards, imless the interval is long. 

' Vetera et iUuatri Forojulienaium cokmia, — The term Uhiatria 
is applied to it, not so much from its own intrinsic importance, 
as from the renown of its founder, Julius Caesar. It was founded 
abotit the year b.c. 43, in Gallia Narbonensis. Augustus sent 
there the ships he had taken at Actium (^Ann, iv. 5). Pliny (iii. 
4) calls it Octavanorum colonia (from the veterans of the eighth 
legion, who composed the colony), and Pcuienaia et Claaaica 
(from its being the station of a *Boman fleet). The modem 
name is Frijua. 

' Procuratorem Caeaarum. — Caesar is used indefinitively, to 
signify the emperors. These procuratorea exacted the tribute 
from the provinces, and acted as stewards where the emperor 
had possessions. They corresponded to the quaeatorea in the 
senatorial provinces. 

* Qu<ie eqveatria nobUitaa eat — As Claudius and others had 
sometimes appointed even freedmen to be procurators, Tacitus 
takes care to mention, that Agricola's grandfather was an equea. 
It is to be observed, also, that as the emperors did not elect 


procurators* out of the senators, neither of Agricola's grand* 
Withers attained to the senatorial rank, as his &ther did. 

' JvUua Graecinua, — Columella (i. 14) says, Duo volumma stmi- 
Uitm praeceptorum de vineis Julius Graednua eomposita faeetiua 
et eniditius posteritaii iradenda esse curavit Extracts from his 
works may be seen in Golnmella (iil xii. 1. it. iii 6), and else- 
where. Pliny also made nse of his writings (H, N, xiy. and xv.). 

* 3f. Sihnum. — Silanus was consul ▲.». 19 {Annal. ii. 59). In 
the year 33, Caius Caesar (the emperor Caligula) married his 
daughter, Junta ClaudiUa {Annal, yi 30). He was appointed 
proconsul of Africa, and afterwards put to death by the emperor 
(£r»tiy.4a Su€t,CaL7z), 

"* Per cmnem lumestarum artium cultum. — Omnem must be taken 
in sense with artium; **in the cultivation of all liberal studies.'' 
Simul desperatioM alia talutU (for aiius galutia) (Liv, xliy. 10}. 
Ad majora rerum initia (i 1). Honestae artes, kyKukkioi, or artes 
Wffenuae (^DiaL de Or. 99. 30). 

* Areebat,quod.,habuH.—ThQ indicatiye fiabuit is necessary, 
because it simply assigns the reason for arcebat ** What pre- 
served him from the allurements of the vicious, in addition to 
his own good and uncorrupted disposition, was that," etc. Pas- 
sages such as Gratior Caecinae modestiajuit, quod turn acripsisset 
(Higt, ii. 55); Causa necis ex eo quod domumr~-pradnti8eet (^Annal, 
xi. 4), are not exactly analogous. It is, perhaps, scarcely neces- 
sary to allude to the foundation of Massilia by the Phocaeans, 
B.C. 539. Cicero bestows a glowing eulogy upon it in his speech 
for Flaccus (xxvi). See Ann, iv. 44. 

" Locum,, mixtuM,''** A place in which Grecian politeness and 
provincial moderation and frugality were mingled and well 
united." So, Vir bonis malisque mixtue (^Hiei, L 10). 

^° Ultra quam conceesum Bomano ac tenatori, — The meaning 
is, that a Boman, and especially a Boman senator, ought to take 
an active part in public life, instead of devoting himself to the 
study of philosophy. Cicero found it necessary frequently to 
apologise for his philosophical pursuits (Z>e Off, ii 1). 

" Haunaee.—Yor kaueurui^Juisee, 

^^ Vehementim quam caute, — So, Tanto infensius eaeei, quanta 
. ,proditore8, , incuecdtantur (^AnnaL iy. 48). Quanio inteniua, . tanto 
occultior (iv. 67). Tanto accepiius—quanto modicua (vi 45). 


Aeriut quam eaitideralt {HitL L 83). T^a more vegnlar con- 
struction wonld have be«D vehemeMiia qitan eaatiia. 

" Relamilque. , modum,—" And he retained, what is the most 
difficiflt of all, &om the stady of wisdom— moderattoii." The 
wicient philosophers tanght, that nothing is good in itaelf, unless 
under the regoIaUon of ^vti<nc (I^af. Men. p. 86. B. AruL Eth. 

CniF.Y.~-' Prima,. appmbauit.—Agricola probaWj came to 
BTit^Dwith&nelomnBPsTaiQnB(c. 14), in A.D.Co. At all events, 
he waa in Britain in the year 6a. Compare SueL Aag.^ Hm. 
Ep. viii. 14. He was tJien in the twentj'first year of bis age, 
having been bom A.11. 40. Uvyaleoiues Uie phrase mdaaaittaii 
primum (i.g). 

' Bespecting Saetonio* Panlintis, see AtinaL xiv, 09. 33. 34. 37. 
)EVi.i4. HUl.l97-go-,33.44.60. 

' ApproiaviL — When a person contracted to peifonn a piece 
of work, and hrooght it back completed according to the t«mia 
of tJie agreement, he was swd appro&are opita tacalori. Appro- 
baeit here means, that Agricola performed hia first military 
duties in a manner saliBfaotory to Suetonius. See^ 

xvi, 18. 

' EUctia, g»tm cmtiUiemio aettimattt. — " Having been chosen, 
in order that he (Suetonius) might ascertain his qualificatioiiB, 
through his intimacy with him as messmate." Contahtntio 
is the ablative of the instrammt. Aeiiimare implies the atten- 
tive contemplation of an object, to discover its value and quality. 
It docs not mean, to think worthy, or to esteem. 

' Ad voluplatet, . reltuUt.—The meaning of the pasa^e is, thai 
though Agricola might have easily obtained indulgence for plea- 
Snre, or furlonghs, on the score of his military rank and personal 
inexperience, he did not abuse those advantages, Lkatttr refers 
to uofupfatei, and legniter to etmaieatta. " He did not avail him- 
self of his rank of tribnne and of his inexperience, for indnl^Dg 
ill pleasures and obtaining forloughs." 

' in jaciionen — For the purpose of boasting. The best Latin 
wrilets express a purpose by the use of the future partidple; 
h:\{ in with an accusatiTe began to be employed alter IJvy. 

' Smtilqiit nBziu (futnrorum) tl iRtntiu (pra««eutium). 

-— . -y- 


* Exercitatior (sc.) hetto. — More agitated. So, Exereitataa out 
petit Syrtea Noto (Hor, Epod, ix. 31). Cic, Somn, Scip, g. 

' Trucidati veterani, incauae coloniae, — The yeterans in the 
colony of Camolodnnnm, whose town was completely destroyed. 
In the words, intercepti exereUus, Tacitns refers to the legion 
nnder Petilius Cerealis, which was coming to their assistance. 
The disturbance was quelled by Suetonius PauHnns on his letum 
from Mona. See Annal, xir. 39-37. Camolodunum was the only 
colony in Britain; hence it has been proposed to read, incensa 
cohnia; but the alteration is unnecessary: since Tacitus only 
appears to have used the plural in an oratorical manner, as the 
other words, veterani and exercitus, are the pluraL 

*® Intercepti. — ** Cut off and destroyed.** 

" De victoria, — Ann. xiv. 37. 

*' Addidere properly suits only stimuhe. So, Ad eonjugU spem, 
ooHsortionem regni, et necem mariti impulit {AnnaL It. 3). 

*^ Temporibus is the dative after ingraia. 

Chap. -VI.^* In urhem digresses. — x.i>. 6a. 

* Domtiam Decidicmam. — He married her a.d. 63, and was 
quaestor a.d. 64. Under the emperors, twenty-four was the earliest 
age for holding the quaestorship. 

^ Per muiuam cantatem. — Per here has a reference to time and 
means " in continual mutual affection.** 

* Nisi quod in bona uxore tanto major laus, quanto in nuda plus 
culpae est-~Lau8 is here used for whatever is praiseworthy; and 
its opposite, culpa, for whatever is blameable. Lous in bona 
uxore is, " whatever is praiseworthy in a good wife.** Nisi quod, 
which restricts or corrects something that has been said before, 
is 'often used with an ellipse which must be supplied by the 
reader ; as in Annal, 1. 33. xiv. 14, at the end. So here, the 
meaning of the sentence is, *' They both loved one another sin- 
cerely, and each gave the other the preference; for which both 
deserve credit; only we must allow that, in a virtuous wife, 
there is proportionably as much more of what is praiseworthy, 
as in a bad wife there is of what is blameable.*' 

^ Scdvium Titianum, — L. Salvius Titianus, the elder brother 
of M. Salvius Otho, who was afterwards emperor. 

* Parata peccantibus, — ^Not Exposita rapinis magistratuum ut 


dives et ad apoliandum parata; bat rather, ** Where many of the 
inhabitants of the proyince were the ready instminents of the 
crimes of the rulers.'^ 

^ Procon8ul.,maiu-^** And. the proconsul, given np to every 
kind of avarice, would have purchased the mutual concealment 
of guilt, by granting Agricola any facilities for plundering which 
he wished." 

^ Filia. — ^Afterwards the wife of Tacitus. Subsidium, to sup- 
ply the loss of his son; solamm shows the long continuance of 
his sorrow for his son's death. 

' Svblatum, — ^New-bom infants were placed on the ground; 
and if the father chose to acknowledge and rear them, he lifted 
them up (toUebat), K he did not do so, they were exposed. 

^ Brevi amisit—'He also lost a second son^ bom twenty years 
afterwards (o, a8). 

^^ Ipsum tribunatus anituffi.-~He was tribune a.d. 66, Annum 

must be taken with inter qimeat ac trib., as well as tribunatus 

_ plebis, ** The year between his quaestorship and tribuneship of 

the plebs, and also the very year of his tribuneship, he passed," 


^* Praeturae, — Praetor a.d. 67. Praetw^a£ tenor. So, Ft toe 
tenor {Liv. xL 12), Uno et perpetdo tenore juris semper usurpaio 
(^Liv. XXXV. 16). 

^^ Nee enimjurisdictio obvenerat — i, e, he had neither HiejurtM- 
dictio urbancif nor inter peregrinos. Even the quaestiones perpe- 
tua£j which under the republic belonged to the other praetors, 
were in the time of the emperors in the hands of the senate 
(^Ann, iv. 6), and carried on under the direction of the emperor; 
and little else was left to the praetors than the management of 
the games. 

»* Obvenerat, — Sorts, 

^ Ludos et inania honoris, — The ludi honor arii (^Suet, Aug, 3a). 
The magistrates spent enormous sums upon these, in order to 
ingratiate themselves with the people (Juv, vi. 380. x. 36). Ina- 
nia honoris. So, Inania nobilitatis (^Cic. Verrt Act, vL). 

^^ Medio.. duxit — This passage is a difficult one. The old 
editions read modo instead of medio, and interpret it, ** In cele- 
brating the games, he kept within those limits which were pre« 
scribed by proper calculation, and by his own means"; but the 


better reading is medio, and ducere is neyer nsed for edere with 
ludos. It may be translated, '* He considered that public games 
and other empty displays ought to be kept in a medium between 
strict reason and extravagant profusion, far removed from luxury, 
and more nearly allied to fame." Bitter reads moderationiaf and 
translates as follows: *'In celebrating games, he considered that 
moderation should be observed, and a regard for abundance 
entertained"; making moderationia and abundantiae to depend 
on esse understood, and quoting prtieirat ecutdlo Decrius. , iilam 
obsidionem Jlagitii ratus (ilnn. iiL 20), and cedere loco..conailii 
quamformidinis arbiirantwr {Germ, 6). 

*^ Propior, oiccToc, d^eX^4$c* — So, Ctd propiar cum Tiberio utus 
erat {Annal, ii. 28). Esse itti propiora consilia (iv. 40). 

^^ JElectus a Galba, — a.d. 68, towards the close of the year. 

^^ DiUgentis8ima..aensi8set — Not only were the temples de- 
stroyed by the conflagration in the reig^ of Nei*o, but when Nero 
himself was in want of money for the erection of his palace, he 
despoiled the temples of their offerings (^AnnaL xv. 38-43. 45). 
Tacitus means to say, that Agricola succeeded in recovering 
most of the treasure from the hands of those who had appro- 
priated it during the confusion, except such parts as had been 
plundered by Nero. These conquisitioHes sacrorum were not 
nnfrequently instituted.* See Livy xxv. 7. Many read sentiret, 
and others senserit, one or the other of which Bitter considers 
indispensable. There is certainly a difficulty in giving the force 
of the pluperfect 

Chap. Vn.— ^ Claasis Othoniana..p<^(Uur.^T}inB was in 
March, a.d. 6g. See Hist. L 87. ii. 11-17. The attack upon Inte- 
melium was a consequence of the ill-planned measures of defence 
adopted by Marius Maturus, the procurator of laguria, who had 
gone over from Otho to Yitellius. The name of the town was 
Albiimi Intemelium. The modem name is VinHmiglia. 

* Liguriae pars e«t—- Some have urbs instead of pars, which 
Bitter thinks a corruption. 

' Affectati, — This word means, ** having been aspired to," and 
refers to the time when Yitellius was not yet defeated and 

* Ac statim in partes transgressus esL—lt would appear that 


Agricola joined the camp and anny of Antonins Primus, the 
general of Vespasian (^Hist ii. 85. 86. Ann, ill. 1-10). The word 
statim describes the rapid decision in Agricola's mind. 

^ Initia,.Mucianu8, — At first, indeed, Antonins Frimns, who 
marched into Borne at the end of 'December, a.d. 6^; but in the 
following January Mucianus arrived, and acquired all the power 
{HistAy. 11.39). 

* Statum here means ** welfare." Nam statum hucusque ac 
securitatem meliua innocentia tueor quam doquentia (^Died, de Or. 
11). Nam mtdtorum excisi status (^AnnaL iii. 38). 
- "^ Juvene admodum Domitiano. — ^He was at that time eighteen 
years old. In Hist ii. 78. iv. 5. Anna!, i. 3. ii. 80. iv. 13. 44, the 
adverb follows the adjective. 

^ Et ex patema. . usurpante, — Ceterum omnem vim dominationis 
tam licenter exercuit, ut jam tum quedis futurus esset ostenderet 
( Suet Dom, i.). See Hist iv. 2. 39. 

' Is missum ad delectus agendas, — ^In the beginning of a.d. 70. 
Agricola set out for Britain probably in the spring of the same 
year. Is = Mucianus. 

^^ Vicesimacpraeposuit, — The reason why, of the four legions 
posted in Britain (the second, ninth, fourteenth, and twentieth), 
the second only took the oath promptly, is given by Tacitus 
QHist iii 44). The twentieth legion was staying amongst the 
Comavii at Deva (now Chester), 

" Deeessor, — That is, of Agricola; namely, Boscius Coelius. 
Seditiose agere ncurrabatur. See Hist. i. 60. Vettius Bolanus was 
sent to supply the place of Trebellius, whom Coelius had forced 
to fly to Vitellius at Lyons. 

*' Legatis consuhribus, — t. e. Trebellius Maximus and Vettius 
Bolanus (c. 16). Hist, i.60, ii 65. Smith's Diet Ant, p. 678. 

^^ Nimia, — As we say in the common expression in English, 
"too much for." Compare Urgulaniae potentia nimia civitati 
erat {Annal. ii 34). Pompeitan nimium jam liberae reipuhlicae 
( VeU, ii. 33). Soles nimios pecori (^Silius Punic, xv. 708). 

^* Legatus praetorius, — Roscius Coelius {Hist i 60). Smith's 
Diet Ant, p. 670, 

^^ Incertum suo, an mUitum ingenio. — ^'* Either becaiTse he did 
not know how to command, or they to obey." 


Chap. Vm.— » VetHus Bolanus was sent by Vitellius (Hist. 
u. 65) A.D. 6^ 

' Placidius. . dignum eat — Esset has been proposed instead of 
eat; but though this would do very well if it were merely a 
remark of Tacitus founded upon past events, eat is equally weU 
suited to the time at which Tacitus was writing; for after the 
death of Agricola, Britain, or at least Caledonia, had thrown off 
the yoke {Hiat 1. 3). The name of a second Calgacus, the Cale- 
donian Arviragus, was renowned at Bome (Juv. iv. 37). 

' Ne increaceret, — Ardor is the subject of increaceret, not Agri- 

* Brevi deinde,,accepit, — ^In a.d. 71. Petilius Cerialis had be- 
fore this been lieutenant of the ninth legion, under Suetonius 
Paulinus (^Annal. xiv. 33). He was afterwards one of the gene- 
rals of Vespasian, to whom he was related (^Hiat. iii. 59), and 
was actively engaged in the seizure of Rome (iii. 78. 79). He 
was sent into Germany ; and after the end of his campaign 
against Civilis, appointed to succeed Bolanus {Hiat. iv. 68. 71. 75. 
78. 86. V. 14. 21. 23). 

^ Habuerunt virtutes apatium exemplorvm. — ^Room for display- 
ing themselves as examples." Videhatur locua virtutibua pate- 
factua {AnnaL xiii. 8). 

* Laborea modo et diacrmina. — Some have tnodo laborea, which 
would be better if non preceded; but in this case laborea is the 
emphatic word. In Ann. i. 71 we have armia tnodo et equia, 

^ Communicabat (ac, cum Agricola). — This verb does not ap- 
pear to be used elsewhere by itself in this way. Thucydides 
(i. 39) uses KoivuKTavraQ and fitToSiSdvai in a similar manner. 

^ In auam famam, . exaidtavit. — *' To increase his own renown.*^ 
So, In kanc tarn opimam mercedem, agite..arma capita (Liv. xxi. 
43). Generally m the older writers, when in or ad is used after 
a verb to express an object, a participle is subjoined. Others 
join in auam famam with geaOa, 

Chap. IX. — ^ Inter patricioa aacivit — This took place in the 
censorship of Vespasian and Titus, a.d. 74, after which the office 
was discontinued 

. ' Provinciae Aquitaniae. — Gallia Comata comprised three pro- 
vinces— Aquitania, GaUia Lugdunensis or Celtica, and Belgica. 

N 5 


Aqnitania was the tract between the Garonne, the Loire, the 
Pyrenees, and the Cevennes. It was annexed to the Boman 
empire under Augustus {Cues, B. Cr. i. i. PtoL ii. 7). 

^ PraeposuiL-^lxi aj>. 74. His conunand here lasted nearly 
three years. 

^ Splendidae in primis dignitati. — Some read dignitatis ; but 
dignitatis in apposition with Aquitaniae, is better. 

' Admamtratione et spe consulatus, — The dignitas consisted in 
two things, the importance of the command itself, and the hopes 
it gave of the consulate. 

® Cui destinarat — "To which it (dignitas) had destined 

' Sectira, — " Careless ** respecting the subtleties of law. Com- 
pare Ctc. de Orat, i. 36. 37. 

® Quamvis inter togatos, — ^At the conventus juridici. Suits 
could only be carried on in the toga and in Latin. 

^ Facile, .agehat — The meaning of facile appears from Dig, i. 
Ut 16. sect 9. De Off, Proe, from Ulpian, Circa advocatos pati- 
entem esse proconsulem oportety sed cum ingenio, ne contempHbiUs 

'® Jam, — ** From this time forward." 

" Ubi conventus, — The conventus juridieiy at which judicial 
courts were held. Thus, according to Hiny, In Baetica erant 
juridici conventus quattuor; Gaditanus, CordubensiSf AstigitO' 
nus, Hispalensis (Hist, Nat iii. 1). Smith's Diet Ant p, 357. 

^ Nulla ultra potestatis persona. — " He no longer played the 

^* Tristitiam. — Not gloominess of disposition, or asperity of 
manners; but the "sternness" which beseems a magistrate. 
Donatus on Terence, TVistis severitas inest in voltu (And, Y,ii, 
16) remarks: — Ad laudem interdum sumitur, non ad amaritudi- 
nem, tristis. P, S\dpicius judex tristis et integer (Cic, in Verr, 
Act i. 10). Adversus super iores trisH adulatione (Annal, xL si). 

*^ Arrogantiam here means, not the assumption of what does 
not belong to a person, but the rigid exaction of all the respect 
and attention to which he has a claim. It is used in the sanie 
sense in c. 16. 42. Annal. ii. 73. Liv, v, 8. 37. 56. 

*' Avaritiam exuerat here has its ordinary meaning. Agricola , 
was not naturally avarus any more than he was tristis or amy' 


ffans; but be was obliged to comply with the commands of Yes- 
pasian, who was likely enough to replenish his exhausted coffers 
by exactions from this wealthy province. Compare Hist iL 84. 
Suet Vesp, 16. Avarus was often equivalent to pantm l^eraiis; 
so, Cicero says, .Qui hoc fecit avarum possumus exiatimare, crimen 
in eo constituere non possumus (^In Verr, iii. 16). So that avariHa 
here implies the greatest severity in exacting tribute, though not 
for Agricola's own interest. Exuerai doe's not imply that Agri- 
cola ever had these faults. Similarly we havQ (^nn.via5), 
Agrippina virilibus curis feminarum viHa exueraL 

^^ Nee iUi.,deminuit — Observandum est jus reddeniiy ut in 
adeundo quidem /acUem se praebeat, sed contemni non patiatur; 
ufide mandatis adjicitur, ne praesides provinciarum in tdteriorem 
familiaritatem provinciates admittant Nam ex conversatione 
aequaU contemiio nascitur, SummcUim itajus reddijubeU ut auc- 
toritatem dignitatis ingenio suo augeat, {Dig. i. tit 18. sect 19 from 

'^ Integritatem. .fuerit — This Ritter considers to be an unfa- 
vourable criticism by some reader, which, having been origi- 
nally a note, has got into the text 

" Per artem, — Bj means of such acts as governors frequently 
employ to secure the good-will of their provincial subjects. 
There is an allusion perhaps, also, to addresses of thanks from 
the inhabitants of the province to the emperor, during and after 
the time of the administration. Ne quis ad concilium sociorum 
referret, agendas apud senatum propraetoribus proveconsulibus 
grateSf neu quis ea legatione fungeretur {Anjud. xv. 22). 

^ Ab aemulatione adversus coUegas. — Magistrates who were 
created at the same comitia, and when these were no longer held, 
by the senate and emperors, were called coUegae, So in Hist ii. 
10, the colleagues of Mucianus are the governors of Judaea 
Cappadocia, and Egypt; as, here, the colleagues of Agricola are 
all the provincial prefects, especially those appointed over the 
Gallic and Spanish provinces. 

^ Procul a contentione adversus procuratores. — ^Each province 
had only one procurator at a time, and it does not seem that 
they were often changed; so that this plural must imply disputes 
such as commonly arise between governors and procurators. 
Bist i. 10. Ann, xiii. 53. xiv. 38. 39. The procuratores here men,- 



tioned are the procuratores Caesaria, See Smithes Diet Ant 

^* Et vincere. ,arbitrabatur. — Viz. in such disputes as those. 
Atteri answers to kXatrtrovtrOcUf which is used of anj infringe- 
ment upon a person's dignity, or the respect and attention to 
which he has a claim. Eai kXaooovfuvoi yap kv tcuq ^v^/So- 
XaiaxQ wpbg roi>s ^vfifidxovg ^iKaif (T^mc. i.77). Havrax^Otv 
re vQfii^iav iXaoaovtrOai, tots irpuiTov avreXwev (v. 43)* So In- 
signe attenuat deus (JSor. Od. i. xxxiv. 13). 

^ Minus triennium. See Dio lii. 23. Annal, i. 80. 

^ In ea legatione. In the office of propraetor. This is a singu- 
lar use of the word legatio. 

^'Comitante opinione. — So, kvBo£ 67rridei{Hom,Il.p.2$i, and 

^ In hoc. — E(^ TovTo, for ad id. A dispositis in id ipaum tn- 
teremptua est ( Veil. ii. 27). Nee in hoc adhihetur {Sen. Ep. 16). 

^ Nullis..suis sermonibus. — Ablatiye absolute. So, Nullis 
contra terris (c. 10). 

^ Quia pew videbatur, — ^** Because he appeared competent.** 

^ Elegit is here an aorist expressing a custom, and means* 
" causes to be elected.** 

* Consul. — A.D. 77; when Vespasianus Augustus for the eighth 
time, and Titus Caesar for the sixth, entered upon the consulate, 
and were succeeded on the 1st of July by Domitianus Caesar, 
then consul for the sixth time, and Cn. Julius Agricola. Had 
Domitianus been consul ordinarius, instead oi suffectus, he would 
have been mentioned as Agricola*s colleague. 

^ Adjecto pontificatus saeerdotio. — This neyer ceased to be 
reckoned a mark of distinction. Sed Otho pontijicatus augura- 
tusque honoratis jam senibus oumulum dignitatis addidit (flisU i.< 
77). On pontifex, see Smithes Diet Ant p. 939. 

Chap. X. — ^ Mtdtis scriptoribus. — ^As Caesar (J?. G, iy. 31 foU. 
V. 8 foU. 12-15. 20-23), Pliny (^Hist Nat iv. 16 or 30), Ptol. (iiL 
2), Diod. (v. 21. 22), Agathem. (ii.4)) Strabo (ii. p. 116. 120. 128. 
iii. p. 137. 19^ iy. p. 199. 200), Livy (i. 105), Fabius Busticus, Mela, 
and others. 

' Non in comparationem. . referam. — Non ea de causa rrferam, 
ut comparatio indefiat mei et aliorum ingenii. 


' /to. — Comp. e. 7, /to successor simtd et tdtor electus est; c. 13, 
/to singuH pvgnant universi vincnntur; c. 30, /to praelivm atque 
arma. . tutissima svnL 

* Berum fide. — So, Verba sine fide rerum jactata {Liv, xxxiii. 

^ SpcUio. . obtenditur, — The old geographers gave the northern 

coast of Spain a north-westerly direction; and, unacquainted 
with the extent to which Bretagne reached westward, made the 
coasts of Gaul and Germany run in an almost uniform north- 
easterly direction. Tacitus seems to have placed Britain in the 
angle thus formed. He means to say here, that it is situated 
between nearly the same degrees both of latitude and longitude 
as those parts of the coasts of Spain and Germany opposite to 
which it lies. He (c. 24) imagined Ireland to lie between Bri- 
tain and Spain, though there is no reason to suppose that he 
placed it on the south-west of Britain. Caes, B. G, L 1. v. 53. 
Cae/b=iastronomical position. 

* In meridiem inspicitur means, that the south of the island is 
so near the Gauls, as to be seen by them. 

^ Ntdlis contra terris, — Examples of ablatives absolute used in 
this manner are found in other writers besides Tacitus ; as, Bonis 
tribunis plebis {Cic, Phil, i. 10). MuUorum eo statu, qui diutumus 
esse non posset {Liv, xxxvi. 6). 

^ Fahius Busticus, — A contemporary of Claudius and Nero, 
and a near friend of Seneca, more so than was consistent with 
the unbiassed love of truth which should characterise the histo- 
rian (Annal xiii. 20). He wrote the history of his times. Tacitus 
quotes him again in his history of Nero (xiv. 2. xv. 61). If his 
history extended over the reigns of Caligula and Nero, he pro- 
bably mentioned Britain when speaking of the expedition of 
Claudius (a.d. 43). It does not seem that he commenced his 
history from the point where livy left off, as has been imagined; 
for Tacitus does not mention him in his earlier books. He could 
not have published his history before the death of Nero (see 
Annal. xiv. 3). 

' Oblongae scutulae, — The shape of the scutula is given by 
Censorinus, Heteromeros quadrangulum, nee latera habet porta, 
nee anffulos rectos, simiie scutellae (i>e Die Nat. 18); t. e. it was a 


^° Unde. . transgressa, — Fama is the nominatdye. With fama 
we most supply a genitiye from fades. In universtan is equivs^ 
lent to in universam Britanniam, Unde et So, Greek, Awmp 
Kai or dib kcu (^Thucuyi. Plat. Gor^. p. 535. d). 

" Sed immensum,.tenuatur. — The words extremojam litore are 
not to be joined, by means of the figure called hyperbaton, with 
velut in cuneum tenuatur, but with terrarum procurrentivm. *' An 
immense and boundless extent of land, and jutting out from that 
part where the coast almost comes to an end." In the words 
extremojam litore, Tacitus alludes to the narrow isthmus between 
the Clota and Bodotria, the Friths of Clyde and Forth, the south- 
ern boundaiy of Caledonia. . Tacitus had formed a more correct 
notion of the shape of Britain, than either Caesar, Strabo^ or 

*' Hanc Oram, . affirmavit. — In the time of Agricola. Tune, 
** at this time.** Tunc refers to present as well as to past and 
future time. (^AnnaL ii. 9. Liv. i 25. ix. 41. xxi. 35. xxii. 3. etc.). 

'* Affirmavit — ^Confirmed (what had previously been matter of 
conjecture only). 

^^ Incognitas,, domuitque. — According to Eusebius, Claudius 
had already annexed these to his dominions; and the same is 
said by Eutropius (vii. 13), Orosius (vii. 5), Bede (JUatAngl. i. 
3), Gildas, and others; and certainly a report of their existence 
had reached Bome by that time. Mela estimates their number 
at thirty, Fliny at forty; so that incognitas must be equivalent to 
leviter, or non penitus cognitas; as it is in causas dicunt incognp- 
tas {Cic. de Orat ii. 24). Ignotus has a similar force in Jus ap- 
plicationis ohscurum sane et ignotum patefactum atque ittustratum 
est{De Orat i. 39). t Again, De OraLi.42. ZtV. xxviii 44. and 
also in c. 30. 

'^ Dispecta est et Tkule. — ^The verb dispid is used when speak- 
ing of anything which cannot be distinguished without difficulty 
(^nn.ii32. xiii.27. /Tutiv. 55). Thule is variously identified 
by different authors with Mainland, Norway, and Iceland. The 
last is the most probable; as the character and position of Ice- 
land agree best with the description of the situation of Thule 
given by Strabo and by Pliny. 

^^ Quam..abdebat^The text is doubtfiil in this passage; some 
editions have Dispecta est et Thuk quadamtenus; niscethiems 


appetehat; and other variations have been proposed. But the 
reading in the text makes the best sense. " Which snow and 
winter had hitherto concealed." Hactenus is to be taken as an 
< adverb of time; as in Hactenus quietae utritnque stationes Jitere 
{Liv. vii. 36). Hactenus pro lihertate, mox de finibus—pugnatum 
est (Flor, i 11. 5). Bitter reads, nam hactenus jussum, et hiems 
appetehat, and states the meaning to be, that the fleet was ordered 
to sail only as far as Thnle, and then return, as winter was 
approax^hing. Hence the island was only just glanced at from a 

" Mare pigrum, — Comp. Ger, 5. Oceanum Septenirionalem ex 
ea parte, qua a Paropamiso amne Scythiae attuitur, Hecataeus 
Amalchium appellat, quod gentis iUius lingua significet mare 
congdatvm, Philemon a Cimbris ad promontorium Rubeas 
Morimarusam dicit vocari (A. e. mare mortuum). Ultra JRubeas 
quicquid est Cranium appeUatur {Sdinusy c, 33). In Welsh, 
mor is the sea, and marw dead. In the Icelandic tongue, muir 
eroin means the thick, congealed sea. Whether the cause of 
this is to be attributed to the sea^-weed which stiU abounds 
upon the coast of Norway^ or to any other circumstance, does 
not appear. 

*® Proinde, — See notes on Germania (c. 5). Perhibent ne ventis 
quidem proinde attoUi. '* They affirm that it is not even raised 
by the winds as it is elsewhere.** 

^^ Rartores,,tempestatum, — Eariores means, that the islands 
and mountains were widely separated from each other. Tacitus 
thought winds were caused and sustained by high mountains and 
deep rivers {Ann, ii. 23). 

^ Naturam..rettulere,— The ebb and flow of the tide in the 
Northern Ocean was a matter of some astonishment to the 
Bomans; as in the Mediterranean there is scarcely any tide at 
all iPlin, Hist Nat. xvi. 1). 

'^ Midti rettulere,— As Fytheas of Massilia (ap. Plut deplac, 
phtlos.m.ij\ Strabo (iii. p. 119), Pliny {Hist Nat it ffj, go), 
Seneca (Qutiest, Nat iii 38), Lucan {Phars, ^409). 

** Multum Jlummum, — ^Tacitus here refers to marine currents, 
which were known to the ancients, as we leom from Mela 
(iii. 3). 

^ Velut in mo.-— i e. Et jugis eOam ac montibus insert, vehtti 


jugia moniibusque in wo. The ancients, as well as the modems, 
taught that the bed of the sea, like the continent, contained val- 
leys and mountains, the summits of which formed rocks and 
islands (P/tn. ii. i02. vL oa). 

Chap. XL — * Indigenae an advecH. — Britanniae pars interior 
ah iia incolitur quos natos in insula ipsa memoria proditum dicunt 
{Caes. B, G. Y, 12), 

' Namque. — ^There is the same difference between nam and 
narnqve, as between enim and etenim, yap and Kai yap : nam and 
namque may be very frequently translated, as in this passage, 
** thus, for instance." 

' Butilae. . asse^^rant — See Germ, 4. 

* Silurum, — The inhabitants of the counties of Brecknock, 
Glamorgan, Monmouth, Hereford, and Badnor. Their capital 
was Isca Silurum {Caerkon), on the river Isca (^Uske), in Gla- 
morganshire. Caractacus was chief of the Silures. 

* Ccioraii vultus. — CcioraH probably refers to the dark com- 
plexion produced by the rays of the sun. Compare Germ, 45. 
Plin, iL 78. Thus we have the expressions, Indi coloraii. Seres 
CcioraH, And this is probably the meaning here; for Tacitus 
considers that, as the red hair and great size of Caledonians 
prove their German origin, so the sun-burnt complexion and 
the other circumstances he mentions of the Silures, indicate their 
Spanish descent. 

* Occupasse. — HMtasse is found instead of occupasse, and 
has good MS. authority. 

^ Proximi Gallis. — Caes,B, G, v. 14. 

® Procurrentibus in diversa terris, — " Because the lands advance 
till they lie opposite one another''; t.e. the coasts of the two 
countries, which at first run in different directions, gradually 
approach one another, till at the point where they end they lie 
opposite and parallel to one another. Diversa is used in the 
same sense as adversa, as Victores diversam aciem Marti et Mer^ 
curio sacravere (AnnaL xiil 57). Dial de Orat 1. HisL iii. 13. 
AnnaL xv. 15. With habitum we must supply eum. So, Natu- 
ram eam (c. is). Prelio eo (c. 19). Sub lege (sc ea) venum daret^ 
ne, etc. (^Suet Aug, 31). 

' In universum tamen aestimanti, — Compare Germ, 6. So, Ven 





reputantihus {Hist iv. 17). This use of the dative is exceedingly 
common in Greek; see Herod, i. 14. y. 88. Thuc, i. 10. 

"-Norton Micro. — Caes, B, G, vLig. 

" Superstitionvm persucuume, — t. e. Persuasio de aupergtitumi-' 
bus. So, Persuasio falsa >8cientiae (Qutncf. i. 1.8). Examples 
of a similar use of the ablative, witiiont a participle to soften it, 
are fonnd in Non honore GaJbae (Hist i. 44). Odio, metu {Hist, 
L 51). Amore etfide {Agr, 41). Bitter thinks the reading of the 
MSS. was per8uasione:=persuasionem ; which he therefore re- 
stores, translating thus : *' One may detect their (the Gauls') 
sacred rites (and) superstitious belief.'* 

^ Eademformido. — Caes, B, G, iii ig. 

*' Plus tamen ferociae, — Ferox does not mean " ferocious/' but 
** proud and dauntiess." 

'^ Gallos quoque, — Comp. Germ, 38. 

^* Britannorum olim metis, — ** Which has happened to those of 
the Britons who have been long subdued"; i, e. the subjects of 
Cynobellinus, conquered by Glaudius, and soon afterwards by 

Chap. XTT. — * Curru pradiantur,—^Caes, B. G. iv. 34. Only 
those tribes used chariots which were deficient in cavalry, and 
employed their charioteers instead. Hence it is evident the 
Caledonians, who had light chariots, had no cavalry properly so 

' Honestwr auriga, — ^Amongst the Greeks and Trojans, the 
Tfvioxoc was the less noble of the two. But compare Diod, v. ai. 
and V. 39. 

' Olim regilms..trahuntur, — "Formerly they obeyed kings; 
now they are torn asunder by the nobles with parties and fac- 
tions." Nunc. . trahuntur. We have evidence of this in the fre- 
quency with which British princes, as Adminius, Bericus, etc, 
were compelled to take refuge amongst the Romans (c.34). 
Trahuntur for distrakuntur, vexantur, as in Annal. iii 74. xv. 1. 

* In commune=iic koivov, «/c fikaov. In Hist u, 2^, we have 
in medium consultare; and iv.70. consulere in unum, 

* Bants,, conventus, — 2iraWa»c lvyx<»ipQvvTaA xaff avro^QtXS' 
yoig koivoXq xpCtfuvoi (TAiic. iv.64). Tacitus is speaking of 
assemblies for the formation of plans for their common opera- 



tions. So, conventua Italiae (^nnoZ. ii 35). Extra amvenhtm 
amandatum (Hist iv. 56). — Barua conventua. So, Multua aermo 
(^Aniuil i 9), BeUquua praeturae diea (^Annal, xii. 4), are used in 
the singular where a plural is to be understood. 

* DucUnta iribuaque, — The substitution of ve for que is unn^ 
cessary. So, Spem metumque (Hiat i. 63). CapH caeaique {Liu* 
xxiii 1). Quid faciendum fugiendumque ait {Cic, Off, L 38). 
Mc Kcd rpie (Plat Phaedr, 335. a). Tpiry $k cat rerapry avl- 
vravTo (Xen, Anah. it. viii 31). 

^ Aaperitaa Jrigcrum aheat — Loca aunt temperatoria quam in 
Gallia, remiaaioribuafiigohbua (^Caea, B, G. v. is). 

^ Dierum,,menauram, — ^i. e. ultra menauram diemm noatri orbia. 
Elliptical expressions of this kind are not uncommon. Ingenia 
noatrorum hominum multum ceteria hominibua omnium gentium 
praeatiterant {Cic. Off, i. 33. 7). Noatrorum temporum doquentiam 
antiquorum ingeniia anirferre {JHal, de Orat, 1). Pliny (ii. 75) 
says, that in Italy the longest day lasts fifteen hours; in Britain, 

^ Quodai nubea,,&anaire. — ** Provided that clouds do not in- 
terpose, they say that the brightness of the sun can be seen 
during the night, and that it neither sets nor rises, but moves 
across the sky.** Ifhjjulgor aolia we could understand the light 
arising from the refracted rays of the sun, this would be strictly 
true; but the words nee occidere.,aed tranaire are hardly applica* 
ble to this, and must refer to the sun himself. Ut aol ipae^ qui 
nohia videtur ocddere, ibi appareat praeterire (^Eum. Paneg, in 
Conat 9). Quodai may be translated by ** nay, if.'* 

*•* Scilicet. cadit, — See notes on Germ, c. 45. 

^^ Non erigunt tenebraa,-^ Tacitaa supposed darkness to be 
produced by the shadow of the earth being raised to heaven; 
and hence he says, that the level parts of the earth, in conse- 
quence of their low shadow, do not permit darkness to arise. 
Comp.P/tii.iL7: Neque aiiud eaae noctem quam terrae umbnun 
(manifestnm est). 

^ Patiena fmgum. — ^For a long time Britain was the gnuuuy 
for the Boman army on the Bhine. Bitter proposes to read, 
arborum patiena^ frugum fecundum, on the ground that patiena 
means only just capable of being made to grow corn; while 
feeundum implies its rich fertility. 


^* Hvmor..caeUqtie, — Caelum, "the atmosphere." Namque et 
hoe caelum appeUavere majores quod alio nomine aira, omne quod 
vHali simile vitalem hunc ejfriritumjundit (^Plin, ii. 38). 

^* Fert,.metaUa, — Strabo (ir. p. 138) agrees with Tacitas. So 
also does Caesar (£. G, ▼. is). Cicero, on the contrary, says, 
Ittud cogniium est, neque argenti scripulum esse uUum in iUa insula 
(Ad Att, fy. 16). Camden speaks of gold mines in Cmnberland 
and Scotland, and of silver mines near Hfracomb. 

^ Pretimn victoriae, — ^Hence we see that Britain paid tribute 
in money, not tithe in produce. See next chapter, and c. 31. 

^ Gignit.Jiventitu^'In Britanma parvos et decohres nasci 
certum est (P/tn. ix. 35). Bede (^Hist Angl, i. i)y on the contraiy, 
says. In quibus sunt musctdae, quibus inclusam saepe margaritam 
omnis caloris quidem optimam invenimttf i. e. Ruhieundi etpurpu- 
rei, et hyacinthini et prasini, sed maxime candidi. The pearls 
which are found in Caemarronshire in the river Conway, and in 
Cumberland in the river Irt, are equal to the best of those 
brought from the Indian Oeemi; but they are so few and smally 
as not to repay the trouble of searching for them. 

" Quidam, . arbitrantur. — Aliius mereae haerent; nee nisi m ac 
summo pericuh aveUuntur legentibus (P/t«. Mist, Nat ix, 35). 

" In rubro mari. — The Persian Gulf. 

Chap. XUL — * Injuncta imperii mmero.— Extraordinary con- 
tributions imposed upon them. . 

' Britanmam ingressu$,—ikc, 55 and 54. Caes, B, G. iv. 34-38. 

^ Mox beHa ctw/ia.— Understand yiMre. 

* Consilium.. vocabat — See AnnaLi. 11. Strabo (ii.p. 115. iv. 
p. 300) assigns the reason for this. The Bomans had nothing to 
fear from Britain, nmr would much advantage be derived from 
the possession of it; and at the same time it could not be con- 
quered and kept in subjection without considerable expense. 

' Tiberius praeceptmn, — ** This Augustus called poliey ; Tibe- 
rius the orders " of his predecessor, t. e. Augustus. AugwstUB 
addiderai consilium coercendi intra terminos imperii {Aiausl. i 77. 

!▼. 37)- 
^Agitasse.. Britannia, — <*That Caius Caesar (£.«. Caligula) 

had meditated the invasion of Britain, is quite certain''; and he' 


would have done so, ** had he not been so precipitate in forming 
schemes, and so fickle in changing them, and had not his mighty 
attempts against Grermany proved finiitless/' See Suet Calig, 
46* 49* 51. A similar change of constmction to the above occurs 
in Gtutulicus, effiuae clementiae, modicus severitate (^Ann, vi. 30)* 
also XV. 14. 53. Hist i. 33. 
^ Et ingentes,,fuis8ent, — See Hist iv. 15. Suet CaZ. 43. 

* Divus Claudius auctor operis, — Auctor opens, ** who carried 
these designs into effect.*' So VeU, i. 5. 2. The opus here meant 
waj the subjugation of Britain, and its addition to the Boman 
empire. For an account of the successes of Claudius, or rather 
of A. Flautius and Vespasian, in a.d. 43, see Hist ilL 44. SueL 
Claud. 17. 

' In partem rerum, — ** To a share in the undertaking.** 

" Domitae Gentes. — Suet Vesp. 4. 

" CapH reges, — ^Who these were we do not know. Bede says 
the country was divided between twenty-five petty kings. 

^> Monstratusfatis,^" Fomted out by the fates." This use of 
the ablative without a is found not unfrequently. Interpres fatis 
obkttus (Ztt?. V. 15). Cura fatis data (Hor, Od. i. xii. 49). Scri- 

beris Vario (fid, i. vi 1). 


Chap. XIV. — ^ Primus Aulus Plautius praepositus, — Flautius 
was the consular legatus during the years ^.d. 43-47. See AnnaL 
zi36. xiiL33. 

' Subinde Ostorius Scapula, — a.d. 47-50. For an account 
of his contests with the Silures under Caractacus, see AnnaL 
zii. 31-35, 38. 39. Though he penetrated to the Irish Sea, and 
Caractacus was delivered up by Cartismandua, the queen of the 
Brigantes, he did not subdue the Silures. Oyster-hill, near 
Hereford, the site of a Boman camp, received its name firom 

' Proxima pars Britannia, — t. e. with reference to the place 
where Tacitus was writing. How much of the southern part of 
the island is included in this, cannot be determined. 

* Addita,,colonia, — ^At Camalodunnm (Colchester), the resi- 
dence of CynobelUnus. Camalodunum means, the city of Mara 
(Camalus, amongst the Britons, answering to Mars). It was 
called Cohnia victrix, and was chosen for the station of the 


fourteenth legion (legio gemina Martia victrix). Compare An- 
no/. xiL^s. 

' Quaedam, . donatae. — " Were presented to King Cogidnnns.** 
Cogidunns is not mentioned elsewhere. 

* Vetere.,reg€s, — ** According to the ancient and long-estab- 
lished custom of the Boman people, to have even kings as the 
instruments of slavery." 

^ Mox DidivLs GaJlu8. .promotis, — See AnhaJ, xiu 40. xiy. ag. 
Hist xii. 39. The British insurrection imder Boadicea happened 
in A.D. 61, and Suetonius's arrival in 59. Yeranius was legatus 
for somewhat less than a year, in 58. Accordingly, Didius held 
the commiand during the years 51-57. 

* In u/^erioro.— Apparently in the territory of the Silures. 

^ Fama aucti officii, — ''The credit of having extended the 
bounds of his administration.'' Officium is used in the same 
sense by Caesar. ToH tamen officio mariiimo Bihulua praepon- 
ttu (J?. G. iii. 5). Si quid uxorea eorum^ qui ad officia profiscuntur, 
deliquerunt {Dig, de Off, Proc, 4). 

^^ Ferantu«.— See AnnaL ii. 56. 74. iii. 10. 13. 17. ig. xii. 5. xiv. 
og. Quern consulem vidimus. Smith's Diet, Biog, 

'* Suetonius hinc Paulinus.,8ub<iciis nationibus, — ^*'In the sub- 
jection of tribes," not *' a^r the rebellious tribes had been sub- 
dued." The past participle has a similar force in Annal, xvi ai, 
iVera virtutem ipsam exscindere concupivit, interfecto Thrasea 
Paeto, equivalent to tnterfidendo Thrasea Paeto, " Nero wished 
to destroy virtue itself, by killing Paetus." 

*• Firmatis praesidiis, — Firmis praesidiis positis. So, terga fir- 
mavit=zfinna reddidit terga (Ann. i 51). Also,fiinando praesi' 
diossfirmo praesidio faciendo (Ann. xiii. 41) ; and, aciem firma- 
rent-=firmaM aciem efficerent (Agr, c. 35). 

" Monam. . aggressus. — See AnnaL xiv. ag. Vires, " forces." A 
trace of the name, Mona, still remains in that of the Menai 

" Occasioni paiefeoit — ^**Laid open to a surprise." 

Chap. XV. — * Interpretando. — ** By conunenting upon them." 
^ExfacUi, — This expression has been formed after the model 
of such phrases as Ex inopinato. Ex insperato, Ex abundanti 
Quint. Inst. Or. iv. 5. 1^); Ex affluenti {Hist. i. 57 

270 . NOTES ON 

* Sinffuhs,- -" That fonnerly there was onlj one king for each 
nation." Singulost one for each nation; not merely one Idng, 
that would be unum regem, 

* Binos. — t. e. the procurator and Ugatus. 

^ Aeque,.aeque, — So, Panter../Nirtter. Et pariter Phoebus^ 
pariter maris ira recesait ( Ovid. Met, zii g6). Cantantis pariter^ 
pariter data pensa trahentis FaUitur anciUaet decipiturque labor 
( TrisL IT. i. 13). The use of atque in such phrases as aliud atque 
arose from the omission of one t^ud which occurred in the fuller 
and original form of the expression, aliud hoc atque aliud iUud, 

^Alterius miscere, — L e. Alterius (procuratoris) vianus (the 
scTvants and other attendants of the procurator), ceninriones al' 
terius (legati), vim et contuoi^ias mieeere, 

7 Tamquttm,.ne8cieniibu8. — ^As if the only thing they knew 
not, was how to die for their native land." 

* Quantubtm enim tranneae^ — The infinitiye is the more UBoal 
construction in sentences of this kind; as, Quantum,, projiei 
(Jlist iii. 70); Quid dicturoe (iiL 13); but the Bubjunctive maybe 
psed; as, Ctir. .petisset {Hist iii 70). 

' Sic Germanias excussisse jugum, — ^By the slaughter of YaruB 
and his legions, jld. g, Germanias, see Notes on the Oermama, 
c. 1. Elsewhere Tacitus uses Germaniam; and as the circum- 
stances to which he here alhides occurred only in Germania 
Transrhenana, which is evidently here intended, from the use of 
the word^Mffitne, it is probable the singular form would be more 
correct. Hist iv. 17. 

^ Et flumine. — Et, " and yet" Nomma partium urbis, et tn- 
stxtr urbium sunt {Liv. xxy, 35). Mantes effuso cursu Sabitu 
petebantj et pauci tenuere (i, 37). So, necy for nee tamen (c. 8). 

" Divus Julius, — This expreseion seems rather strange in the 
mouth of a barbarian; but the Soman writers were not so scm- 
pulously exact in such matters as modem criticism requires. 

Chap. XVI. — ^ Baudicea. — This name is variously written, 
Boudicea, Boodicea, or Boadicec^ Ann, xiv. ag-37. The date of 
the event was a.d. 61. 

* Sumpsere . . bellum, — So, AnnaL ii 45. Proelium aumpsere 
(Hist ii 4a). Jl6\efU)v ypavro ( TTiuc, iii 39). 

^ Coloniam. — i. e. Camalodunum (c. 14). 


In barbaris, — " Bage and conquest forgot no kind of craeltj 
pracHsed by barbarianSf** or ** uawU among barbarians" 

' Tenentibns arma pleruque*^^** Although many (see c. i) still 
remained in arms.*' 

^ Propiii8.,agilabaL — ^^ Afiected them more nearly." 

' Ni ^tufm^uom.— <A conjectural reading. Some read ne in- 
stead of ni, 

' Missus Petronius Turpiiianus, — In ▲.d. 6a. See Annal. xiy. 
99.39. XY. 73. ^® ^^ put to death by Galba. J7t«(. i. 6. 37. 
From this time forward, Britain, as far as Anglesey, may he 
considered as under the Roman dominion. 

' Delictis,,n<nms.'-'SOf Nooua dolori (iSi/tiw Yi 354)* FirmM 
adversis {Agr, 35). 

^^ ComposiHs prioribuB^-** Afbet the former disturbances had 
been allayed." 

'* TrebeUio Maximo provindam tradidiU — When is uncertain: 
probably in ▲J>.(S4* Trebellias's flight took place in a.d.^ 
Zrwti.60. ii65. 

^ Nullis,.experimentis. — ^For nuUa experimUki, Nevus nemo 
tarn clams, neque tarn egrigiis factis erat (^SaHJug.d^), Gu- 
vitiSf vir Jacundus et pads ariibus, beUi inexpertus {Hist 

'' Comitate quadam cwrandi, — Curare is not unfinequently used 
by Sallust and Tacitus, in the sense of '* governing," or ** admi- 
nistering," **commandiog." Is in ea parte cwrahai (SaU, Jug. 
Go). Qui proconsul Asiam curaverat {AnnaL iy. 36). 

^* Vitiis blandientibus. — ** Through the seductive cliarms of 
luxury." Ut primum positis nugari Graecia beUis Coepit, et in 
vitiumfortuna labier aequa (Hor. Ep. n. 1.93). 

^ Interventus^^excusatumem^^-ThaX the empire might not be 
harassed by foreign wars at the same time that it was torn by 
intestine convulsions. The civilia arma are the wars which fol- 
lowed the death of Nero. 

'• Discordia laboraium.-^ Banger was incurred by mutiny." 
Labor IB used in this sense. Quern labor assiduus vicino terreat 

" Precartb.— See Germ, 44, note on Precariojureparendu 

w Praefuit-^, Exercitui. 

*^ Acvelut,.salutem.^*^Ajid. they, as 'it were, stipulated, the 


army for unbridled freedom, the general for safety." PacH is 
here the indicative mood, sunt being understood. 

^ Et seditio.'-Et has here an explicative as well as a copula- 
tive force, and=:e< tto. There seems no necessity for haec in 
this emphatic position, as given in some editions. 

^ Stetit^Majore damno plutium urbium excidiis, veteres civium 
discordtas steiiase {Hist m, 53) 

^ Vettius Bolanus, — See c. 8. He arrived in Britain between 
April and May, a.d. 6^. During his administration the circum- 
stances happened which are recounted by Tacitus in Hist. iii. 45. 

^ Eadem inertia, — Statins then must be charged with flattery 
in addressing Crispinus, the son of Bolanus. SHv, v. 2. 53. foU. 
143. foU.) 

^ NuUis delictis invisws,^^^ Hated for no crimes." Trecenti 
cpibtu out sapientia delecti (Annal. vi. 42). 

. Chap. JLYUL — * PetUius Cerialis. — See c. a Anncd, xiv. 32. 
The Brigantes inhabited the counties of York, Westmoreland, 
Durham, and L&caster. 

• Victoria amplecti. — "To subdue**; heUo amplecH, "to over- 

^ Et Cerialis.. obruisset — "And Cerialis indeed might have 
obscured the fame of another successor; but Frontinus sustained 
the burthen*' — discharged with ability the duties of his office. 
This passage is hopelessly corrupt. The reading we have given 
is that of the MSS., with the exception of sed, which is included 
in brackets. 

* Quantum licebat^ — i. e. As far as was permitted him by the 
times in which he lived, when to appear eminent was danger- 
ous ; and it was dangerous, especially for the governor of so 
important a province, even in the time of Vespasian. Frontinus 
lived till Aj>. 106, and was an augur at ihe time of his death. 
He was the author of a work npon the art of war (Stratagema- 
tica), and also upon the aqueducts of Bome, the superintendence 
of which was entrusted to him during the reigns of Nerva and 

' Validamque et puynacem Silurum gentem, — Since the victories 
of Suetonius Faulinus, we hear nothing of the struggles with the 
Silures. But that the subjection of these wild mountain tribes 


had not yet been accomplished, is shown not only by Fronti- 
nus's expedition, but by Agricola's enterprise against Mona. 

Chap. XVILL^* Media jam aestate, — In the year 78. 

'< Verterentur has here the sense of the middle yoice. " The 
soldiers addressing themselves to enjoyments free from care, the 
enemy to the seizure of the opportunity thus offered them." 

' The Ordovfces inhabited the counties of Flint, Denbigh, 
Caernarvon, Merioneth, and Montgomery. 

* Alam in finibua,,agentem, — The ala was the body of cavaliy 
belonging to the legion. Smithes Diet Ant p, 73. Agentem 
marks that -there was a fixed camp. The period between the 
departure of Frontinus and the arrival of Agricola, when the 
island was without a governor, probably afforded the opportunity 
for this occurrence. 

^ Eoque initio., opperiri, — ^By this beginning, the whole pro- 
vince was thrown into a state of suspense; and those who were 
disposed for war approved of the example that had been set, and 
waited to observe the character of the new legatus, 

^ BeUum volentibus erat — Tacitus has here imitated a Greek 
construction; Demosthenes, in the same way, T^c ^^ vofiirdae 
ravrrfg rrjg dvaidrfv ovrtaal ytyevijfuvije ^<TTepov, &v Povkofd" 
voig y To{)ToiQ aKodiiv, fiifrfoO^ffofuii {De Cor. 5). Ty yap ttX^ 
Oct TtSv TlXarautav oi) PovXofuvi^ ijv riSv 'AOrfvaltav A^iaraaOai 
(TAf/c. ii 3). Compare, Neque plehi militia volenti putahatur 
(^SaU. Jug, c. 84). Uti tnilitihua exaequatus cum imperatore laboa 
volentibus esset (c. 100). Quibuedam rolentibtts novas res fore 
{Liv. xxi. 50). See Hist iii. 43. Allen's note on Sallust Jug, 

^ Numeri. —This is a general name for cohorts, maniples, and 

* Tarda. . incohaturo, — Taken as a parenthesis, independent of 
quamquam. " Circumstances which delay and thwart one who 
purposes to commence war." Others, however, make the clause 
dependent upon videbatur, in which case the meaning would be 
— *' Although the expiration of the summer, the dispersion of the 
troops throughout the province, and the anticipation of rest for 
that year by the soldiers, appeared reasons for delay, and obsta- 
cles to his commencing war, and (although) many thought it 



better that the suspected parts of the prorince should be guarded, 
he determined to face the danger." 

' Cu8todiri..videhatur, for autodiendh videbantur, — So, Cum 
feaaos hieme aique inopia hostes aggredi in aperto foret (MUL iii. 
56), for aggrediendos ease. Videri is not nofrequentlj joined 
with the aecusatiTB and infinitive mood. 

*° Contractisqtte legionttm vextUU, — The vexittarii and vexiUa 
legionum were those veterans who, since fdie time of Augostns, 
after serving sixteen campaigns, were released from their mili- 
tary oath, but were retained till their complete discharge under 
a flag by themselves, free from all other military duties, to 
render tiieir assistance in the more severe battles, guard the 
frontiers of the empire, and keep in subjection provinces that 
had been newly conquered, and were therefore more disposed to 
revolt. AnnaL i. 17. 26. 36. 38. 39. xiv. 34. Hist iii. 46. ii. 8^ . 

^^ In aequum, — ** Into the plain.** 

^ Ip8e..egset — 60, Dem remotis cmnium equis quo militUfUM 
aequato perictdo animus amplior esset, ipse pedes exercitmn pro 
loco et copiis instruit (SaU, Cat. 59). 

" Erexit — " Led toward the mountains " (Xw. i. 27. iiL 18). 

" Instandumfamae. — ^** That renown must be followed up.** 

^ Cessitlsent, for /yroeessiMent-^ 80, Prout cuique cesserant 
{Ceis, vL 1). Hist ii 90. Aim, zii. 3b 

*^ Possessione revocatum. — ^Without a, it being implied in revo^ 
cahtm. 80, Exigent liberalitate principis {Germ. 14). 

'^ Dvbiis constUis. — By dubia eonaUia, Tacitus means plans, of 
which the issue is doubtfoL The meaning appears to be, that 
Agricola had had some intention of invading Mona, previously 
to his campaign against the Ordovices: but as the result of that 
campaign Was doubtful, he had not provided vessels; and he had 
not had time to do so after the conquest of the Ordovices, when 
he had frilly determined to invade the island. Examples of the 
passive meaning of dubius frequently occur. M. AnUmii soeie^ 
tatem semper dubiam et incertam abntpit tandem (Suet, Aug. 17). 

^^ Depositis..usus. — Some suppose these auxiliaries to have 
been Germans, especially Batavians. Se« HisL v. 14. iv. 12. But 
wo should rather take them to have been Britons; since the 
Batavians could not be acquainted with the shallows between 
Britain and Monas and it appears, from cc. 39 and 3a, that Agri- 



eola had Britons in his anny. Eighteen jeers before, Suetonius 
Paulinos had sent his cayahy across the straits in the same way 
{Anncd. xir. 09). 

'' Qttt classem^.exspectabant — Bjmare we mnst understand 
the difficulties which woold be opposed to their progress by the 

^ Officiorum ambitum. — " Efforts to procure the homage and 
flatteiy of the inhabitants." 

** Laweatu. — i. e. LaureatU UtteriM, In aUnsion to the cus- 
tom, practised by yictorious generals, of surrounding their des- 
patches with laurel Hiat iii 77. Liu, t. a8. 

Chap. XTX. — ' Animorum provinciae prudens. — ^^ Being ac- 
quainted with the disposition of the province." 

* Domum. . coercuit, — Domiu is used here in a wider sense than 
in c. 46, and means his suite and attendants. 

^ Nihil per libertos servosqtte pubUau ret, — Sc. agebctt, or agere. 
This omission of the verb agere, or Jhcere, is not unfrequent. 
Melius Augustwn qui speraverit; sc egiase {Annal, iy. 38). 

* Non gtudiis..putare,-^Bitt&r explains the meaning to be, that 
Agricola did not take a centurion, or even a common soldier, on 
the mere reconmiendation of others* OieUi retains nescire, as 
found in the MS&, and gives as the interpretation, that Agri- 
cola was not unacquainted with the character of his centurions 
and men, in consequence of relying upon the recommendations 
and entreaties of private friends. Certainly, corucribere would 
be the regular word to denote enlistment, and i^ot ascire, 

' Optimumj for forHsdmunL — ^As, Optimuaquisquecadere^SalL 


* FidiMimum, — Most trustworthy. 

7 Omnia acire, non omnia exaequL — Exsequi, in the sense of 
tdciscij is found not only in writers of this age, but in livy (iii 
35. V. 11). Caesar and Cicero nseperaequi. 

■ Frumenti., moUire, — Frumentum, " the supply of com." Fru" 
metUum emptwn. In tributOf Tacitus refers to poll-taxes and 
taxes upon property. These were increased, and in some cases 
doubled, by Vespasian {Svet Vesp, 16). Munua is the portion 
which each had to contribute. 

' Aeqwditate ■munervm moUire, — t. e, Agricola took care that 


all the inhabitants should be rated fairly, according to their pro- 
perty; that the poor might not have to contribute more than the 

*° Circumcisis. . toUrabantur. — ^Putting an end to all those de- 
vices for enriching themselves, which had been practised bj the 
officers, and were esteemed heavier burthens than the tribute 

" Namqueper ludihrivm..cogehantur, — The provincials had to 
furnish com at a fixed price, to supply the wants of the governor 
of the province. This was called .^Tcm^n^um empivm, and had to 
be carried to whatever place the governor might appoint. Some- 
times the creatures of the governor got all the com in the conn-- 
try into their power, as in the case of the Britons, who- were 
compelled to purchase it back from the Romans at a high price, 
both for their own consumption and in order to furnish the 
emptum frumentum, for which they were paid only the small 
fixed price. Comp. Cic, Verr, ii. 3. 81. 

*^ Clauais Jiorreis, — The public granaries, at which they waited 
tiU they were opened by command of the governor. Others 
render by ** at their own bams, which were closed by the gov- 
ernor's orders. 

" Emere ultrofrumenta, — ^Those who could have brought com 
to the winter-quarters of the Romans out of their own bams, 
were themselves obliged to buy and give back to the Romans, 
on account of the by-roads and difficulty of conveying their own 

^* Ludere pretio. — ^According to Orelli, to raise the price by 
bidding, as at an auction, in sport as it were. A conjectural 
reading, colludere, is proposed by Bitter, who thinks the meaning 
to be, that they were compelled, through fear, to act collusively 
with the Romans, by ofiering a high price, so that the rest might 
be forced to pay the same. 

^^ Proximis, — ^We must either understand a before proximU — 
which scarcely suits the sense, as they were ordered to take com, 
not from the winter-quarters, but from their own fields and 
bams — or we must read proximae with Ritter. 

'" Quod omnibus in promptu era^— What ofiered itself in abun- 
dance to all. 


Chap. XX. — * Pact. ,famam circumdedit. — So, TIepirt9h<u nvl 
irifUav ( Tlittc. vi. 89). Hist iy. 1 1. 

' Qu<ie (i. e. pox).. fuRtfftattir.— Since the]r were spoiled and 
oppressed in peace, jnst as much as in war. 

' Sedt tibi. . exercitu, — ^During this summer, Agricola appears 
to have penetrated to the Solwaj Frith. That he did not pro- 
ceed farther, appears from the following chapters. In c. 2a, the 
expression, Tertitu expeditionum annua novas gentes aperuit, 
would hardly have been nsed if he had abreadj penetrated as fax 
as Edinburgh, as some imagine, in the second summer. It was 
the western portion of the Brigantes whom he now subdued; 
accordingly, the conquests of Cerialis laj in the eastern portion 
of their country. They were only partially subdued by the lat- 
ter (c. 17)$ and his successor, Frontinus, seems not to have com- 
pleted his undertakings. 

* Mvltus in agmine. — Sc esse. Thus, c. 37: Frequens uhique 
Agricola, SaU. Jug, 84: Maritts midtus atque ferox instare* 
lb, ^: SuUa in agmine. . mvltus adesse, 

' Loca castris ipse capere, — Many traces of these still remain: 
two, in particular, situated in Annandale, called Bumswork and 
Middleby, are described by Gordon {Itin. Sept pp. 16. 18). 

^ Aestuariti, — The Dee, Kibble, Liverpool, and Solway 

^ Et nihil., popvlaretur, — Le, Interim Agricola nidlam apud 
hostes quietem patiebatur, quam non interrumperetj e locis munitia 
subito popidando. The construction of this and the following 
danse shows, that Agricola is the subject of popuUxretur; and 
subitis excursibus implies that there were towns or entrenchments 
at hand, from which these sallies were made. Germanicvm vix 
cohibuere amid, quo minus eodem mari mortem oppeteret {AnnaL 
U.24). See also c. 37. 

* Irritamenta pads, — So, Jrritare infantiam ad discendum 
(Qtftn^ Inst, Orat i. i. 36). Irritate drtutem animi {Lucret i. 71)* 
Lritamenta gulae {Hist ii. 63). 

* Ex aequo. — " On equal terms." So, Ex aequo agetis (Hist 
It. 64). Pacem ex aequo uHlem {Anntd, xv, 13). 'Avb rov i<rov 
rtjovvTo (T^uc.iii. 10). Ex aequo being a somewhat general 
expression, must, of course, derive its particular shade of mean- 
ing from the context Here it implies that they hftd maintained 


tlidr ground, and preserved their liberty against the encroacSi- 
ments of the Komans. 

*® Praesidiis. . nova pars.—** They were surroiqided with- garri- 
sons and forts, with so much foresight and care, as previonslj 
no newly conquered part of Britain had been." 

Chap. XXL — ^ Jttacessita transiit — The old editions had 
traruieritf which was made the last word of the preceding chap* 
ter. But it was impossible to obtain any tolerable sense from the 
passage in that fonn. 

* Sequens hiems. — ^a.d. 79-80. 

* In beUa/acUes,—" Prone to war.** 

* Ut temploj fora, domos exstruerent — Julius's hqf, or honse, 
the home of Julius Agricola, and Arthi^'s Oven, in Stirling, 
near the mouth of the Carron, are said to have been built under 
the direction of Agricola. As we soon afterwards find Ebora- 
cum an important city, the residence of the British governor, and 
sometimes of the emperor himself, it is not unlikely that Agri- 
cola founded this city about this time in the country of the Bri- 
gantes, to promote the civilisation of this wild tribe. Tacitus 
uses the form domos for *' dwellings," and domu9 for "hoose- 
holds." Hist in, 41, 

* Jam vera. . artibus erudire. — The same line of policy was pur- 
sued by Augustus (Suet Aug. 48), and by other Boman empe- 
rors. Annal, ii. 2. xi. 16. xii. 10. Perhaps Agricola established 
schools, as Calignla did in Gaul and Belgium. 

^ Ingenia. .anteferre.'—** He used to prefer the natural talents 
of the Britons to the laborious efforts of the Gauls." Gauls fre- 
quently found their way to Britain, and ingratiated themselves 
with the princes of the country, to the exclusion of the more 
talented but less cultivated natives. 

^ Ut qui modo linguam Bomanam ahnuehant — viz. In their com- 
munications with the governor, and in judicial proceedings. 
*' So that those who lately refused to make use of the BomaiL 
language, began to desire its eloquence." 

* Ddenimenta, — ^*^ Enchanting allurements." 
' Humanitas, — Civilisation, refinement. 

Chap. XXIL— ^ Tertiua, , annu«.— A.D. 80. 


^ Novas gentes. — Those betrreen the Solwaj 7rith aiid the 
Prith of Tay, in AnnAndale, Clydesdale, Tweeddale, Berwick, 
liOthian, Stirling, Menteith, Perth, and Pife, through which ran 
a Eoman road. 

* Va8taM8.,nationi}ms, — The tribes are here put for their dis-. 
tricts. So, In Hermunduris AUna oritur {Germ, 13); also Antud, 
xiv. 38. XV. 1. 

* Usque ad Taum. — ^Not the Tweed, which does not form an 
estaary, but the Tay. Cerialis had before penetrated to the 

^ Conflictahm. — So, Tempestate conflictatus {Suet Aug, 17}, 
Hist, iii. 59. Ann, yt 51. Quamquam qnafifies cor^icttUum saevis 

* Castdlis, — The remain^of scHne of these are still to be seen 
between Ardoch and Innerpeffery. 

^ Spatium means **time." 

^ Crebrae eruptiones. — He allndes to the forts being surrounded 
by the enemy in the winter time, and to the Romans making 
frequent sallies from them. 

' Sen centurio seu praefectn8,'^i,e, Seu centurio seu pr'aefectus 
esset So, Si severus, . si misericors {CHc, Phil, iL 23). 

Chap. XXTTT.— * Quanta aestas,'-A,j>. 81. 

' ObHnendis. — Obtinere is used in this passage in its common 
^goification. GronoTios rightly remarks: — Obtinere est perse- 
verare in tenendo, quod CroUi dicunt maintenir. It is used in a 
different sense in Percursando quae obtineri non poterant {Annal, 
XT. 8). 

' Inventus, — i. e. Inventus Juisset 

* Clata et Bodotria,^The Frith of Clyde and FHth of Forth. 

' Per immensum revectae,^-" Carried, or running back deep 
into the land." JRe not unfrequently has this force in composi- 
tion; as in repos^, placed far back; reducta vallis {Hor,Ep. 
ii. 11). 

^ Atque omnis propior sinus (terrae) tenebatur. — The chain of 
forts across the isthmus was sufficient to prevent any irruption 
of the en^ny by land. To check their attempts by sea, in which 
way the Picts made their incursions in later times, Agricola had 
ffvrtresses built east and west in the adjacent region, which were 


united with the main chain. The work now called Graham's 
Djeke was erected by Lollius under the Antonines, bnt coincided 
with Agricola's line, which ran from Old Eirk-Fatrick on the 
Frith of Clyde, to Abercom on the Frith of Forth. 
' Sinus here means a line of sea-coast, as in Germ. i. 

Chap. XXIV.— * Quinto anno.— a.d. 82. 
Nave prima transgreastu, — ^For Navibus primum transgreasus, 
Oceanua raris ah orhe nostra navibus aditur (^Germ. 3). Prtmam 
domum suam coercuit {Agr, 19). Transgressus, having crossed 
the Clota. 

^ Eamque partem.. aspicit — Oarrick, Galloway, Wight; per> 
haps, too, Argyle, Arran, and Bate. 

^ In spem. .formidinem, — More because Agricola hoped at some 
fnture time to achieve the conquest of Ireland, than because fae 
dreaded any interruption from that quarter. 

' Si quidem Hibemia. . miscuerit. — '* Since Ireland might unite." 
In Greek we should have had dv with the optative. 

* Medio. . «to. — See c. 10. 

^ VaJentissimam. .partem, — t. e, Britannia, Gallia, the two Ger- 
manics, and Hispania. Valentissimam is applied to these conn- 
tries, because they supplied the bravest soldiers, and contained 
the greatest armies. Comp. Hist ii. 6. iii. 53. Agr, 13. 

^ In occcuionem. — Sc. of taking possession of Ireland by a war- 
like expedition. Claudius, fox^a similar reason, received Bericus, 
who had been driven away by civil discord. 

Chap. XX v. — ^ Aestate qua sextum officii annum inchoabat — 
A.D. 83. 

' Amplexus civitates. — AmpUxus is not anvmo amplexus^ but 
surrounding with military posts and forts. Compare c. 17: 
Magnamque Brigantum partem aut victoria amplexus est out 

^ Infesta hostili exercitu itinera. — It^festa has a passive sense 
here. So, Fta harharorum excursionibus infesta (^Cic, de Prov. 
Cons. 3). 

* Partus classe exphravit — ^Agricola's plan was, apparently, 
that the fleet should support the army, which probably kept near 
the coast; and if the latter met with too powerful an opposition 


at any of the passes, should land troops in the rear of the enem^r. 
The proyinces which Tacitns means are, Fife, Perth, Angus, and 

' In partem virium. — Ut pars virium esset, the preposition t» 
denoting purpose. 

' Cum..beUum impeUeretur, — PeUere is, properly, to put in mo^ 
tion. Longi sermonis initium peUere ( Cie. Brut 87). Comparing 
Sive casus res humanas sine ordine impellit {Sen, JEp, 16), and 
Pheidum aequor milk navium remis strspere aut velis impeili {An- 
' nal, ii. 23), no difficoltj need be raised at the expression, impel- 
lere bdlum, 

^ Copiis ethetiiia, — Copiae here means provisions. It is used 
in a similar sense in Ann, L 68. iiL 54. xt. 16. Hist ii 33. iiL 15. 
30.60. iy.23. The passage means, that yarious classes of sol- 
diers were mingled in the same camp, having come to receive 
provisions or pay a visit out of joy. 

^ Victus oceanus. — So, Domitus oceanus {Suet Claud. 17). Spo- 
lia oceani {Suet, Col. 46). 

' Paratu magnOf majore fama, — This union of heterogeneous 
ablatives is not unconmion in Tacitus. Compare Mdares ingenti 
pondere etfragore provolvunt {Hist u. 22). Ocddere solent, non 
distiplina et severitate, sed impetu et ira {Germ, 35). 

'^ Uti mos est de ignotis, — As is usuallj the case with reports 
spread concerning what is unknown. Walch thinks that oppug- 
nasse depends upon fama; as if Tacitus had written, Magigque 
id fama celebrante " en oppugnarunt Britanni uUro Bomana cos- 

" Oppugnasse xdiro, — These are regarded by some as an inter- 
polation; and they certainly add nothing to the sense, while 
they disturb the construction. 

^ CasteUa, — Some forts in Fife, Perth, aad Strathan, the re- 
mains of which still exist; manifestly, from what follows, not the 
line of fortifications between the Friths of Clyde and Forth. 

'^ Et excedendum potius quam peUerentur. — The alteration of 
potius to prius is unnecessary. UHnam me dim adaxint ad sua- 
pendiuniy Potius quidem, quam hoc pacto apud te serviam {Plaut. 
Aul. L 1. 11). Inopemque optavit potius' eum relinquere, Quam 
eum thesaurum commonstraret Jilio {AuLPrd, ii), Hortatusque 
conjiaratoSf qui aderant, ut potius quam extorti morerentur arma 


teewm eaperent (JLxv. xxxiy. 25). Qu/emadmodum omnia sSn paU^ 
enda eue ducant, potitu quam se dedant Persi (xliiL 9). 

^* Specie prudentium ignaou— Specie bonarum twHum faUaees 
{AnnaL zri 33). 

Chap. XXYI. — ^ Ncnam legionem. . aggreeeL^lt was this legion 
that went, under the command of FetUins Cerialis, to the relief 
of Gamalodnnum, and was almost wholly destroyed (^si. xiT. 
32). It was afterwards reconstmcted, on the arrival of addi- 
tional forces sent by Nero (Ann, xiv. 38). The scene of this 
occurrence should probably be placed in Fife, where the remains 
of a Roman camp are found at Lochore; and in the neighbour* 
hood is an extensive moor, where large tmnks of trees are fre- 
quently dug up, proving that formerly an extensive forest 
existed there (jquod nisi pabtdes et silvae Jugientes texisMent debd* 
^latum iUa victoria foret), 

• Pn^inqua luce. — At day-break. 

* Securi pro salute de gloria certoiast— Emesti and modem 
editors have changed the reading in the text, which is that of 
the old editions and the Vatican MS., into Securi de salute pro 
gloria certabant This is unnecessary. Gompace, Pro me mck- 
rioT (Hist. iv. 58). 

^ lUis, — Nonanisy the soldiers of the ninth legion. 

Chap. XXVIL — ' Illi modo cauti ae sapientes, — See c. 25. iZe- 

' At Britanni. . remittere. — ^The passage is corrupt; apparently, 
some word like victos has been omitted. But Bitter reads <tipe- 
rati instead of rati. 

Chap. XXVIII. — ^ Cohors Usipiorum, — ^By Germania we mnst 
understand Germania superior and vrferior. See notes to Germ, 
c. 1. This cohort was most probably part of the forces stationed 
by Agricola in Cantire, Carrick, and Galloway. From Dion 
(Ixvi. 30) it appears that the course of this circumnavigation 
was from west to east. 
' Uno remigante. — Bemigantessremiges moderante: 
' Nondum vulgato rumore (rebdlionis acfugae), — So. Per Uttora 
vel inter incolas Britanniae. 


* Ut miraculum prdevehebatUur.^The inhabitants of the islands 
and shores on the west of Britain, which the Usipii sailed by, 
were astonished at the wonderful sight Praevehebantur is equi* 
Talent to praetervehebantur. So, praevehitur {AnnaJ. ii. 6). 

^ Mox hoc atque iOa raptL — This is a conjectural reading of a 
corrupt passage, which is varionslj read and explained. Bitter 
proposes, Mox ob aquam atque uteiuilia geparati, cum, etc. 

' Sua d^enaantium, — So, Ad sua iutanda digreasU rebeOUnu 
{Amial, iv. 73). 

' Sorte ductos veacerentur, — Tacitus adopts the old construc- 
tion of vesci with an accusative, on account of sorte being in the 
Ablatiye, and the next word. 

^ Amissis.,iniereepti sunt — It would seem that part wero 
drifted to the mouth of the Elbe, and taken by the Suevi; and 
part to the mouth of the Emms, and taken by the Frisii. 

' In nosiram, . ripam, — ^The left bank of the Bhine. 

Chap. XXIX. — ^ ItUHo aestatis.^Sc, sequentis. This is the 
conmiencement of a new summer, a.d. 84. The expression, 
Modem aestaie (c. a8), shows that Tacitus had finished his regn* 
lar account of Agricola's proceedings during the preceding year, 
and that the narrative of the adventures of the Usipii is to be 
looked upon as a kind of supplement 

' Neque..anibitiose fu/tt— He did not affect a stoical indiffer* 
ence, in order to excite the admiration of others. 

^ Ad montem Grampiam pervenit — ^In the ancient Soottisli 
tongue, this ridge was called Grantzbain^ now the Grampian 
Hills. It runs from Dumbarton to Aberdeenshire. In Strathem» 
about half a mile south of the Eirk of Comerie, is a valley nearly 
a mile broad, and some miles long, through which the Erne and 
Buchel flow. Here are the remains of two Boman camps, with 
a double wall and trench; one large enough to contain the eight 
thousand men which Agricda led to battle; the other smaller, 
suited for the three thousand cavaliy. Two miles south-east is 
a third camp, in which two legions might be conveniently quar- 
tered. They were, perhaps, posted here by Agricola, that he 
might keep up a communication with the fleet The place itself 
#till bears the name of Gaigachan JRossmoor, taken from that of 
the Caledonian leader. 


* Et quibus cruda ac viridis aenectus, — Jam senior (Charon^ 
aed cruda deo viridisque senectus ( Ftr^. Aen. vi. 304). 

* Decora. — The trophies won from enemies. 

Chap, XXX. — * Magnus rriihi animus est — Amplior animus 
est (^Sallust, Cat, 40). Magnus animiiszizmagna animi spes, 

' Universi, — We mnst understand nos before universi. So, 
Annibal peto pacem (Liv, xxx. 39). Achaei arma Bomana susU- 
nebimus (xxxii. si), 

' Priores pugnae. . hahehant — In ordinary prose this wonld be, 
Priorum pugnarum spes sita est in nostris inant6t»=those who 
have hitherto fought with the Romans, hare always been able to 
indulge the hope that they would find a last refuge with ns. 

* Quianobilissimi..siti. — The Caledonians looked upon thcm- 
selyes as an indigenous race, and therefore styled themsdyes 
the noblest. Interior pars ah iis colitur quos natos in insula 
ipsa memoriae proditur (^Ca£s, B. G. v. is). 

' Servientium litora aspicientes, — Comp. c. lo: GaUis in meri- 
diem etiam inspicitur. The inhabitants of Kent, who looked 
towards the shores of the Gauls and Belgae, could not bo said 
to have their sight thus unafiected by contact with tyranny. 

* Nos, terrarum. . extremos, — That is, we dwell at the extremity 
of the world, and are the last people who have preserved their 

^ Sinus famae..defendit. — These words have occasioned con- 
siderable difficulty. lipsius understands sinus famae to mean, 
that the Caledonians were scarcely known to fame, that they 
were in sinu famae conditi. Gronoyius adopts the same inter- 
pretation, and explains sinus as, pars secreta et locus majcvme 
remotus. Orelli makes yama«, the dative, dependent upon de- 
fendit, according to a poetical construction ( FiV^. jBc/. vii. 47. 
Hor. Od, i. 17. 3), and the meaning to be, that by their secluded 
position the Caledonians were prevented from being much talked 
of or known to fame. He remarks upon the difficulty of joining 
recessus as well as sinus with yama«. 

® Omne ignotum..est — This is considered an interpolation by 
some, as not harmonising well with what precedes or follows. 
Others, however, think it necessary to explain why the Romans 
should be so eager to invade the country of the Caledonians, 


which, being unknown to them, they thought mast be Tery 
desirable. , 

' Sed nuUa jam ultra gens, — Bnt situated in the extremity of 
the island, as we are, there are no nations beyond us, from whom 
we might look for assistance, nothing but waves and rocks; and 
on the other side are the Romans, who are still more hostile and 
unfriendly than eyen these. 

*• Baptores orbis. — Compare Sail. Frag, Hist, iv. 8. An igno- 
res Bomanos postquam ad Occidentem pergentibus finem oceanus 
fecit, arma hue conv^tissef Neque quicquam a principio nisi 
raptum habere, domum, conjuges, agros, imperiumf Convenas 
oiim, sinepatria, sine parentibus', pesti conditos orbis terrarumf 

Chap^ XXXL — * Hi. . auferuntur.—BtitonB are traced in Uly- 
ricum, Gaul, Spain, and elsewhere. 

* Sona..egerunt-^** They consume our goods and property in 
taxes, the produce of the year in contributions of com.'* So, 
Census in exsequias egerere {Quint. Decl. y. 17). Annum for pro- 
ventus annorum. So, Nee arare terram et exspectare annum tam 
Jaeile persuaseris {Germ, 14). There are various readings of 
this passage. Orelli gives aggerant instead of egerunt, and makes 
in tributum=Tmd&r the name, or in the form of tribute. Bitter 
reads. Bona fortunaeque in tributum, ager et annus infrumentum, 
understanding obit Bjfrumentum is meant thefrumentum emp- 
tum, Comp. note to c, ig. 

' Silvis ac paludibus emuniendis. — In making roads through 
woods and oyer marshes. Munire is used properly when a piece 
of work is performed by a number of persons, to each of whom 
a portion is allotted. The root is the same as in munus, ** a 
task." Hence, munire viam is not to fortify a road, but simply 
to make one. 

^ Verbera inter ae contumelias, — So in Insuhm inter Germanos- 
que {Hist. v. 19). Tectum inter et laquearia {Annal. iy. 69). Bi- 
pam ad Euphratis (yi. 37), hostem propter" {iy, 48), the preposition 
comes after its noun. 

^ Britannia.. pcucit — By paying tribute, and supplying the 
Koman armies with food. Pascere is properly used with refer- 
ence to catde, and is by some thought to be used in contempt. 

' Novi nos et viles, — i, e. Nos tanquam novi et viles. 1 


^ Neque enim arva nobis avt metcMoy out partus sunt, quibus 
exercendis reservemur. — This remark applies only to Caiedonia, 
not to the whole of Britain. The quibus exercendis properly 
applies only to arva awt metaOa; but the full expression would 
be, neque enim arva out metalla nobis sunt, quibus exercendis^ 
neque portus quorum reditibus retinendis reservemur. 

* Brigantes femina duce, — Tacitns most allude to the reyolt of 
the Britons, under Boadieea; but she was queen of the Iceni, 
and not of the Brigantes. As the Trinobantes joined the Iceni, 
in the revolt from the Romans, it has been proposed to read 
Trinobantes instead of Brigantes. 

^ Et libertatem non in paenitenHam laturL — This passage is a 
difficult one. According to the reading in the text, it would 
signify, ** we who are about to win liberty, not so as to repent 
of it," like the Iceni and Tribonantes did when they were re- 
duced to slavery. As to the phrase, Ubertatem laiuri, c£ Pius 
Jlagitii et periculi laturos (^AnnaL yi. 34.) OhSfuvot S6^av ( Thue. 
JL la.) 

Chap. XXXn. — ' Ex diversissimis gentibus. — As the Bri- 
tanni, Batavi, Tungri, GaUi, Itali. See c. 13. 33. 36. 

* Nisi si, — So Annal, xv. 53. Et fu^ el ng, . ffaXec (^Plat Symp. 
p. 305. e). El iiii £1 ri ( Thuc, i. 17). 

' Pudet dictu. — ^Instead of pudet dicere, Puditum est factis 
(Plaut. Bacch, iii. 1. la). Quia dictu fastidtenda sunt ( VaL Max. 
ix. 13. a). 

* Aut nulla.. est — ^^The greater part are either the betrayers 
of thehr countiy, as the Britanni, or are fighting in a foreign 
land, as the Batarians, Tungri, Gauls," etc. 

^ Paucos numero. — i.e. compared with the Caledonians. 
^ Ignorantia. — sc. of the country in which they are about to 
"^ ye terreat,,vutnerat. — Compare, Zit;.x.39k Aesch. Sqtt 

eont, Theb.2ff7* 

® Senum coloniae, — See c. 5. 

' Aegra municipia. — Non adeo aegram Jtaliam (iliin. xi 93). 
The verb aegrotcare is used in the same manner. Compare a 
similar use of voniv in Greek. Ta d* Ik iopuuv votnX (&pA. 
Elect. 1070). JLai voni rd ^iXrara {EuHp. Med. 17}. 


Chap. XXXTTT. — * Exeepere oratumem. — Excipere is used in 
the same manner by liTy* Exeeptua clamor ah cUiis (xziv. 31). 
JSaec plures per aUentium aut oecultum murmur exeepere (AnnaL 

' Ut harharis morie. — Comp. Ut Domitiano maris erat (c. 39). 

Also Germ, 13. 31. 

' CJantu fremituque et clamoribus. — Similar collocations of que 
and et occur in c. 35. Pedes equesque et nauticus miles; and 
Germ. 1. Rhaetisque et Pannoniis. 

*fIamque..procur8u. — We most sapply some such word as 
apparent or canspiciebarUur, The ellipse of the Terb is conmion 
in Tacitus. Ubi Vespasianus Brit, reciperavit, magni duces (c. 
17). . Inde etiam habitus nostri honor, etfrequens toga (c. si). 

' Simul instruebatur acies» — ** The army of the Cidedoniaiui 
was being drawn up in line." 

^ CoSrcitum — Here has the force of an a^^ectiye in His, So, 
Crenus mobile, injidum, neque ben^ficio neque metu coihrcitum (SaU, 
Jug, 91). Quod adverauM dwitias animum invicium gsrebai {Jug. 
43). Quamquam infimtum id existimatur, nee temere sine aHqua 
reprekensione tractatum, instead of tractabih {Plin* Hist Nat, iii 

^ Octavus annus est— It was, in fact, the seyenth summer sifioe 
he had arrived in Britain. But he probably includes the year 
77, in which he was appointed govemor, though he did not ar- 
riye in Britain till a.d. 78. It is possible, howeyer, that octavus 
(yiii) may be a mistake for septimus (yii)* 

^ Veterum legatorum — ^i. e. Priorum Ugatorum, 
Et vota virtusque in aperio. — ''You have now ah. open field 
for fulfilling your yows (or wishes) and displaying your yalour.*' 

*® Puichrum ae decorum in fiantem, — Frons here is equiyalent 
to acies, quae adversus hostem spectat ( VegeL ill. 14), The mean- 
ing of the sentence is, '^ as it is glorious and fuU of honour to 
an army marching against the enemy, so," etc. 

Chap. XXXTV. — ^ Hi ceterorum. Briiannorum fugacissimi,^-^ 

Imitated from the Greek: cf KaXXiarov rtav irporkf^av ^&oq 
(Soph. Antig. 100). 'A^ioXoyiuraroc rdv irpoTipwif iroXcfMiv 
' Ruere is made by some editors dependent on soUei, under* 


stood, which m easily suggested by pdluntur^peUi soUnt It is 
not the historical infinitiye. Of. Q^^dam inermes vitro mere ac 
ae morti offerre (c. 37). AUi ntentes in hosiem undique cotifigeban- 
tur (Liv, 38. 31). 

* Quos quod tandem invenistis, — This is an imitation of the 
Greek idiom, for qui, quod invenistis eos, mm restiterunt So, 
Urbem quam statuo vestra est (^Virg, Aen. i.573). Eunuchum 
quern dedisti quos turbae dedit (Ter. j^trn. iv. iii. 11). '* There 
remains only a number of cowardly and timid men, whom yon 
have found at last, not because they opposed you (or took ijp a 
strong position), but because, being the last, they have been 
OYcrtaken and caught by you." 

* Extremo metu corpora. — Corpora extremo metu correpta, L e. 
** They, filled with the utmost alarm." 

' In his vesHgiis, — ^In this place where they are standing. See 
Cic, Cat iy. 6. Liv, xxii 49. 

^ Transigite cum expeditionibus, — i.e. Put an end ta Cum ape 
votoque uxoris semel traneigitur (Germ. 19). Bellorvm egregioe 
fines, quoties ignoscendo transigatur (AnruU, xiL 19)'. 

^ Imponite., magnum diem, — ** Crown the fifty years with one 
glorious day." Quinquaginta annis. He is speaking in round 
numbers ; from the expedition of A. Flautius, it was only forty- 
two years. 

Chap. XXXV. — ^ Firmarent — he, fimuan fojcerent mediam 
aciem, Comp. Dextrum comu Nvmidis equitibus datum, media 
acie peditibus firmata (^Liv, xxiL 46). Mediam aciem Hispams 
firmat (xxiii. 29). Under mediam octem Tacitus includes all the 
infantry between the two bodies of cavalry. 

^ Ingens . decus, . beUanti. — ^i. e. Ingens dud decus si bdlaret, 

* Citra Eomanum sanguinem.—^e& c. 1. Germ, c, 16, note, 

* Ut primum agmen aequo sc. consisteret — *^ So that the first 
line stood upon the plain, the others above one another, as if 
linked together, upon the ascent of the mountain.'* 

^ Media campi, — The space between the van of the Caledo- 
nians and ^e Boman line. 

^ Covinarius, — Dimicant non equiiatu modo autpedite, verum et 
bigis et curribus OaUice armati ; covinos vocant, quorum falcatis 
axibus utuntur {MeL iii. 6). Compare Caes, B, G, iv. 34. 3a. 33. 


V. g, 15. "From the above quotations, and the passages referred 
to, it is evident that the covinarii- or essedarii were a distinct 
class from the equites, and that, therefore, the et between covi- 
narius and equea cannot be spared. 

^ Sitnul in frontem simvl et latera.—'Quamquam mater in Liviam^ 
et mox (in) Juliamfatniliam adoptionibiu transient (Annal. yi, 51). 

^ Quamquam porrectior acies.—In hngitudinem porrecta acies. 
Clamantibua tribunis nihil introrsum roboris ac virium esse, et 
quacunque impetum dedissent hastes, perrupturos (^Liv, xxy. si). 

* Promptior in spem, — Tacitus also uses promptior alicui ; ma- 
ter promptior Neroni erat (AnnalAY,6o), Older writers com- 
monly have promptus ad aliquid. 

** Dimisso eqtto, — Tradito caloni equo, or tradito equo, is the 
phrase Livy uses. 

" Pedes ante vexUla constitit — He posted himself on foot be- 
fore the ensigns. Tacitus probably means in front of the 8000 
allies, who were to bear the brunt of the battle ; though vexitta 
is usually employed to denote the standards of the legions, and 
signa those of allies. 

Chap. XXXVI — * Simid eonstantia.,excutere. — According to 
Vegetius (i.4) the Roman recruit was instructed plagam pru- 
denier evitare, et obliquis icfibus venieniia tela d^ectere. This is 
what Tacitus expresses here by the words evitare and excu- 

* Cetris, — The cetra was a small round shield covered with 
hide. Smithes Diet Ant, p, 269. Pelta cetrae haud dissimilis 
{Liv. xxviii. 5). 

' Superfundere. — Tptaeg S* kwl Sovpar ix^vav dKea (Horn, H, e. 
618). BeXea xkovro {IL o, 589). 

* Batavarum cohortes.- — Tacitus does not mention the number 
of these; but, in other parts of his works, he states that there 
were eight of' these cohorts as auxiliaries of the fourteenth 
legion {Hist i. '59. 64). Some editions give tres in this passage, 
a reading not found in good MSS., and probably originating in 
the mistake of copyists. 

* Ac Tungrorum duos. — ^Many monuments of Aese Tungrian 
cohorts remain in Britain, on which we find engraved COH. 


^ Ethoatibu8,,g€rentibus,-^Theii small shields did not cover 
their bodies, and their huge swords were not easily wielded. 

^ Complexum curmorum. — Complexus armorumj according to 
Emesti, is pitgna quae Jit cominus et conserendis numUnu. 

* In arto pugnam, — So, In- arto pugna (^Liv. xxyiii. 33). Hie 
old reading was, in apertOt which does not snit the meaning. 

* Orafodere, — Comp. ^nn. ii. 21. NudaoraJbdereL Foedare 
is another reading. 

^^ Festinatione victoriae, — FeBdnatio here follows the active 
meaning which festino and propero nearly always have in 
Tacitus. See Annod. ^ii. 17. Hist iii 35. 

'^ Fugere covinarii, — These words are either parenthetical or 
an interpolation. 

^' Minimeque. . impeUerentur, — ^This passage is yery corrupt, and 
the yariouB readings proposed are too numerous to mention. 

Chaf. XXXVIL — ^ Ni id ip3um,, oppoiuisset — Tacitus ia 
very fond of this form of expression; and it is observable, that 
he always uses nt, not nisi. (^Hist ii. 68. iii. ^5. 46). See also 
c. 13. Ni velox^ etc. 

' Accurrerant — The reduplicated form occurs only once in 
Tacitus, in decucurrit (Annal. iL 7). 

* Turn veto, — See Germ, c. 14, note. 

* Grande et atrox spectaculum. — Turn spectaculum horribile in 
campis patentibus ; sequi fugere, occidi capi, egui viri cffiicti 

^ Eosdem. — Those who had been taken. 

^ Jam hostium. . virtusque, — There is an antithesis betw:een jam 
JiMtium. . offerre, and et, . virtusque. To the former is subjoined, 
as its consequent, passim.. humus; and to the latter, postquam 
sUvis. . circumveniehant, 

^ Prout cuique ingenUim erat. — So Sallust, UH cujusque inge' 
nium erat. Pro ingenio quisque {Jug, 57). 

^ Et aliquando, etc — Quoruiam eOarn vicHs redit in praecordia 
virtus {Virg» Aen, ii. 2JS7), 

' Indaginis modo. — Quam praemissus eques vdut indagvM dissi- 
patos Samnites ageret (Ztv. vii. 37). Indago refers to that mode 
of hunting in which the huntsmen formed a complete circle 
round a large space of groimd; and gradually contracting it, 


•droye all the animals together into the centre, where they fell 
an easy prey to their darts. Inde partito exercitu^ totam ani' 
plexus Cantahriamy efferam gentem ritu ferarum, quasi indaginey 
debeUabat {Flor, iy. 12. 48). Virg, Aen. iy. ai. Tac, Ann, xiii. 42. 

'® Sicubi artiora erant (sc. hca). He means, whereyer there 
were thickets. To these are opposed, rariores silvae, 

" Firmis ordtnibus,'^** In close array." 

^^ Nee alius alium respectantes. — i, e. Each looking only to his 
own safety. 

Chap. XXXVHL — * Miscere ,. . separare. — Tacitus means, 
sometimes they conferred together; and again, at other times, 
deliberated with themselyes. 

* Frangi,- — So, Fracti (c, 29). 'Eiriyvdfivrstv Ktjp (^Hom, IL a. 
569). '£vtffXav vofifia (0. 408). ^rparffyo^c kkaffrrianc (^AriS' 
toph. Equit,) 

^ Secreti coHes. — So, Secretum maris (c. 25). Zonginquttas et 
secretum (c. 31). The word implies a place not so much obscure 
and concealed, as desolate and solitary. 

* Spargi helium, — Ann, iii. 21. Tac/arinas. , spar git beUum, 

^ In fines Borestorum, — This tribe is not mentioned by any 
other ancient author; but it appears eyident, from what follows 
(ipse peditem.An hibemis /ocamV), that they dwelt beyond the 
Bodotria, for the novas gentes there mentioned are those alluded 
to in c. 35; or they may be included among those at the begin- 
ning of c. 22. 

^ Circumvehi Briianniam, — This was more for the sake of con- 
quest than of discoyery: therefore, daias ad id vires. The .cir- 
cumstance here narrated is alluded to in c. 10. 

^ Trutulensem portum. — Where this was, is not known. Brotier 
identifies it with the partus Rutupinus, or Rutupensis (Sandwich); 
others with Portsmouth or Plymouth. But the words unde,, 
redierat must mean, Quo redierat, inde lecto proximo omni Bri- 
tanniae latere. It is probable, therefore, that the place was not 
far from the Frith of Forth. Compare Die, Blaese, M cadaver 
aJbjecerisf (Annal, l 22}, for M sit locus quof Unde plures erant^ 
omnesjuere (HisL i. 56). Unde clamor acciderat circumagere cor- 
pora {Hist iy. 29). Quo descendere gestis : Non erit emisso redi' 
tus (JSor, EpisU L zz. 5). 

figa NOTES ON 

^ B7 proxtmum lotus omne, he means the eastern coast, and 
part of the north and west coast. 

Chat. XXXIX. — ^ Domitiano morit erat — Comp. e. 33, 

' Inerat used ahsolutely in this waj, is found elsewhere. 
Praecipua pedum pemicitas inerat (^Liv, ix. 16). 'Apmitnc ovk 
IvtOTiv &v dvKTToptis (^Soph. Oed. Tyr, 578). 

^ Fahum e Germania triumphum.-^Tl:n8 refers to his first ficti- 
tious triumph oyer the Chatti, in a.d. 84. See c. 41. Hist. It. 15. 
Suet Dom. 6. After this, in a.d. 85, Domitian triomphed orer 
the Daci, Marcomanni, and QuadL 

^ Emptis per commercial etc. — See Germ, c, 34. Calignla had 
set him the example. Suet. Cal. 47. 

^ Id sihi maxime formidolosum. — Putabat, or existimabaty mnst 
he supplied from conscientia inerat. Pormidciosus is here passiye. 
So SaU. Cat. 7. Thucydides (i. 36) uses dduartpov in the same 

• Frustra studiafori. — ^Domitian thought that it was of no use 
for him to have put an end to the study of eloquence and polite 
literature, and to have banished those who excelled in such pur- 
suits (c. 2), if some one else should obtain popularity by his suc- 
cess in war. Comp. Ann. iii. 75. vi. 7. xi. 6. 7. 

' Utcunque facilius. — In later writers, utcvnque is frequently 
used with an adjective, and even by itself, without a verb. Esset 
utcunque tolerahilis (^Quint. I. 0. 11. iii. 4). Et hoc quidem in com' 
cUio ampliore utcunque tutius (iv.i.3i). 

• Dissimulari. — ^i. e. Occultari. 

' Secreto suo satiatus. — Secretum is not a secret place, to 
which, as is well known, Domitian was accustomed to retire 
(see Plin. Paneg. 48); but the secret hatred which he felt towards 
Agricola. Satiatus=zcontentu8. 

Chap. XL.— * Triumpkalia..datur. — ^Frbm the year b.c. 19, 
after Agrippa's victory over the Cantabri, the honour of the 
triumph itself belonged to the emperor and to the imperial 
princes. Other generals were forced to be contented with the 
mere insignia of the triumph, the laurel chaplet, toga praetexta, 
trabca triumphalis, triumphal statue (^iUustris), the curule chair. 


the iyory sceptre, etc Smtih*s Diet Ant p. 1167, In quidquid 
pro triumpho datur, are included the puhlic sacrifices and thanks- 
givings. See Dio liv. 1 1. 34. Smithes Diet Ant p. 1079. 

' Addique inauper opinionem, — This is hy some supposed to 
refer to the way in whi6h the aenatus eonsultian was drawn up. 
Others think it means, that Domitian ordered his attendants to 
spread a report to this effect 

' Majoribua, — i. e. lUustrioribus. So, Minorea (^Annal, xvi. 8. 
Hist iv. 85) is equivalent to obacuriorea, 

* Ut, ai in Britannia foret,.remeaaae, — Agricola was imme- 
diately recalled; hut the suspicious Domitian feared that he 
might maintain his post by force; the sending of this freedman 
with letters patent, conferring on him the government of Syria, 
was merely a device to draw him away from Britain. If Agri- 
cola were already on his way to Home, that would be unneces- 
sary; and accordingly the freedman, meeting Agricola on his 
journey, returned to Borne without delivering the letters. 

* Tradiderat . Agrieola. — The successor of Agricola was pro- 
bably Sallustius Lucullns. Salluatium Luctdlum Britanniae lega- 
tum interemit, quod laneeas novae/ormae LucttUeaa appellari pasaua 
eat (^Suet Dom, 10). The possession of the Highlands was lost 
after Agricola was recalled. See Hiat 1. 3. 

" Palatium, — This was the emperor's residence, the name 
having originated in that- of Augustus being built on Mount 

^ Brevi oaculo, — Comp. Ann, xiii. 18: Poat breve oaculum digre- 
diena. The opposite is expressed by artiua oculia et pectori hoe- 
rena (^Ann, xiv. 4). 

* Otioaoa, — OHum is conmionly used in opposition to heUum, 
Quieti et otio aaaueacere (c, 31). MUitarea ar tea per otium ignotae 
{Annah xii. 13). 

' Penitua here is equivalent to proratta, omnino, valde. So, 
Conrntetudinem, .penitua amiaimua {Cic, Off. ii. 8). 

*® Adeo ut pkrique. . quaererent famam pauci interpretarentur. — 
So that most men missed the splendour which they had looked 
for in one so renowned, few understood his motives. 

*^ Aeatimare. — See note on c. 5. 

Chaf. XLL — * Crebron.accusatus, — ^Amongst the enemies of 


Areola may be mentioned M. Begulofi, Yeiento, and Publins 

' Absens ahsdutua est, — ^Domitian himself felt the gross in- 
justice of these charges. 

* Pessimum. . laudantes. — Every conmiendation bestowed upon 
Agricola would only increase the rancour of the suspicions 

* Tot exercitus, etc. — This refers to the war with the Daci, 
Marcomanni, and Quadi, in the years a-d. 86-91, which ended 
with Domitian's second mock triumph. 

® Tot militarea viri..expugnati, — Corbulo vir militaris (^Ann. 
XY. 26). lUi homines militares (^Sall, Cat. 45). Comp. Ann, xy. 
10. 67. Hist ii. 75. iii. 73. So, Expugnatis praesidiis {Agr. 16). 
Reges expugnare (^Lucr. iv. 1008). Ohsessosfame expugnavit (Xto. 
xxiii. 30). *E^ivo\i6pKij<rav Xifjt^ {Thuc. i. 134). Bt^ liciroXiop- 
icriBdg (i. 131). 

® De limite imperii. — This, in all probability, must be looked 
for in the line of Roman forts still visible between Feterwardein 
and Bees on the Theiss. 

^ Ripa. — The right bank of the Danube, as far as the Quad! 
and Marcomanni. 

8 £orMjn.-^Thi8 is the reading of the MSS. There is- probably 
an omission here, through the carelessness of copyists. Some 
critics substitute reorum for eorvm. 

^ Dum . . exstimulabant — Dum is more usually followed by the 
present tense ; but there is nothing in the conjunction itself 
which necessarily requires this, and the imperfect is sometimes 
found with it. 

** Vitiis aliorum. — i, e. of other generals ; not of those who 
incited Domitian, as is evident from the antithesis in suis virtu- 
. ^^ In ipsam gloriam praeceps agebatur. — The idea intended to 
be conveyed by these words is, that Agricola's virtues, which 
were maliciously magnified by his enemies, raised his rejmta- 
tion and glory; but that this veiy glory was the cause of 
his ruin. 

Chap. XLTI. — * Annus. — If it was still the custom for the 
legati Caesarum and proconsuls to wait five years before they 


again drew lots ftr the proviiices (I>ra liii. 14), this would bo tbe 
year 89 or go, 

* Quo. . nrfirefKr. — We have no other examples of this nie of 
tortior in the sense of in (ortoa caijiei^. Asiae oat Afticae has 
been conjectured. 

' Oceito Citiica, — Com/Juret stitattires, in Au oKqmt cimnUanM 
iHterrmit, in quAia Civieam Ctrialam m ipto Atim pncoKMilatit 
(iSuei. Dtm. 16). 

* Ereuipiim.— Precedent. 

' Aon jam obKnrii is a corcectiou fbr mm mm obtcttn, anil 
auswera infinilely better to primo oetiMmt. Besides, ifo, not 
fom, would be required. 

* Faratst timulalione.—So, Faratia ptditatti {Cicad Attix. 

^ ExevtantU. — This word also occurs without n in Dial. 6; 
bat not usually in good writers. 

' Gratiot p/unti. — Caio Caeiari agebaat gratiai tl gttontm 
tiberi occiti, tt quomm baia ablala erani (Sen. dt Tranq. A*. 14). 

* Nee embuH baiefitii invidia, — Nor did he blush that Agri' 
cola shonld receive as a favour so marked an injury. An». vi. 93. 

" Solarium was an allowance for the mainlCDance of the gov- 
ernor. The word is derived from lal, meaning, properly, money 
given for purchasing salt. Parochi praebent ligna taianipie gaat 
debtnt (^or. Sof . I. V. 46). It was first granted bj Augastul. 
It amounted somelimce 10 two hundred and fifty thou»and 
drachmae. See Dia lii. sj. Ixxviii. 33. StniOt'a Diet, AnU p, loog, 

" PropHian. . laeierii, — Seneca de Trang, 14. Dt Ira ii. 33. 

" lUieiia refers to Che eantwnacia and inanit libtrtatit jaetatio 
firequentty assmned b^ Stoics in those times 1 as, fur example 
when Helvidina Priscua openly calebrftted the birthday of Brutus 
and Coesins. See Dia Ixvi. 13, 13. 15. 

" £0 iam^ txctiere, quo, etc. = ad id hndi* ezcedtre, etc, 
" Attain to the same degree of praise as," etc Tania tzceuit 
RDoifalc et magnitttdine clada iAratal.iy. t^. Quo ultra iram 

rlatoqae tjaa exceunuiaai fmssef (Ziu. viiL 33). Haeeint 
hmtficium f {Sai Jug. 14). l-'o impiae (c. 18). Bw orro- 
((^»uia(.iii.73). £'cimnjm>y;™n(io«<ii.33). 
■•..iaciaruenmt. — i.e. Q'lo dareicenM pemtaerufU. 80. 
nraelababaalur, tor pritlabajttet pervetumnt iSiil.^ 

296 . NOTES ON 

35). By abrupta is meant what Tacitus {AnnaL iy. 30) calls 
abrupta contumacia, opposed to defortne obsequium. The sense 
of the whole passage is, Obaequium et modestia, si vigor et indMs^ 
tria adsinty eo gloriae perveniunt quo midti pervenire aolent per 
abruptam contumaciam mortem ambitiose quaerentes, sed rempubli^ 
cam nihUjuvantes. 

^'^ Per abruptazzvia abrupta incedentes, ue. hj setting them- 
selves in opposition to the emperor's wishes. 

Chap. XLHL — * Extraneia,,fuit — The epigram of Antiphi- 
1ns (Antkoi, BruncK ii 180) is commonly supposed to refer to the 
celebrated Agricola: — 

TLptivcuai \ipddes, ri irc0ct&yarc; irov rSffov ^Siapi 

Tig (p\b^ &tvdovs ifffSeffev '^eXiovi 
LaKpvaiv 'AypiKSXao TtTpvfieOa* Trav S* 'oaov ^ftiv 

'Hv irorbVf 17 Ktivov dirj/ag ixn VTrodi^, 

Which Grotius translates : — 

Quofontis laticeSf quo copia vestra recessitf 
Perpetual soUs quis color hausit aquas f 

Agricolae luctu consumimur; Ulius ante 
Humida, nunc Jiunt pulvendenta siti. 

' Alivd agens, — Bnsying themselves about other people's 

* Nobis. . ausim, — Various corrections have been given of this 
sentence. Bitter reads, Nobis nihil comperti quodve affirmcure 
ausim, and explains that Tacitus here expresses two things: 
first, that he had not made strict investigation; and, secondly, 
that he was rather doubtful of the truth of the rumour. Wex 
reads. Nobis nihil comperti, ut affirmare ausim, 

* Medieorum intimi, — Those who were deepest in the secrets 
and confidence of the prince. 

* Sive. , erat — ^Whether through anxiety for his recovery, or to 
inquire into the progress of the 'disorder. 

^ Momenta deficientis,^-ThQ difierent stages of the death- 

'' Per., cur sores nuntiata. — It appears that Domitian was at 
this time at his Albau villa. 


* Speciem. . metum, — How well this accorded with Domitian's 
character, we learn from Dio Ixvii. 2. 

' Quo coheredem».acripsit — See ilnno/. xvi. 11. Nee defiiere 
qui monerentf magna ex parte heredem Caesarem ntmcupare atque 
ita nepotibus de reliquo conatdere {Annal, xvi. 31. ii.48). 

^^ Honore judicioque. — ^i. e. Hbnore judicioque hdnonfico (fiic, 
Phil, ii. 43. StuU Oct 101). 

Chap. XUV. — * Natua erat..co88, — Calignla's third consulate 
was in a.d. 40; the consulate of Collega and Friscas, in a.d. 93. 

' Decentior quam sublimior fuit — ^By decor habitus is meant 
the (TvfifUTpia Tov owiultoq. In person he was rather well made 
than tall. 

* Nihil,, supereroL — As Ovid (^Met,u,%y) says: NuUae in 
fronte minae^ nee formidabile lumen : Pacem mdtus hahet, Metus 
is used in an active sense, inspiring or causing fear, dreadful. 

* VultuSf fix)m vclvere, has special reference to the eyes, and 
the expression they give the countenance, which we usually 
denote by the word looks, 

* Medio,, er^ius. — This would seem hardly cohrect respecting 
a man who died between fifty and sixty; but Tacitus elsewhere 
says: Centum et viginti anni ab interitu Ciceronis in hunc diem 
coUiquntur, unius hominis aetas (JDiail, de Orat, 17). 

^ Impleverat, — ^i. e. PlcTie assecutus erat, Impletum est consi' 
Uum si, etc. (Hist i 16). 'AvawK^ocu (Horn, Od. £. so8). Adstru- 
ere=addere, governing considari and praedito, 

' Opibus,.contigerant, — Dio (lxvi.20) errs in saying: *0 dk 
'AypiKoXag iv re Arifiiq, t6 \017r6v tov (3iov Kal kv ivldq.. . eKv^s 
(i, e. " Agricola lived, for the remainder of his life, in dishonour 
and in want"). This is contradicted by his not asking for the 
proconsular allowance (c. 43), and by what Tacitus says 

^ Nam, sicuti,.ominabatur, — The meaning of the passage is, 
Nam sicHti durare in hae beatissimi saeeuli luce ac principem 
Trajanum videre (quod augurio votisque apud nostras aures omi" 
nabatur) grande solatium Agrieolae fuisset, ita. festinata mora 
illud ipsum grande solatium ei atttdit 

* Apud nostras aures, — See Hist i. a6. 

*^ IntervaMa ac spiramenta temporum, — The intervals of time in. 

o 5 

298 . NOTES ON 

which men, after having been struck with terror, are able to 
breathe again. 

*^ JRempublicam exhausit, — Juv, Sat, iv. 150*154. 

Chap. XLV. — * iVoji vidity etc. — See Anrud. xvL 27. SueL 
Dom, 10. II. PUn. Ep. iii. 11. vii. 19. Dio Ixvii. 12. 

' Tot consularium caedes, — See Suet. Dom, la 15. 

^ Feminarum exsilia et fugas. — As Annia, Fannia, Gratilla, 
Flavia DomitUla, and Pontia Domitilla. 

^ Una, ..censebatur. — Since, as yet, but one yictim had fallen 
beneath his accusations, no one could at that time conceiye the 
mischief which he was shortly about to bring upon the nation. 
Censer i aliqua rezzob aliquam rem notum et clarvm esse (^Forcet- 

^ Cams Metiua. — One of the most notorious informers under 
Domitian, is often mentioned by Pliny (£/>. i.5. 11. viLi9.a7), 
Martial (xii. 25), Juvenal (i. 36). According to the scholiast 
upon Juvenal, he was an actor. 

• Et intra. . sirepebat — This was Domitian*s villa, which he 
built on the Via Appia, at the foot of the Alban Mount. Jttv. iv. 
145. Hither ho frequently summoned the senate and pontifices. 
See Juv. iv. 60. Dio Ixvii. 1. Suet Dom. 4. 19. PUn. Ep. iv. 11. 2a. 
Respecting the notorious informer, Catullus Messalinus, see Juv. 
iv. 1 13-122. 145. Dio Ixvii. 1. 

^ Massa Baebiusjam turn reu8 erat. — After he had been pro> 
curator of Africa. See c. 2. Hist. iv. 50. Plin. Epist. iiL 4. vi 29. 

^ Nostrae. . mantis. — The hands of senators. Tacitus, having 
been a senator for some time, was made praetor in a. d. 88 
(Ann. xi. 11); and although he was then absent from Rome, he 
speaks of what was done by the senate as shared by himself 
He here refers to Helvidius the younger. He was accused under 
pretence, Quasi scenico exodio sub persona Paridis et Oenoneg 
divortium Domitiani cum uxore taxasset (Suet Dom. 10). Inter 
multa scelera muUorum nullum atrociua videbatur quam quod m 
senattt senator senatori, praetorius consulari, reo judex, manue m- 
tulisset (P?/». Ep. ix. 13; see, also, ii. 12). 

' Nos Maurici Rusticique visus. — Mauricns was the brother of 
Rusticus, and upon the death of the latter went into exile; but 
returned in the reign of Nerva. See Hist, iv. 40. Annal, zvi. 36. 


Viaus for species is used by Cicero {De Nat Dear, i. 5)^ Livy 
(viii. 9), Riny {Hist, Nat xxii. 6). 

*® Nos, .perfudit — Perfudit is here used figuratively for percu' 
Ut, or stupore offudit, since Senecio was not stabbed in the 

" Videre et aspici. — To see Domitian, and be obsenred by 

*' Subscriberentur. — " Were made subjects of accusation against 
us." Others take the word to mean simply, were secredy noted 
down. So, Cum subscribere quaedam animadvertisset curiosum ac 
specuhiorem (5uc^ Octav, 27). See Ut quibus. . noecatur {Annai. 
i. 73). This evil was encouraged under Tiberius (^AnnaL iv. 30), 
Caligula, Claudius, and Kero; repressed under Vespasian (^Hist 
iv. 44), but reached its height under Domitian. 

*^ Sufficeret—i, e. " Never tired." Juv, iv. 74. 

" Saevus ilk vultus et rubor, — PUn, Pan, 48. *H dk b^piig Itti- 
Kiirai T^ Tov b^QaXfWiJ rjOti' fitorrj ^ ^ waptid x^^^S' tovt'i ydp 
fioKiOTa S7re^aiv€i {Philostr. Vit, Appoll. viL 28). 

** Tu vero. . mortis, — Compare Cic, de Orat iii. 3. • 

*• Tamquam.,donares, — "As if, so far as lay in your power, 
you wished, by your calmness and serenity, to show that the 
prince was guiltiess." It has been remarked, that, among other 
motives for thus trying to screen Domitian, Agricola may have 
feared to excite the wrath of the tyrant against his family. 

" Pro virili portione^pro virUi parte in Cicero. It occurs 
again in Hist iii. so. 

^^ Fdiaeque. — Tacitus*s wife. This is a correction for filioque. 
Agricola's sons were both dead. 

'^ Excepissemus, — Excipere means, to receive something which 
is expected, or which presents itself to the person who takes it. 

** Conditione. — Necessity or obligation. 

^' Ante quadriennium, for quadriennio ante, — So, Multos ante 
annos, for multis annis ante (Anna!, xiv. 9). Multos post annos 
(xiv. 12). It appears that Tacitus was absent from Home at the 
time of Agricola's death. Where he was, is uncertain; though 
some think he had obtained a praetorian province, or was em- 
ployed upon some embassy in Egypt. This may be gathered 
also from Pliny (^Ep, vii. 33). The request that Pliny would fur- 
nish him with a detailed account of Senecio's suit against Bae- 


bios, wad occasioned by his own absence. He was present, 
however, at Senecio'd death, in a.d. 93, when he returned from 
the administration of his praetorian proyince. 
'^ Aliquid, — ^Viz. his daughter and Tacitps. 

Chap. XLYL — ^Et immortaJibus lavdibu8,.aemulatu decors-' 
mus is a correction for temporalUnu laudUmsj et si ncUvra suppe^ 
ditet militum decoramus. Bitter reads te instead of et before m- 
mortuUbua; Orelli, potiua quam temporalUnu., similUudine deco^ 

' Formamque ac Jiguram animi, — Singtdi diverseu, vd easdem^ 
sed probabilee causae afferentes^ formam eui quisque et aninU et 
ingenii reddebant {Dial, de 'Orat i). The old reading, famam^ 
does not go well with corporis or complectantur. That which we 
have given is like the usage of Cicero. Comp. Ve Orat iL 33: 
Formam figuxamque dicendi. De Fin. y, \2: Corporis nostri,. 
figura et forma. Tusc. i. 16. 37 : Animorum. .formam aliquamfigu' 
ramque quaerebant. Bitter gives, Faciemqtte etc Jiguram animi, 

^ Fama rerum, — i. e, in history. 



Chap. I* — ^ Urbem JRomam, — Some editors think the begin- 
ning of this chapter to have been purposely constructed in the 
form of a hexameter yerse, because Sallust (^Jug. 5) has made 
use of a similar commencement, and lAvy has used a hemistich 
in his preface. But this reason is by no means conclusive. The 
frequency with which yerses, chiefly hexameters, either complete 
or incomplete, occur in the compositions of even the best prose 
writers, is shown by Drakenb. adLiv, Praef. Several other in- 
stances occur' in Tacitus. A complete hexameter occurs in the 
oration of Demosthenes, On die Crown^ p. 275: — Tbv yap kv 
*AfiipiViTy iroXefjiov, dij&p tic 'lEXdreiav, See Ctc. de OraU iii. 47. 
Or. 56. 

* Habuere, — " Held," ** governed." Compare c. 9. iv. 5. xi. 29. 
' Ad tempus. — This may mean either " occasionally," or " for a 

time"; either for a short time, as e^ri xp<$t'oy (ITom. //. ii 199), 
or for an indefinite time, whenever and as long as seemed neces- 
sary, as in this passage and vi. 11. Liv. xxviii. 42. In Greek, 
vpbQ Koipdv. So, in tempus (ii. 47), in dies (ii. 13). 

* Neque decemviralis (sc. legibus scribendis) potestas ultra bieA" 
nium.,valuit — ^In point of fact, it lasted a few months beyond the 
two years. But during the last seven months of their power, 
they maintained themselves by force. Military tribunes, with 
consular authority, were created from b.c. 444 to 367, though not 
uninterruptedly. Cinna held the consulship four times, from 
B.C. 87 to 84. Sulla continued dictator for as many years, from b.g» 
82 to 79. He was the first who was invested with the dictator- 
ship for any lengthened period. Caesar was the first who was 
made perpetual dictator. 


* -imia.— « The soldiery." As in la. 7.68. ffUtl'je, it 32. 

• In Attgustum cessere, — " Went over to Angustns." 

' Nomine principis, — ^He was content with the title of prineeps, 
in which there was nothing which savoured of the despot or 
tyrant; being aware that the names of king and dictator, since 
the expulsion of Tarquin and the assassination of Caesar, had 
become equally odious. Vio liii. 1. Suet Aug. 5a. Maecenas had 
advised this course of procedure, with other acts which bore a 
semblance of respect for the ancient constitution and the liberty 
of the people. Dio lii.38. liii. 11.16. Ixvii. 8. Henceforth, />rifi- 
cipatus and principium were used as equivalent to imperium. 
On the original meaning of imperium and princeps, see Smithes 
Diet. Ant. pp. 639. 1017. 

" Veteris populi Romani. — So, Veteres populi Romani res (iv. 
32). Prior populus (xi. 94). Vetus aetas {Agr. a). Prius aeuum 
(Hist i. 1). t. e. The time of the republic before the battle of 

' Decora ingenia. — Among these were T. Labienus, Anfidius 
Bassus, and Cremutins Cordus, who all flourished after the time 
of Asinius Pollio, and Livy. 

'® Donee gliscente adulatione deterrerentur. — Since men of high 
principle and honour will not stoop to flattery, an^ cannot dis- 
pense with it in their writings without danger. Compare Hist 
i. 1. Plin. Ep. iii. 5. Gliscere always implies imperceptible or 
gradual increase. It is only another form of crescere. So, Ka- 
\{}VT(a=KpvvTUff ^vXdooio^^pdfrfrw, dXsyusidpidiOf dXairdZeiv 

" Tiberii Caique et Claudii ac Neronis res. — We have here the 
limits of the period embraced by the Annals. 

**/?«.. 06 metum falsae;..compositae sunt. — Fahae here be- 
longs to the predicate of the sentence. So, Vera non probahan- 
ft«r (xv.51). 

w 5terfio.— "Adulation." 

^* Quorum causas procul habeo.—^ The motives for which are 
too distant to affect me." See Hist i. 1. 

Chap. IL— * Bruto et Cassio coeaw.— **By their own hands" 
at FhHippi, b.c. 43. Dio xlvii 46. 


* Publica coma, — Wars carried on against foreign enemies, 
nnder the sanction of the senate and people. Some, however^ 
take arma more literallj, in the sense of military resources which 

•were employed bj OctaTianns and Antony for their own private 
purposes, rather than any legitimate public object. 

' Sextua Pcmpeius. — The son of Fompey the Great, who had 
gained the command of the sea. His forces were defeated by 
Agrippa at Naulochns (^Suet, Aug. 16), B.a 36. He was taken at 
Midaeum, and put to death at Miletus, B.C. 35 (^Dio xliz. 1-18. 
VeU, ii. 73-79. Appian. B. C. v. 118-144). 

^ Exuto, — *' Stripped" of his arms and soldiers; for Octavianus 
bribed twenty legions to desert from him, b.c. 36 ( VelL ii. 80). 
But he lived till b.o. 13, retaining till his death the dignity of 
Pontifex Maximus. 

* Interfecto ArUonio, — ^By himself, b c. 30, after the battle of 
Actium {Suet, Aug, 17. Veil, iL 87. Dio Ii. 8). 

^Caesar, — C. Julius Caesar Octavianus, afterwards called 

^ Posito triumviri nomine. — This was the only triumvirate which 
was properly and truly so called: it was a magistracy with su- 
preme authority, with which Octavianus, Antony, and Lepidus 
were invested for five years by the senate and people. Their 
full title was triumviri reipublicae ordinandae, or constiiuendae^ 
Smith*8 Diet Ant p, 1168. The other triumvirate of which we 
read was called so ironically; for Caesar, Fompey, and Crassus 
only privately entered into a league to unite their power, and 
neither received their authority by any public decree, nor made 
use of the name triumviri. 

^ TrUmnieio jure contenium. — ^But the tribunicial authority was 
an instrument of great power in the hands of the emperors. It 
was possessed by the emperors in all parts of the empire, and 
was not confined, as in the repnblican period, to the city and 
one mile's distance from it. The importance w^ch the empe- 
rors attached to the triburucia potestas, is shown by their adding 
it to their names, to mark the years of their reigns. Smith's Diet 
Ant p. 1150. 

^ Annona is a distribution of com, either gratuitously or at a 
low price. Compare xii. 41. Dio Ii ai. liii. 2. a8. Suet Aug, 18. 
40. 41. Monum, Ancyr, tab. 3. Smith's Diet Ant p. 95. 


^^ Cunctos dvlcedine otiipeUexiU — See Agr. si. Angnstns shnt 
the temple of Janus three times {Suet Aug, 22).' 

** Munia. . trahere, — At the same tune, in accordance with the 
advice of Maecenas, he retained the names and dignities of the 
principal magistracies, that the people might he deceived hj an 
empty show of liberty (c, i. 3. 7. iv. 6. 19. SueU Caes, 77). The 
. emperors themselves were released from the obligation of most 
of the laws, though not of all. 

^' Per acies, — Principally through the battles of Philippi and 

'^ Opibua et horunibus extoUerentur, — So, c. i. 3. vi. 43. Her, Od. 
T. i. 8. Opibue and honoribus are ablative cases. 

" Turbabantur,—** Violated,*' " deprived of their power." 

Chap. IIL — * Subndia dominationi, — So, Hector juveni (i. 04). 
Dona templis (ii. 60). Cauaas beUo (ii. 64). Tacitus means, Ut 
essent subsidia dominatwnis ai honoribus extoUerentur, They were 
nominated successors, in order to discourage any attempt at 

' C/au</tt<m.,^tum.— Augustus had no children besides his 
daughter Julia. 

' Admodum adolescentem. — He was the son of Octavia, and be- 
trothed to Julia, the daughter of Augustus, who was after> 
wards the wife of Agrippa, and of Tiberius. His death took 
place in the seventeenth year of his age, a.d. 33, in the baths 
of Baiae; the suspicion of which fell upon livia and Augustus 
himself (ii.41. P/tn.vii. 45. Z>to liii 30. 33. Virg,yi.Q6o, Pro- 
pert, iiL 18). 

* Pontificatu,,extuUt, — The office of Pontifex was conferred 
upon Marcellus by Augustus, as it was upon Nero the son of 
Germanicus by Tiberius (iii. 29). The emperors, from Augustus 
to Gratianus, kept the office of Pontifex Maximus to themselyes. 
M. Agrippa, the son-in-law of Augustus, was consul in B.C. 37, 
28, 27, and Consul Suffectus in b.c. 19; prefect of the city from 
the year b.c. 20; and was united with Augustus in the tribnni- 
tial power from b.c. 18. 

^ Geminatis coneulatibtu is here used, in its |rroper signification, 

of the successive consulships whidi he bore, in b.c. 28 and 27, 

, with Augustus, to whom he was indebted for thenu In b.c. 37 


he was elected bj the free yotes of the tribes {Suet Cau, 76. 
F«fl:ii.90.96). : 

' Generum sumpsit — Julia» who had been betrothed to Mar- 
cellus, was given to him in marriage (^Suet Aug. 63). 

' Pritfignos. — They were the sons of Tiberius Chmdius Nero, 
the first husband of Livia Drusilla, whom Augustus married 
after 'divorcing Scribonia. 

^ Auxit, — Augeri is used in a metaphorical sense of persons 
who receive any increase of dignity, power, Wealth, etc. {Agr. 6* 
25). Filiola me auctum scito {Cic. ad Att, i. a). In the free ages 
of the republic, many bore the name of imperator, who had either 
been so saluted by their soldiers, or received the title from the 
senate, when they had succeeded in any military expedition car- 
ried on under their own auspices (iii 74). Junius Blaesus was 
the last private person on whom it was bestowed. He received 
it from Tiberius (iii. 14. Dio liv. 33. Veil ii 125). After that, the 
emperors alone used the title; and it was employed by them in 
two ways. There was, first, the ancient use of the title, already 
mentioned, which was bestowed upon the emperor by the sol- 
diers after a victory, and placed after his name, with the number 
of the victory: in this sense, Augustus was imperator twenty-one 
times (^TaciLAnn,i.Qy, and oh the coins of his successors, the 
title is found down to the time of Caracalla. There was, se- 
condly, the new use of the title, which was conferred upon the 
emperor by the senate, and prefixed to the imperial name Cprae-^ 
nomen imperatoris. Suet Tib, a6): in this sense, it was first con<* 
ferred upon Augustus, and was borne by all succeeding empe- 

^ Domus integra, — So, on the other hand, domua vacua (^SaXL 
Cat, 15). Vacuus is also applied to provinces without a governor, 
countries without a king, women without husbands (ii 76. vi. 34. 
xiiL 44. Agr. xxxii. 40). Vojcuae legionea (ii. 46) means, ** legions 
unoccupied" by war. 

^^ Induxerat (sc. adoptione). — Augustus Caium et Lucium 
adoptavit domi per assem et lihram emptos a patre Agrippa, Ter* 
Hum nepotem Agrippam simulque privignum Tiberium adoptavit 
in faro lege curiatd^^Suet Oct 64. 65). There was a twofold 
method of adopting: the adoption properly so called, made before 
the praetor, in which the 'Children were thrice sold by their 


father, per aes et libramy in the Bame manner as slaves; and the 
adrogatio, by which men who were not under subjection to a 
father or master, passed into the power aad family of another, 
and took his name and sacrifidal duties {Cic. p, Domo^ I3~i5' 
GeU. T. 19), by a law passed in the assembly of the curiae, ia 
presence of the pontifices, and under the emperors by means of 
their rescripts (Jlist i. 15). Smith's Diet Antp, 15. 

" Posita puerili praetexta* — Smith's Diet Ant p. 1 137. 

^' Prineipes juventutis was the name anciently given either to 
the equites whose names were first called over by the censors, 
when taking the census of the equestrian order, or to those young 
men whose fathers were conspicuous for wealth or rank (^JEm* 
Clav. Ctc). After Augustus, this name implied a title to the 
succession to the throne. Caius was bom b.c. 20, Lucius b.c. 18- 
They were sons of Agrippa and Julia, the daughter of Augnstns. 
Dio liv. 18. Monum. Aneyr, 

^^ DesHnari. — Designari is used in the same sense; Compare 
ii. 36. Hist h 76. 

" Agrippa vita coneessit — In b.c. 13. L. Caesar died at Mas- 
silia, ▲.». 3; Caius at Limyra, in Lycia, jld, 3 {Dio liv. s8. foU. 
Suet. Aug. 65. Tib. 15). 

^^ Novereae Lioiae dolus. — ^livia was endeavouring to secure 
the succession to her two sons, Tiberius Nero and Drusus. 

'^ Drusoque pridem exstincto, — b.c. 9, in the thirtieth year of 
his age, in consequence of a fall from his horse. Ovid. FcuL 


" Filius. — He was adopted by Augustus, ajd. 3 (^Suet Aug. 65 
Tib. 15). 

" Collega impertt.— Compare Vdl. ii. lai. Suet Tib. ai. The 
circumstances there related took place in a.d. 12. Whether a 
perpetual proconsular imperium was ever granted to Tiberius, 
may be doubted; at least, in the sense in which Augustus first, 
and Germanicus afterwards, received it (Dtb liii. a). 

'^ Consors tribunieiae potestatis (ter) assvmiiur. — ^b.c. 6. iuD. 4. 
13 (Suet. Aug. 37. Tib. g. 16). 

^ Ostentatur is used in its literal sense; aa in. Ut cnbro ae mHi' 
tibus ostentavisset (iii. 9). 

'^ insidam Planasiam prqjiceret.-^ln a.d. 7. Plantuia 
now Piamsa. Instead of Planasia, Suetonius (^ti^.65) men- 


tions Sarrentam; and the scholiast on Juvenal (vi. 158), Sicily. 
This deportatio in insulam, generally a desert island, was a more 
severe punishment than the releffcUio, and involved the loss of 
liberty, citizenship, and property. 

** Nepotem unicum, — After the death of Cains and Luciiis. 
Agrtppa Postumus, the son of Agrippa and JuMa, was bom after 
the death of his father, and adopted by Augustus on the same 
day as Tiberius {Suet Aug. 64. ^). 

^ Compertum. — Clearly proved and established. Ex multis 
audivi; nam comperisse me non audeo dicere (^Cic, Ep. <id Div. 


^ Gemumicum jussit — ^Hence Tiberius is frequently called the 

father, and Drusus the brother, of Germanicus (ii 43. iv. 4). 

^ Filius juvenis, — Drusus, his son by Vipsania Agrippina, 
daughter of Agrippa (^Suet Tib, 52). Drusus was bom b.c. 15, 
and was now eighteen years old. 

* Abolendae magis infamiae, — Genitive case. Compare Aegyp^ 
turn proficiscitur cognoscendae antiquitatis (ii. 59). ViUmdae sus- 
picionis (iii 9). Tuendae libertatis, et firmandae concordiae (iii 

27)- ^ . 

^ Quintilio Faro.~A.D. 9 ( Feff. ii. 217. Suet Oct 63. Dio IvL 


*® Juniores, — Those between the ^es of seventeen and forty- 

siz were commonly ca\iedjuniore8,juvenes, or adolescent; those 

between forty-six and sixty, seniores; and those above sixty, 

eenes, and sometimes seniores, Pueri minores are those under 

fourteen ; pueri majores those between fourteen and eighteen. 

Marcellus, at the beginning of this chapter, is called admodum 

adolescens when seventeen years old. 

Chap. FV. — ' ^uUa in praesens formidine.~^Tlna use of the 
ablative absolute, with the omission of the substantive verb, is 
common in Tacitus. Thus, Caede continua (vi. 29); continvo 
o^(xiii. 54); obvia rerum simUitudine (iv. 33);. NvUis contra 
terris (Agr. 10). Irritis hosHbus (Agr, 22). 

' Seque et domum. — Cicero never uses que in the sense of both; 
Sallust only uses it in this meaning for the purpose of coupling 

' Provecta jam senecius.— For senex. So, SenectuUm Tiberii 


despiciena (VL31). The abstract is frequently thus used for the 
concrete; as, fnatnmcnium for conjuges (ii. 13). 

* AderatqUtBjinia, — Sc. Angusto. 

^ Imminentis. . differebant — Compare Juven. x. 65-89- IHfferrt 
here answers to our English phrase, topuU to pieces, used in the 
sense of handling a person's character rather roughly. 

^ Agrippam. — ue, Agrippa Fostumus, the son of Julia and 
Agrippa, and coasequentlj the grandson of Augustus. 

' Maturum a#im*.-^He was fifty-five. 

^ Spectatum bello, — In his expeditions into Germany; for an 
account of which, see ii. a6. Suet, Tib. g, 16-ao. Dioj etc 

^ Quamquam prenumtur, — '* Whatever endeavours might be 
made to repress them.*' 

*° Congestos. . triumpkos, — See Suet Tib. q. 17. 20. He was con- 
sul b.c. 13,9, and 4. He triumphed over the Fannonians B.c.g, 
over the Germans b.c. 7, and over the Blyrians, Fannonians, 
Dalmatians, and Germans a.d. 12. 

*^ Anni8..egerit — See c. 53. Suet, Tib. 10-14. He was there for 
eight years (b.c. 6 to a.d. 2). Some editors propose to write exsvl 
for exsuJem, saying that exstdem agere means only "to feign being 
an exile.'' This, however, is not the case; such phrases as prin- 
cipem, consulem agere, are of frequent occurrence, implying the 
actual performance of the duties attendant upon those stations: 
exstd egerii, however, might very well be used; as, Discore age" 
bat(m.2lS)\ tanto impensius in securitatem compo8itu8..per illM 
dies egit (iii. 44). 

" Aliquid. — For aliiid quicquam, " anything else." 

^ Meditari, — **To practise." Ftr^. JEc/. vi. 8. 8a. ^en.x. 455. 
Cervi partus fugam meditari docent (JPlin, viii 32). 

^* Duobus..adolescentibus, — ^Drusus the son, and Germanicus 
the nephew and adopted son, of Tiberius. 

^ Interim here is equivalent to aliquando, or aHquamduu So, 
Pari ignominia Valerius Ponticus afficitur, quod reo8..detuUsset, 
interim specie legum, mox praevaricando ultionem duswrus (xiv. 

^^ Quandoque here has the same meaning as quandocunque, 
** some time or other." 

Ceap. v. — ^ Scelus uxoris suspectaibanU—'LiyiBL was suspected 


of having given some poisoned figs to her husband (^Dio Ivi. 

39- 30)- 
' Fabio Maximo* — This was Q. Fahius MaximuSt Africanos, 

who was consul in b.c. 12; concerning whom and Marcia see Ovid 

ex Pont i. -2. and iv. 6. 11. Marcia was the daughter of Marcius 

Philippus, AuguRtus's stepfather. 

* Gnarum id Caesari. — ** This became known." This passive 
use of gnarus is only found in Tacitus. So, Quod gnarum duci 
(c. 51) ; in paludem gnaram vinceniibus (c. 63); gnarum id Tiberio 
Juit (iii. 6). Ignarusy however, is used passively by Virgil, Ovid, 
and SalluBt. Ignara lingua (SaU Jug. 18). JRegio hosHbus ig-. 
nara (52). For gnarum, in this passage, Muretus conjectured 
gnatum to be the true reading. 

* Quaesita morte. — ** By a violent death." Quaesita does not 
determine whether by suicide, or in any other way. Tacitus 
probably means the latter. So, exitium sumptum (iii. 7). 

Chap. VL — * Inermumque. — Another form is inermis. So, 
there are two forms, semermus and semermia (iii. 39), exanimus 
and exanimis, aemisomnus and semisomnis, 

' Quamvis firmatus animo. — "Though he had steeled his breast 
for the task." 

' Quandoque. — The same as quandocunque. 

* Senatus consulto, — Suet Oct 65. 

* JJuravit — Sc. se, 

* Nuntianti. — Benuntianti would have been the proper word 
here; and the re might have been absorbed by the last syllable 
of the preceding word ; but Tacitus, who imitates the phraseology 
of the poets, not unfrequently uses simple, instead of compound 
words. Thus, posuit (c. 7); civerat, for excitaverat (xv.33); 
firmare, for affirmare (i. 81. iv. 11. vi. 6); gravescere, for ingra- 
vescer^i. 5); movere, for amovere (xiv. 3a. 60). 

^ Sattustiua Crispus. — Was the grand-nephew of the historian 
Sallust, and was adopted by hinL He was intimate with Augus- 
tus; and from him the aee SaUustianum received its name (ii.4a 

iii. 30). 

* Codicilloa. — " The warrant" Compare Agr, 40. Suet, Tib, 
70. Claud. 29. 

' Subderetwr^-^Subdere is to substitute in an underhand man- 


ner. Thus. Subdere testatnentum (xiY.30. XT.44). Suhdito 
more (vi. 36). 
'° Juxta periculoso. — " It being alike dangerous." 
" Ficta seu vera vromeret — If he exculpated Tiberius, and 
took the responsibility upon himself, he ran the risk of being 
condemned by the senate; if, on the other hand, he accused 
Tiberius, he would render himself obnoxious to his displeasure. 

*' Batio corutet — A metaphor from accounts; the phrase, ratio 
constat, is used when the debtor and creditor sides of an account 
balance one another. Hationem reddere aUcui, is to lay an account 
before some one for examination. 

Chap. VII. — * iVc laetu — Sc. Viderentur, or easent. (See 
p. xlviL) 

* Prunordio, — ** The commencement" of the new reign. 

* Questus, — " Lamentations for the death of Augustus." 

* Sextu8 Pompeiu8 and Sextua Apuleiits are said by Die to 
have been in some way related to the emperor. 

* In verba Tiberii Caesaris juravere, — Took the oaih accord- 
ing to the formula dictated by Tiberius. This phrase was origi- 
nally used of soldiers who swore fidelity to their generaL The 
oath of allegiance spoken of in this passage, was first taken 
under Julius Caesar, and afterwards under the other emperofrs, 
as commanders in chief of all the armies in the empire. The 
formula of it was^-iVbn me liberosque meos ccuriores habebo quam 
principem (Suet. Caes. Q4. Co/. 15. Dio, liii. 20). Compare 
Sacramentum in nomen Tiberii (i. 8). Jurare in Othonem (^HisU 
i. 76). The juramentum in acta principumy spoken of in i. 73. 
iv. ^ is different; it implied confirming the acts and decrees of 
the emperors. This oath was first taken upon the death of 
Julius Caesar, to ratify his acts ; and next after the battle of 
Actium, to honour Augustus. Under the emperors, it was 
renewed at the commencement of each year (Dio Ix. 10. iv. 1). 
The phrase is used in a figurative sense by Horace {EpisU i 1. 
14), to denote the adoption of a master's philosophical tenets 
{Smith*8 Diet Antp, 662). 

^ Seius Strabo, — The father of Aelius Sejanus (c. 34). He 
had the government of Egypt granted to him. 
^ Caius Turranius.,pratfectiu,.annonae,—KQ was the fint 


who bore this ojQfice. This magistracy was made an ordinary 
one by Augustas, who held it himself till shortly before his 
death, when he appointed Turranius (xi. 31. Suet Aug, 37. 
Smith's Diet. Ant. p, 952). 

® Praetoriarum cokortium praefectua. — These prefects were 
tot appointed by Augustus. They were two in number. At 
this time there was probably no prefect of the city. Taurus 
btatilius was dead, and Fiso was appointed in his room, after an 
interval of some years {Smith's Diet Ant pp. 957. 952). 

^ Tribuniciae potestatis praescriptione, — The tribunes of the 
people had the power of assembling the senate {Suet Tib, 33). 

*° Posuit. — ^For proposuit As in iv. 27. 

" Sub Augusto acceptae. — See c, 3. 

" Consulturum. — Scpatres, 

^^ Neque abscedere a corpore, — Emesti takes corpus to mean 
the funeral rites of Augustus ; but on comparing iii. 5, this ap- 
pears not to be the case ; and the tense of the verb abscedere 
prevents our taking it in this sense. The words, neque absee- 
dere a corpore, must be looked upon as a parenthesis. Tiberius 
means to say, that filial respect prevented his leaving the corpse 
of his parent, and that the assembling of the senate was the only 
one of the tribunitial or senatorial duties which he could bring 
himself to perform. This edict was probably sent firom Nola. 
It was from Nola that the officers were sent to kill Agrippa, and 
that the mandates were issued to the army. 

** Signum (or tesseram). — The parole or password. In the 
time of the emperors, this signum was given by word of mouth 
See i, 65. xiii. 3. Suet, CaL 58. iVer. 9. Besides these signa 
voccUia, there were signa demivocalia, made with the trumpet or 
horn. Both seem to be referred to in. Intermisso signo et vocibua 
{Hist V. 23). Some, however, explain this by means of the 
figure ?v ha dvoTv, 

^^ Cetera aidae. — The lictors, the fasces bound with laurel, and 
whatever^else served to distinguish the emperor. 

^^ Adepto, — ^Passive. Comitatus, expertus, meditatus, are also 
found thus used by Tacitus. 

>^ Dabat (aliquid) etfamae. — ^He allowed report to have some 
influence with him. Dare, tribuere, and some other verbs of a 
similar meaning, are used when speaking of balanoing reasons. 


and assigning to each motive ltd proper weight. Deis dUqmd 
famae t {Hor, Sat, ii. 2. 94). 

'^ Per. . ambitum et. . adoptiane, — This variation of constmctioii 
is common in Tacitns. Compare Kai tdig, toXq iroKircuQ kcu Iq 
Toi)Q irdvrac Kvfifidxovc inftikifi^Tepov ietaOai (TAuc. i. 61). 

^ Inductam dubitationem. — Inducere^ used properly of drawing 
on a covering or garment, thence acquires the notion of painting 
or plastering, which, in its turn, has led to the meaning of 
feigning, or putting on the appearance of anything. Some 
editors have altered inductam in the passage to indutant; bat 
that is unnecessary. Bec<mdebat= treasured up in his mind for 
future uses. 

Chap. VIII. — * De supremis, — Concerning the last duties to 
be paid to the corpse of Augustus. Supretna Auguati maj pos- 
sibly mean the last acts of Augustus. 

* Per Virgines Vestae, — It was a common practice to deposit 
wills and other documents of importance, as well as money, 
in temples, especially in that of Ycsta. The treaty between 
Antony and Augustus was deposited there (^Suet, Aug. loi). 
Smith* 8 Diet. Ant, p. 1189. 

^ Livia..a89umebatur, — The imperfect, aasumehatuTj implies 
that Augustus had only expressed a desire that she should be 
adopted. From this time forward, in coins and inscriptions, she 
is called Julia, not livia (i. 14. iii. 64). Ovid. Fast, i. 532. Plin, x.55. 

* In spent secundam nepotes pronepotesque, — In spem secundam 
sssecundos heredes scripsit. The nepotes were, Drusus, the son 
of Tiberius, who was the adopted son of Augustus, and Grer^ 
manicus, the nephew and adopted son of Tiberius. The prO' 
nepotes were the sons of Germanicus. Suet. Aug, 101. 

. ^ Legata.,modum. — The legacies did not exceed what might 
have been looked for from a citizen. 

^ Popido et plehi. — ccccxxxv (quadringenties trides quinquies 
sestertium); i.e. popvlo (or the multitude in the city depending 
on the state for provision) cccc, to be deposited in the treasury, 
and applied to public purposes ; tribuhus (or tribes of Roman 
citizens) xxxv : there were thirty-five tribes. This latter sum 
was to be divided amongst the tribes, for them to distribute in 
whatever way they chose. Dtb Ivi. 33. Suet Oct, 101. 


^ Legionariia. . dediU — The manuscript reading here is legiona' 
riis aut cohortibua. This, on the authority of the best editors, 
has been altered in the text to leg. occ, cohortibua civium Boma- 
norum ccocc. Compare Suetonius {Aug, 101), Legamt.cohorti' 
bus urbania quingenoa, legionariia trecenoa nummoa. It is main- 
tained, howeyer, on the other hand, that aut is an abbreviation 
of autem, and that cohortea civium Bomanorum can hardly mean 
anything but cohorts composed of Roman citizens : that the 
cohortea wbanae were merely cohorts placed to guard Rome^ 
under the command of the Praefectus urbis; and that they are 
never called cohortea civium Bomanorum, Another reading pro- 
posed is, praetoriarum cohortivm militibua aingula nummum milia, 
urbania ccccc, legionariia autem cohortibua cet Ritter has, legio- 
nariia cohortibua civium Bomanorum trecenoa nummoa viritim 
dedity simply omitting aut before coliortibua, which he supposes 
to have been inserted to explain legionariia cohortibua by civium 
Bomanorum. He thinks Tacitus omitted to mention the sum 
left to the cohortea urbanae, because it was not beyond ordinary 
limits, and he wished only to mention what was extraordinary. 
The legionariae cohortea civium Bomanorum he takes to be=: 
t6 irokinKov ir\ri9oc of Dio, and here distinguished /rom the 
light or auxiliary cohorts of allies, first, by being formed into a 
legion, and, secondly, by being entirely composed of Roman 
citizens. ^ 

> Ex quia. . cenauere, — There is something faulty in this sen- 
tence. As it stands, the clauses beginning with ut would depend 
upon both viai and cenauere; which cannot be tolerated. Some 
take viai to be equivalent to placuere; but tJie word will hardly 
bear that meaning : such an expression as id dia viaum eat is not 
parallel. Others alter viai to juaai, or introduce ut before the 
names Gallus Asinius and L. Amintius. Kiessling proposes ex 
quibua qui. 

^ Porta triumphali. — This was between the Elumentan and 
Carmental, not far from the Tiber, and led to the Campus 
Martins, where the body was to be burnt. 

'® GaUua Aainiua. — When the praenomen ' is omitted, the 
cognomen is conmionly put first, if there are several of the same 
family who require to be distinguished. 

^^ Addebat —The imperfect marks only the attempt. The 



MOeramentum in nomen is eqniyalent to the sacramentum in verba, 
though it is not exactly the same thing. The latter implies thai 
the imperator dictated the words of the oath ; the former, merely 
that his name was inserted in it The soldiers renewed thdr 
oath of allegiance to their general every year (^Smith's DicU Ant 
p. 662). 

"J^a sola,.8upererat — This was the only form of flattery 
which had not been exhausted. 

^ Bemiait — Remittere, in its original sense, implies letting go, 
or letting hose, a cord that has been tightly stretched. Here it 
implies that, after a show of resistance, Tiberius suffered himself 
to be prevailed upon to grant their wishes (Suet, Claud, 35). 
Remisit, ne Jenunae. . contrectarentur, or, which comes to nearly 
the same thing, he left the matt^ to them. 

^* In campo Marti*, — ^Appian (B, C, i 106) sayn, that Sulla 
was the first whose corpse was carried on the shoulders of 
senators, and buried in the Campus Martins. Augustus, in his 
sixth consulate, erected a mausoleum in the Campus Martins, 
between the bank of the Tiber and the Via Flaminia (Strabo r. 3. 
Suet.Aug,&4,\oo, AppianB,C.i, 10^106). Compare ^nna/.iii. 4. 

1^ Sede destinata, — ^The mausoleum which Augustus bad built 
for himself. 

^^ Diem illum,,repetitae,^**^ThaJt memorable day when the 
wound of slavery had not yet healed, and the recovery of liberty 
had been attempted without success." 

'^ Occieus. , Caesar, — i e. Oceisio ejus. Compare Ocetsua Aw- 
gush pronepos (i. 43). 

Chap. IX. — ' Idem dies.^eupremua, — Most authors reckon the 
reign of Augustus to commence with the battle of Actium, Sept. 2, 
B.0. 31 ; some from his seventh consulate, when the imperium was 
confirmed to him by the senate, and the cognomen of Augustus 
given to him, b.c. 37; others from his first consulate, B.0.43; ^^t 
the more usual date is the battle of Actium. 

* Numeru8..aequaverat, — C. Marius was consul seven, and 
M. VaL Corvus six, times. Augustus was consul thirteen times. 
His thirteenth consulate was in b.c. 2. 

' C<mtinuata.,pote8ta8, — He received it June 37, B.C. 33, and 
held it for thirty-six years and nearly two months (2>tb liii 33). 


^ Nomen imperatorts semel atque viciea partum* — t.e. He gained 
twenty-one victories, either in person or by the agency of his 

* Parentem. — J. Caesar. 

' Necessitudine, — Neceasitas is properly applied to the com- 
pulsion; necessitudOf to the state of restraint in which a person is 
placed by this compulsion : the words, however, are frequently 
confounded. Necessitudo has its proper signification in xii. 3. g, 
46: it is used for necesaitcu in peccandi necessitudo (iii. 40); neces- 
situdo legis (iv. 20); necessitudo pugnae (xii 30). Necessitae fre- 
quently denotes the effect or result of compulsion. Necessitas 
senatoria (xi. 4), t. e. what his office of senator compelled him to 
say. Necessitas tdtima or extrema (xv. 61. Hist i, 3). Neces- 
sitates, i e. Stanptus necessarU (i* 11). Necessitatum causcu 
(Suet 776.47). 

^ Dum. . vicisceretur, — Dvm marks the condition upon which 
these concessions were made* 

^ Senuerit, — Senescere implies the loss of strength and vigour. 

' Mari oceano, — Oceanus is sometimes used as an adjective. 
Mare oceanum (Caes, B, G, iii. 7). 

*^ Amnibus longinguis, — The Euphrates, Danube, and Bhine. 

Chap. X. — * Concitos, — Octaviantts magna molitur : veteranos, , 
perduxit ad suam sententiam; nee mirum : quingenos denarios dat 
(Cic, ad Att xvi. 8. 1). 

* Consulis. legumes, — Tlie fourth legion and the legio Martia, 
belonging to the consul Antonius (Csc. PM, iv.2). 

^ Pompeianarum.,partium. — This name was given to the de- 
fenders of liberty against Caesar long after Pompey's death* 

* Caesis Hirtio et Pansa. — ^B.c. 43. 

^ Abstuterat—Whea nouns of different numbers and genders 
form the subject of a sentence, the number and gender of the 
predicate are commonly determined by those of the nearest 
noun of the subject. So, Siquos spesmeae, si quos propinquus 
sanguis, etiam quos invidia erga viventem movebat (ii, 71). 

^ Extortum, — This was in the same year as the death of Hirtius 
and Fansa, when Augustus and Q. Fedius succeeded them as 
consuls, and the ambassador of Augustus, holding up a sword to 


the senate, said, '* If 70a do not give Caesar the consulate, this 
sword wilL" 

^ Senatu, — This is the old dative. 

' Acceperit—Mjxretua conjectured acceperat The pluperfect 
would be the more nsual construction (though we have invaserit 
just before) ; but the indicative mood would make it a direct 
assertion on the part of Tacitus. 

* Fecere, — The reading of the editions varies between fecert 
and cepere. The former appears to have the authority of the 
MS. Muretus found caepere in some ancient copies, and finom 
Suetonius {Oct 13), ^eque veteraMorum,.quaerenHbus, conjec- 
tured cepere. But the partition of the lands would hardly have 
been displeasing to the veterans ; and the words ne ipsis, , fecert 
should probably be taken as referring likewise to the prascrip- 
tionem civium. 

^^ Cassii et Brutomm, — The Bruti were Marcus and Deciznns. 

^* Pompeium imagine pads. — ^He sent Mucia, Sextus Ponipey's 
mother, to him, and the sister of L. Scribonius libo, his father- 
in-law, to procure his alliance. He afterwards dined on board 
Sextus's ship, and entertained him at a banquet, besides be- 
trothing Marcellus, his nephew, to Fompeia, the daughter of 
Sextus. Yet he ultimately planned his death {Suet Oct, 16. 
Dio xlviii 36). 

** Lepidum,—Dio xlix. 13. 

^ Tarentino Brundisinoque foedere, — Tlie treaty of Brundisinm 
was concluded some years before that of Tarentum. The treaty 
of Brundisium, between Octavianus and Antony, was made 
after the capture of Ferusia, upon the death of Fulvia, b.c. 40. 
Octavia was then given in marriage to Antony, and the pro- 
vinces of the East were assigned to him. The treaty of Taren- 
tum was brought about by the efforts of Octavia, Agrippa, and 
Maecenas,- when, three years afterwards, disputes had again 
arisen between Octavianus and Antony, Aatony furnished 
Caesar with one hundred ships for his war with Sextus Fom- 
peius, and received in return two legions for the Farthian war . 
{Dio xlviii. 54). 

^* LoUianas^^clades^—TMs took place B.C. 16, in Westphalia, 
where the standard of the fifth legion was lost At a place now 
called LoUe, ancient coins are still found. Lollius was the tutor 


of young C. Caesar. M. LoUins infamatus spotiia provinciarum 
regumque munerifjus in toto oriente^ interdicta amicitia a C. Cae' 
sare Augusti JUio venenum bibit, ut neptis ejus (Lollia Paulina) 
quadringentiea HS operta spectaretur ad btcenuu (P/tn. ix. 58). 
Compare Hor, Od. iv. g. Suet. Oct 33. 

" Varianasque clades. — See notes on c. 3. 

w Varronea, — The plural is frequently used in this rhetorical 
way for the singular. See Agric^. 15.31.32. licinius Yarro 
Murena entered into a conspiracy with Fannius Caepio, b.c. 23, 
was accused by Tiberius, and put to death the same year in which 
he had been consul suffectus (^Suet Aug, 19. 56. TUf. 8. Dto liii. 34. 
liy. 3. Strabo :aY, p, 670), He is sometimes called Tereniius 
Varro Murena; his sister, who was married to Maecenas, is 
called sometimes Terentia, sometimes Licinia, 

" Egnaiios, — M. Egnatius Rufiis, an aedile, also entered into 
a conspiracy, and was put to death (^Suet Oct ig. Dio liy. 3). 

*^ Julos. — Julus Antonius, the son of the triumvir by Fulvia, 
was consul B.C. 10. He married Marcella, the daughter of 
Octavia ; but having been accused of adultery with Julia, and 
aiming at the sovereignty, he was killed b.c. 3 ; according to 
Tacitus and Dio (Iv. 10), by the command of Augustus ; but, 
according to Velleius (ii. 100), by his own hand (-Hbr. Od, iv. a). 

*' Abducta Neroni uxor. — t. e. Livia, the wife of Tiberius Clau- 
dius Nero, and mother of Tiberius, the emperor. 

" Q. Tedii et Vedii PoUionis luxus, — The former of these is 
not otherwise known. He is to be distinguished from Tedius 
Afer, who was consul designatus, and, terrified by the threats of 
Augustus, destroyed himself (^Suet Oct, 37). Ritter reads. Cat 
Matii, a Roman eques and Mend of Augustus (^Ann, xii. 60). 
On Vedius PoUib, see Seneca de Ira vii. 40. Dio liv, 33. 

" Nihil deorum. . vellet,—Tacitaa here alludes to the temphtm 
and cadestes religiones, as we may see from the words perflamines 
et sacerdotes. If he had meant the divine honours paid to Au- 
gustus in the provinces and in Italy, by his permission, during 
his lifetime, he would have used voluerit. In urbe quidem perti- 
nacissime abstinuit hoc honore (^Suet, Aug, 52. Dio li. 20. Iyi.4i6). 
Augustus was very fond of being looked upon as a son of Apollo, 
or even as Apollo himself {Suet. Aug 94). In Asia Minor, he was 
worshipped under thQ name of Lunus (a contraction of Zuctnii«), 


^ Effigie numinum, — With a statae representing him as a 
divine being ^isluet. Oct. 52. Dio li. 20), 

^ Per flamines et sacerdotes, — ^Women also bore the office of 
priestess to Augustus. In Gruter (p. 330, i2), there is an in- 
scription : — p. POSTVMIAE. p. F. PAVLLAB. 8ACERD. 3>. IVLL 

AYOYST^ ; and again (/>. 101, 3), lycb. l. f. campana. flak. 
PERP. DOMYS. ATG. ; i. c., LucreHa X. filia, Flaminica perpetwL 
livia was appointed priestess to her husband by a decree of the 

** Faucis ante annia, — 'A.D. 12. 

** Habitu, — *' Carriage," " bearing." Iricedebat cermce rigida 
et obatipa ; adducto fere vtdtu, plerumque tacitus : nuUo aut rari*- 
simo etiam cum proximia aemume, eoque tardisaimo, nee sine moBi 
quadam digitorum gesticitlatione (^Suet Tib. 68). Cultus, — " Dress 
and personal habits." Instituta, — " Principles." 

Chap. XI. — * Sua tnodestia.-^** His own moderate talents." 
Compare Hist. iii. 70. Some, however, explain it in the sense of 
*' moderation," quoting Ann, ii. 36 and i. 12: Nequaquam decorum 
pudori suo. Nitenti. . ahderet On the dissimulation of Tiberius, 
see Ann. iv. 71. Dio Ivii. 1. 

* Non ad unum omnia deferrent. — Sc. si saperent, 

' Ad effigiem Augusti. — This was in the palace on the Palatine 
Hill, in which the senate assembled. See ii. 37. 

^ LibeUum. — Suetonius calls it rationariunit or breviarium rm- 
perii {Suet. Aug. 28. 101). 

* Becitarique. — By Drusus (Deo Ivi. 33). 

* Begna, — i. e. kingdoms not yet reduced to the form of Roman 
provincce, though subject to Roman rule, as Cappadocia, Thracia, 
etc. Comp. Ann, ii. 42. 55. 64. 

7 Tributa, — •* Taxes upon persons and property." VecHgalia, 
" Money raised by the customs, tithes, and letting of the public 
lands" {Em. Clav. Cic,'), Necessitates, — "Necessary public ex- 
penses." Livy (xxiii. 48) uses the word in the same sense. 

^ Terminos. — The Euphrates, the Danube, the Rhine, and the 

^'Mettt. — ^According to Dio (Ivi. 33), Augustus himself ex- 
pressed a fear that, in attempting to extend their conquests, they 
might lose what had been already acquired. 


Chap, XIL — * Asinius Gallus, — ^The son of C. Asinius PoUio, 
the friend of Augustus and Horace, who was praefecfof Gaul iii 
BO. 43, consul in b.c. 40, and proconsul in b.o. 39. He was like- 
wise an orator, a poet, and a historian, and wrote a history oi 
the civil wars, and was the first who huilt a public library {Dial, 
de Orat is. 15. 17. Hor. Od, ii. 1). His son, C. Asinius Gallus, was 
consul B.C. 8. He wrote a work comparing his father and Cicero, 
which was answered by the emperor Claudius (JPlin, Ep, vii. 4. 
Suet Claud, 41). He married Vipsania Agrippina, the daughter of 
Agrippa (who had preyiously been married to Tiberius, and was 
the mother of Drusus (Suet, Tib, 7), and had fire sons: M, Asi- 
nius Agrippa, consul in a.d. 35; C, Asinius Saloninus (Serv, ad 
Tirg,JEcl,iy,i, jTac.-^nna/. iii. 75); C, Asinius GaUus, whose 
son, L. Asinius Gallus, was consul in A.D.63; C, Asinius PolHo, 
consul in a.d. 23; and Asinius Celer, For some account of Asi- 
nius Gallus, see i. 13.76. ii* 32- 33* 35* iv. 20. 3a 71. i.77. iii. ii. 

▼i 25.23- 

' * Quam partem reip. — Tiberius made a threefold division of it: 

the first section comprising Home and Italy; the second, the 

armies; the third, the provinces (JDio Ivii. 3). 1 

' PercuZntf.— EcTrXays^C* Emesti's alteration, percussus, is 

quite unnecessary. 

' * Beticuit — Reticere implies keeping back something that you 

have to say. 

* Addidit lavdem de Augusto, — De should be taken with addi- 
dity not with laudem, 

* In toga, — " In a civil capacity." Compare xi. 7. 
' Ideo. — " Thus." Compare c, 72. iv. 26. 

^ Asinii patris ferociam, — Veil. ii. 86. Seneca de Ira iii. 23. 
Suet Oct 43. 

Chap. XHI. — * Post quae, — Tacitus frequently uses the rela- 
tive in this manner. Cicero or livy would have used postea. 
Compare c, 12. 13. 15. 75. 

' L, Arruntius. — ^A person of this name was consul in b.c. 32, 
and is mentioned by Pliny as a writer of celebrity. It is his son 
who is mentioned here, who was consul in a.d. 6, and was an 
orator and historian. He killed himself in a.d. 37. 

' Promptus, — " Enterprising." Compare iv. 7. Agr, 3. 

3£0 NOraS ON THE 

* Publice should be taken with pari fama, ** In the opmion 
of alL" 

* Af, Aemiliua Lepidus* — Son of Aemilius Paulus; was consul 
AJ>,6, Yelleius (ii. 114) calls him, Vir nomini ac fortmuu 
AemUiorum proximus; quern in quantum quia aut cognoscere aut 
inteUigere potuit, in tantum miratur ac diligit, tantorumque nam" 
num, quibus orius est omamentum judicat. Some editors have 
erroneously substituted here the name of Manius Aemilius Lepi* 
dusy the son of Q. Lepidus, who was consul a.d. 11, and after- 
wards proconsul of Asia; a man of no wealth, and of bad cha- 
racter. He is spoken of in iii. vl 32. iv. 56. and Dio (Ivi 25). 
The mother of the former was Cornelia, the daughter of Corne- 
lius Scipio and Scribonia; of the latter, Cornelia the daughter 
of Faustus Sulla and Fompeia. 

^ Avidum et minorem, — Et is frequently thus used where we 
should have expected sed. Compare Jucundum et laesurum 
(^Hist iii. 56). Nequaquam trepidus et consilii certus (Hist. IL ^). 
Praescium periculorum et incolumem (yL si). Et \a sometimes 
used by Tacitus for et tamen, or sed tamen. See Agr, ^ 15. 

^ Cn. Pisonem, — He was consul in B.C. 23, with Augustus; and 
again in b.g. 7, with Tiberius, who, in aj>. 17, made him governor 
of Syria. Ann, ii. 43. 55. seq, iii. 15. 

^ Q. Baterius et Mamercus Scaurus, — On the former, see Ann, 
iy. 61 ; on the latter, vi. 29. Vio Iviii. 24. 

' Genua advolveretur, — There is a tendency to put the dative 
after middle verbs; but advdvi seems to have come to signify 
nothing more than " to embrace." Compare iv. 81. vi. 4^ xv. 71. 

'^^ Augustam, — Liviam^ also called •/u/ur, the mother of Tiberius. 

Chap. XIV. — * Matrem patriae appeUandam, — Dio Ivii. \% 
Suet, Tib, liv. On some coins of a colony is the inscription, 
Augusta Mater Patriae ; and on others, Augusta Genetrix Orbis. 

* Ne lictorem quidem, — See, Decreti et a senatu Agrippinae duo 
lictores (xiii. 2). livia was allowed, however, to employ a lictor 
when she acted as priestess of Augustus {Dio Ivi. 46). 

^ Aramque adoptionis. — This must be referred to the adoption 
of livia (c. 8). Altars were frequently thus erected to perpetuate 
the memory of some remarkable event. Thus, Caecina Sevenu 
censuit aram Ultioni (iii. 18}. 


* Proconsulare imperium, — Tacitus means a perpetual procon- 
snlar imperium, which gave the young prince a title to the 
throne. The proconsulare imperium gave authority over all the 
provinces of the empire. So Nero, Procofisulare imperium extra 
ttrbem hahehat (xii. 41). Three years before this, in a.d. ii, 
Germanicus had been invested with the proconsular imperium 
for carrying on war, before he had filled' the office of consul 
(jDio Ivi 25). 

' Candidatos. . nominatnt — The first praetor, Furius Camillus, 
was created in b.c. 366 (Ztv. vii. 1). In B.a 244, a second was 
added, with the title of peregriniu, as his office was principally 
to decide disputes between citizens and strangers {Epit. Liv. xix). 
Two more were added in b.c. 234, when Sicily and Sardinia 
were reduced to the form of provinces, who were sent thither as 
governors. Two more in b.c. 197, on the conquest of Spain. 
Four out of these six praetors were sent to the provinces. This 
continued to be the case till the year b.c. 149, when it was de- 
creed by the senate, that the praetors should remain in the city 
during their year of office, and that two should administer justice 
in the ancient mode, while the other four presided in the courts 
of justice; then, on the expiration of their office, they were all 
sent by lot to the praetorian provinces. Cornelius Sulla in- 
creased their number to eight; which continued to the time of 
Cicero. J. Caesar was the first who created ten (^Dio xliii. 51). 
Two years afterwards, he raised the number to fourteen, and the 
next year to sixteen {Dio xliii. 19). In B.C. 23, Augustus re- 
duced the number to ten (Dto liii. 32. FeS. ii. 89). In a.d. 11, 
however, he created sixteen, on account of the number of com- 
petitors; but in the succeeding years he again reduced the num- 
ber to twelve {Dio Ivi. 25. Smithes Diet Ant p, 956). 

^ Jurgurando.,exce88urum. — In B.C. 18, however, he created 
fifteen (Dto Iviii. 20). Tacitus (ii. 32) explains this by saying, 
Praeiurae extra otdinem datae. 

Chap. XV. — ' Turn primum.,8unt — E campo (i. e. Martio), 
the place of meeting of the comitia. Svmmota e foro seditio, 
ambitio campo ( VeU. ii. 126). Apud quo8 (patres) etiam turn cuncta 
tractahantur (Anna!* iv. 15). Hence Tacitus (xi. 13. Hist. iv. 47) 
uses the phrase legem f err e incorrectly. 

P O 



' Tenuit — " Clung to the privilege conferred upon them.' 

' Ludos. . vocarentur, — During the lifetime of Augustus, games 
had been celebrated in his honour (^Suet Oct 57. 59). The pur- 
port of this request of the tribunes was, that similar games might 
be continued and repeated after his death; and, as if consecrated 
to a god, inserted in the Fasti, and celebrated yearly. They 
were called Augustalia (Smith*8 Diet Ant p. 180). 

^ Utque. — This sentence depends upon decretum est; which 
must be understood from decreta. Compare Decernuntur sup- 
pUcationes . .utque (xiv. 12). NoscendcL vulgi natura et quibus 
modis, etc. (iv. 33). 

' Ve8te..curru, — The toga picta and the triumphal chariot 
were used by the consuls and praetors {Juv, x. 36. xi. 192. Dio 
Ivi. 46. Smith's Diet Ant, p, 1166). 

* Annua. — The MS. reading is annvm^ which gives no sense. 
Some alter this to annua, others to annuum; the former is the 
better correction. The praetors would be elected annually as a 
matter of course; and the position of the word would render 
annuum unnecessarily emphatic. 

Chap. XVL — * Pannonicas legumes, — There were three legions 
in Pannonia — the eighth, the ninth, and the fifteenth* Comp. 


^ Licentiam turharum.,ostendehat, — ''Seemed to promise im- 
punity for disturbances." 

' Junio Blaeso. — He was afterwards saluted imperator (ilfui. 
iii. 74). He was the uncle of Sejanus on the mother's side. 

* Ob justitium aut gaudium, — The justitium was on account 
of the death of Augustus (c. 50. ii. 82. Lucan, ii. 16. Smithes Diet 
Ant p. 663), the gaudium on account of the accession of Tiberius. 

* JSo pnnctpio.— Some interpreters take eo by itself, in the 
sense of ideo; as in vi. 16. Germ, 20. 28. 41. 44. Agr. 16. 22. aO. 

^ Theatralium operarum. — The term operae is applied to men 
hired for any purpose. So the gladiators employed by Clodins 
are called Ciodianae operae (^Cic, a4 Att i. 13. 14. iv.3). The 
operae theatraJes were persons hired to back some particular 
actor, and hiss the others. Frequent disturbances arose in the 
theatre from the contests of rival parties of these operae. See 
c. 77* xi. 13. xii. 24, 25. Plaut Prd, Amphitr. 65, 82. Suet Ner, 


9,6* Actors were despised among the Bomans, nor conld one 
who had been in that capacity serve as a soldier on pain of 
death. Com, Nep. Praef, Smith's Diet Ant p. 613. 

Chap. XYIL — * Paucis cerUurionibtu, paucioribus iribunis,-^ 
In every legion there were sixty centurions and six tribunes. A 
legion contained ten cohorts, thirty maniples, and sixty cen- 
turies. Smith's. Diet, Ant pp. 503 and 504. 

* Tricena aut qwidragena stipendia, — ^Formerly the regular 
period for military service was ten years' for the cavalry, and 
sixteen or twenty for the infantry; and one who had served that 
number of years, between the ages of seventeen and forty-six or 
fifty, was called emeritus or veteranus (^Liv, iii. 71. xliU. 31. 33. 34^ 
Smith's Diet, Ant, p. 499). But in the year b. c. 13, Augustus 
fixed the period of service for the praetorian soldiers at twelvet 
and for the rest at sixteen years. Seventeen years afterwards, 
the term was altered to sixteen years in the case of the former, 
and twenty in that of the latter. Fercennius here exaggerates 
the length of their service. 

' Tendentes, — t e. Living in tents. Hist i. 3i> 55> 59. ii. 66 and 
93. ^nn. xiii. 36. 

* Alio vocabuh, — They were called vexiiiarii, AnnaL i. 38. 
Hist i. 41. See notes on Ayr, c, 18. 

* Adhue. — ^*' Besides,** "in addition to this." The word is used 
in the same sense in iii. 42. Germ, la 39. 38. 

' Denis in diem assibus. — In the first ages of the republic, the 
soldiers served at their own charges; in B.c.407, it was decreed 
that they should receive pay from the public treasury (Liv, iv.59). 
This amounted, at first, to two obols, or three asses and a third 
a day (Niebuhr, Hist of Borne, iii. p. 439, transl.). The centu- 
rions received twice, and the cavalry three times, that sum 
{Pdyb, vi. 39). J. Caesar doubled the pay of the soldiers. (^Suet 
Caes. 36. Smith's Diet Ant p. 1072.) 

^ Hinc vestem, arma, tentoria emi. — ^From this it would appear 
that, when the pay of the soldiers was doubled, the law of 
Gracchus, ordaining that clothes should be given gratis to the 
soldiers, was abrogated. Lampridius, however, says, Donamt^ 
et ocreas, et braccas, et ccdeiamenta inter vestimenta militaria 
(Alex, c. 40). Qui acceptam aprovinciaiibvs annonam, qui vutam^ 


qui stipendia nobis attrihuit (c, 53). This would implj- that the 
law of Gracchus on this point was retiyed by some of the suc- 
ceeding emperors. They had, however, to provide themselves 
with arms {Liv. i 43). Arma iUoa (Bomanos) habere ea quae sibi 
qttisque paraverit pauper miles (xlii. 52). Compare xxii. 57. 

^ Exercitas, — I'oilsome, full of hardships. Agr. 39. 

' Ut singulos denarios mererent, — The denarius was originally 
ten pounds of aes (bronze). In the time of the second Punic 
war, when the as was only an ounce, the denarius was equivalent 
to sixteen asses; and the sestertius, which was two and a half 
asses when the denarius was ten asses, still maintained its pro- 
portion to the denarius, and was valued at four asses. After 
the reign of Augustus, the value of the denarius was twelve asses. 
In the case of the soldiers, however, the denarius retained its 
original value; though their pay was nominally a denarius a 
day, they only received ten asses. Semper in mUitari stipentUo 
denarius pro decern assibus datus (Plin, xxxiii. 3). Smith's Diet 
Antiq. pp. 393 and 107a. 

^° Praetorias cohortes, — Smithes Diet Ant p. 957. 

" Binos denarios. — Dio (liii. 11) says that the senate decreed— 
ToTff dopvfpoprjffovffiv avrbv diirXdffiov rbv fuaOov Toij role aXKotQ 
CTparuaraic h^oyikvov. According to this, they received twenty 
asses a day. Either, then, Fercennius uses the word denarius 
according to the military valuation, and therefore in a sense 
different from that which it bore in the previous sentence, or else 
intended his auditors to understand him as speaking of the 
ordinary denarius, in order to make the matter more flagrant. 
It is probable, also, that though their legal pay was twenty asses, 
the emperor allowed them two ordinary denarii. 

" Acceperint — He is here referring to the decree of the senate 
(b.c. 27) mentioned in the previous note, and therefore the 
perfect tense is preferable to the imperfect as found in some 

*• Post sedecim annos, — See above, note 2. 

Chap. XVIIL — * Diversis indtamentis, "Using various means 
to excite their comrades." 

^ Eo furoris..agitaverint, — This would have been an act of 
* — '~"y; the signa were objects of religious reverence (see c.39)^ 


' - - and at night were placed in a kind of temple. And, besides, the 
■ - throwing away of their standarife would have been a violation of 
their military oath, by which they bound themselves never to 
- .'* desert them. Cur contra fas disciplinae vim meditarent (c. 19). 

'.:: ' £um honorem quaerebant, i.e. that their name and standard 

j<> might remain. 

* Signa cohortium. — ^There is a dispute whether we are here to 
understand the standards of the maniples, or are to suppose that 
the cohorts had standards distinct from those of the maniples. In 
former ages, when the army was drawn up by maniples, without 

x any distinction of cohorts, of course - there were no> standards for 

the cohorts. But when it became the custom to arrange the 

. T legion by cohorts, standards to mark the different maniples would 

..^ be unnecessary. Hence Vegetius (ii. 13) mentions the standards 

of the legion and cohorts, but says nothing of any standards for 

the maniples; and Germanicus (c. 34), when bidding the soldiers 

i^ depart to their maniples, orders — Signa pra^ferri, ut id saltern 

discemeret cohortes. So, Hist i. 41. 44, and in other passages, 

Tacitus speaks of these standards in such a way as to show that 

.,, they served to distinguish the cohorts, not the maniples. Their 

reason for thus collecting the eagles and standards was the fear 

lest the three legions should separate and thus lose strength. 

Smith's Diet. Ant, p. 507. 

' Congerunt eespites. — ^To form a tribunal, near which the eagles 
and standards were placed. 

* Sedes, — The place for the speakers to address them from. 

"^ Properantihus..aeceleraho» — ^It was allowable for the com- 
mander-in-chief alone to address the soldiers from the tribunal. 

Chap. XIX. — ^ Peetori,,accreverat — Tacitus frequently uses 
the dative, where other writers would have used ad with the 
accusative. Equi venaiui adomati (xii. 13). Tempora obtentui 
sumpta (i. 10). Viae pariter et pugnae composuerat exercittan 
(xiil 40). Spei tuae admotus sum (xiv. 53). Saevitiae principis 
adrepit (L 74). 

* Pervicacia. — The importunity of Blaesus. 

' Provenissent — "Had succeeded." Prima provenerant (iv.ia). 
\ Quae foicilius proveniebant (xiv. 25) . 

* Obtinuissent — ^For Obtinere potuissent See Agr 17, note. 


Chap. XX. — * Nauportus* — A town of Fannonia, on a river of 
the same name, now Layhach, the chief town of Camiola. 

' Convellunt- It is donbtfol whether this means tear to pieces, 
or to tear up from the ground; the latter is probably the meaning. 
EveUere is the word commonly used for to tear up, 

' Municipii. — Smithes Diet Ant, p. 318. 

* Praecipua . . ira, — It is better to take these as in the ablative 
than in the nominative. 

* Praefectum castrorum, — This officer is not spoken of before 
the times of the emperors. His duties are described bj Vegetius 
(ii. 10). Smithes Diet, Ant p. 953. 

^ Vetus operis. — Like Ann, yi. 12, scientiae caerimoniarumque 
vetus, 44. vetus regnandi. Hist iv. 20, veteres mUiiiae, 76. m- 
terem expertumque beUi. 

Chap. XXI. — ^ Etiam tum..parebatwr. — These words do not 
imply that they shortly afterwards joined the mutiny, but that at 
this time they could without danger continue faithful to their 
duty. Afterwards, when the mutiny grew worse, they were com- 
pelled to seek safety in flight. 

^ Centuriam . . cujus manipuhris brat — Maniptdaris was the 
term usually employed for a common soldier. Thus, Rufus diu 
manipularis (c, 20). Infimos manipuJarium (ii. 55). Smith*a Diet 
Ant p. 500. 

' Nihil reliquifaciunt — This is equivalent to Nihil praetermit- 
tunt Compare Caes, B, G. ii. 26. Sail, Cat ii. 

* Faciunt . . permoverent — The historic present is very com- 
monly followed by the imperfect subjunctiye in this way. Arma 
praecipitantur quo levarentur alvei (ii 23). Mittit qui praedam 
adveherent (xvi; 2). 

^ Sibijam miscent — Jam denotes that the mutiny had at last 
reached such a pitch, that they even allowed deserters and 
criminals to join them. 

Chap. XXH. — * De communibus commodis, — The common in- 
terests of the German and Fannonian armies. 

' Gladiatores, — Edixit Caesar, '" ne quis magistratus aut pro- 
curator, qui provinciam obtineret, spectaculum gladiatonan ami 
ferarum aut quod aliud ludicrum ederet," Nam ante non minm 


ttdi largitione quam carripiendu pecuniis subjectos qffligehawt 
(xiii.31). These gladiators, too, might serve as a sort of body- 
guard, to protect the general against the violence of the soldiers, 
which perhaps "explains what follows : quos . . armat 

' Ubi. . abjeceris. — See note on Agr. 38. Unde. . redierat. The 
ubiy perhaps, gives greater prominence to the abjeceris. He 
begins as if he were going to saj jaeeat; but introduces the 
stronger word, abjeceris. 

* Sepultura invident — The dative of the person (et) must be 
supplied. Instead of septdtura, we should have expected the 
abcusative; but the ablative is not unfrequent. Invideo aliis bono 
quo ipse careo (PHn. Ep. i. lo). Huic pietatis iiiuios invidere (^Id, 
iii. 8). Ne spectaculo quidem proelii invidere {Germ. 33). Si anti-' 
quum sermonem nostro comparemus, paene jam quicquid loquimur 
figura est, at hac re invidere, non ut omnes veteres et Cicero, banc 
rem (^QuintiL ix.3. 1). Interdico is used in a similar manner. 
Interdico tibi igni, ** I deny yon the use of fire." 

* Dum, — For Dum modo. 

Chap. XXm. — * Ni propere . . aberant — We frequently find 
the imperfect indicative nsed in this way. Compare, Parabant 
ni..interjecis8ety a. little further on; Deferebat in pectus ni.^at" 
tinuissent (c. 35). This imperfect is not afiected by the ni which 
follows. We must supply in English, " And would have done 
so," or something of the kind. **He had already raised his 
sword, and was proceeding to plnnge it into his bosom, when," 

* Cui ..indiderant — So Aurelian deceived the nickname of 
Manus ad ferrum, and Paulus Notarius that of Catena ( Vopisc, 
Aur, 6. Ammtan, xiv. 5. 8). 

Chap. XXIV, — * Tum.,aderant, — After the defeat of Varus, 
Augustus had dismissed his Gennan guards; but it appears that 
Tiberius had again taken them into his service {Suet Aug, 49). 

* Periculorum praemiontmque ostentator, — Pointing out what 
dangers would await the rebellions, and what rewards would be 
bestowed upon those who returned to their duty. 

* Neque insignibusfulgentes. — On festive occasions they anointed 
their standards, and adorned them with laurels and flowers 


Laetaturque tamen .* Mavortia signa rvhescunt Florihusy et suintis 
animantur frondihia hastae (^Claudianusy x. 187). See Suet 
Claud. 1^ Aquilae certe ac signa . . inungitntur etiamfestis diebug 
(P/i'n. xiii. 4). The omission of this practice was a token of 
distress ; at the fiineral of Germamcus, Praecedebant incompfa 
signa (iii 2). The term insignia here includes also the arms and 
ornaments of the soldiers. 

Chap. XXV. — * Portas stationibus firmant — This was done be- 
cause thej suspected the praetorian troops ; for Drusus had 
entered the camp with a small retinue, leaving the greater 
number outside. See c. 27, sub finem. The ghbi armatorum are 
opposed to the rest of the soldiers, who listened to Drusus -with- 
out their arms. 

* Rettulerant — The two fs arise from a contraction of the old 
form retetiderant 

^ Atrox . . quies. — Clamor saepe repens et saepe silentio Jixis in 
tellurem oculis (^Silius, x. 396). Lipsins reads repens instead of 

Chap. XXVL — ^ Nnnquamne nisi ad se.. venturos f — lipsios 
altered this to Nnnquamne ad se nisi, etc. The alteration is un- 
necessary; the Fannonian legions complain that they alone are 
thus slighted. 

Chap. XXVil. — * Ut quis occurreret — Cicero would, no doubt, 
have used occurrerat But Tacitus frequently uses the subjunc- 
tive where other writers use the indicative. Quotiens per urbes 
incederet (ii. a). 

' Manus intentantes, — i. e, " Thrusting their fists into his face." 
Causam discordiae et initium armorum, denote a reason or pur- 
pose: Ut causa discordiae et initium armorum inde (ex intentatis 
manibus) oriretur. Compare Immittere latronum globos, excindere 
casteUa, causas bello (Ann, ii. 64). MarceUum insimidabat sinis^ 
tros de Tiberio sermones liabuisse, inevitabile crimen (^Ann, i 74). 

' Cn. Lentuh, — His fall name was Cn, Cornelius JLentulus 
Cossus Gaetulicus, He was consul B.C. 1, and had triumphed 
over the Gaetuli. Ann, iv. 44. His son of the same name, a poet 
and historian, who was consul in a.d. 26, was nut to death 


by Caligula, after having been governor of Germany for ten 

* MiJUtiaeflagitia. — Offences against military discipline. 

* Pi'Gvisu perictdu — " In anticipation of the danger." 

Chap. XXVIH. — * Noctem..leniviU—WQ frequently have nox, 
tempus, dies, etc., used for the events which take place in them. 
Compare Specidati noctem incustoditam (ii. 40). Tempus egregium 
vitafamaque., occtdtum et subdolum (vi. 51). 

^ Nam luna,,languescer€, — According to the calculations of 
Fetavius, this eclipse happened Sept. 27, a.d. 14, It began at 
3, 18', 32", and ended at 7, 6*, 32". 

^ Id miles., prospereque cessura. — Some editors strike out ae. 
Others alter it to hanc. Neither correction is necessary. Ac 
unites the two numbers, rationis ignarus and suis lab, def, sidm 
assimulans. There is an anacoluthia in this sentence, as it ter- 
minates suddenly at redderetur; unless, indeed, we understand 
the verb from, cmen praeseniium accepit. "This the soldiers 
took as an omen of their present circumstances, and considered it 
to portend that the objects they were aiming at would turn out 

^ Omen accepit — This may mean either "took as an omen," or 
** accepted the omen." It was imagined that omens were ful- 
filled, or averted, according as those who beheld them declared 
that they did or did not accept the omen. See ii. 13. Hist, i 62. 
Cic, de Div, i. ^, ii.40. 

* Quae pergerent — " Which they were aiming at." Pergere is 
used with the accusative, just as festinare (iv. 28. vi. 40. 44. 50. 
etc.), maturare (xii. 41. xv. 59), and properare (L 18. iL 6. etc). 
There is nothing surprising in pergo being used with an accusa^ 
tive when we remember that it is a compound of per and the 
transitive verb rego. Such phrases as id laetoTf id gratuhr, are 
conmion enough. Bitter proposes peterent, as better suited to 
the context and less unusual in construction. 

^ Aeris so7io..strepere. — Cum aeris crepitu, quaiis in defectu 
lunae silenti nocte cieri solet (^Liv. xxvL 5). Jam nemo tubas 
nemo aerafatiget : Una hboranti poterit succurrere lunae (Juv, 
Sat, vi. 442). Maximus, bishop of Turin, wrote a discourse ex- 
pressly against this practice, which was still kept up in his day. 


The notion was, that in this way they might break tlie force of 
the incantation by which the moon was supposed to be bonnd. 

^ Aversari, — There is a dispnte whether adversari, or averaari, 
is the reading. It makes yeij little difference in the sense of 
the passage. Adversari is used sometimes with the dative, as in 
e. 27* ii. 67. iy. 37; sometimes with the accusative, as in Sist, L 1. 
38. iv. 84. 

^ VigUiiSf stationibusj ctjutodm. — The abstracts for the con- 
cretes. The vigiliae were the patrols who went about the camp 
at night to see that all was right. The statumes consisted each 
of one cohort and a troop of cavalry, and were thrown forward 
as advanced posts in front of the several gates of the camp. 
They were changed at mid-day (Ztu. xly. 33). The custodiae 
portarum were a species of stationes appointed to guard the 
entrances to the camp. Smithes Diet Ant. p. 350. 

' Ut novissimt in culpam. — ^We must suppose this to be ad- 
dressed to the tironesj who had be^i urged on by the veterana^ 
and who were mostly employed in the vigiliaCf stationes, and 
custodiae portarum. 

Chap. XXIX. — * E cohorte Drusi, — Of the suite of I>ni8U8. 
Elsewhere they are called eomites or contuhemales. They con- 
sisted of the private friends or relations of the general, or of 
young men of rank, whom he took with him on his own account 
There were often difierent grades among these eomites. Comiies 
peregrinationum expeditionumque numquam salario, cibariis tantum 
sustentavit; una modo liberalitate ex indulgentia victriciprosecutMSf 
cum tribus classibtts factis pro dignitate cujusquet primae sexcenta 
sestertia, secundae quadringenta distribuit^ ducenta tertiae, quam 
non amicorum, sed gratorum appdlabat (^Suet. Tib, 46). Ck>mpare 
vi.9. iii. 13. Hot. Episti.S. 14. 

* Justusque Catonius, — Probably the person who was prae- 
torian prefect in the reign of Claudius, and was put to death 
through the intrigues of Messalina (JDto, Ix. 18). 

^ Primi ordinis centurio. — Smith*s Diet Ant pp. 501 and 505. 

* Ex duce metus. — It is better to make ex duee depend upon 
metus than upon adjiciendos. 

^ Extra vallum. — Executions took place outside the camp, be- 
hind the porta decumana (^Smith^s Diet, Ant p. 252) ; just as 


outside the walls of cities. Sic extra vallum deducti sunt, et 
orudabiliter interfecti (^Hirt de BeJL AJr,^^), Damnatvs extra 
valltan deductus est, etjam cervicem porrigebat cum subito apparuit 
commilito ilk [Sen, de Ira, i. 16}. 

Chap. XXX. — * Vix tutari gigna. — This was looked upon as 
a portent; the standards were objects of religious worship. See 
c, 30. Flor, iii 11.3. 

' Deaotaius, — ^Left alone. Ann. xiL s6. xyL 30. 

Chap. XXXL — * Germanicae legionea,-—lii each of the Gennan 
proTinces were four legions. See c,^ Those in Germania 
Superior (see Germ. 1, note), formed the exercitus superior; those 
in Germania Inferior, the exercitus inferior. 

' Agendo GaUiarum censui. — This census was for. the purpose 
of apportioning the tribute and taxes. It was first taken hj 
Augustus (Liv, Epit 134. Suet. Oct. 25. Eutrop, vi. 17. i>u>,liii, 
33). Besides the tribute, the Gauls were subject to both a poll- 
tax and a property-tax. The charge of taking this census was 
looked upon as a distinction, and was entrusted to persons of 
high rank. Census per GaUiaa a Q. Vohisio et Sex. Africano Tre- 
heUioque Maximo acU sunt, aemulis inter se per nobilitatem VduMio 
atque Afncona (xiv. 46). Ann. 11, 6. SmitVs Diet, Ant. p. g73. 

* Prima. — This legion, in an ancient inscription, is called 

♦ Ubiorvm, — ^The Ubii were brought oyer from the right to the 
left bank of the Rhine by Agrippa. A colony of veterans wad 
sent to the oppidum Ubiorum by Agrippina, the daughter of 
Germanicus, and wife of Claudius, in a.d. 51. See xii. 27. xiil 57. 
Germ. 38, note. The ara Ubiorum was probably erected to Au- 
gustus, like that at Lugdunum (Suet. Claud. 3. Hist. i. 5^. iy. 30. 
35. 38. 56. 79). Kot far from Bonn is a hill called Godesberg; 
and it is highly probable that this is the site of the ara Ubiorum. 
That it was somewhere near Bonn is pretty certain. The name 
Godesberg seems to indicate that the place was the seat of a 
religious worship of some kind. 

^ Nuper,.delectu. — About five years before this time. Dio, 
lyii. 5. Suet. Oct. 35. 

ImpeUere. — The MS. has implere; but impellere is probably 


the right word. Implere might, perhaps, mean "to infect," as in 
Urbs deinde impletur (Liv. iv, ^y, Mke'AvamfiirXatrOai (TTbic. 
ii. 5l). Impellere ii the word used in c. 16. 
^ Veterani maturam missionem Smith's Diet. Antp.^gg. 

* In auum cognomentum adscisci imperatores. — t. c. Received 
the name of Germanicus. Lipsius conjectured imperaturos, be- 
cause Tiberius was the only emperor who had received the title 
at this time. But it had been awarded to the elder Drusns, the 
father of Germanicus, and afterwards to his sons, Germanicus 
and Claudius (Suet. Calig. 1 ; Claud. 1. Dio Iv. 2). And tmpe- 
ratores merely means the commanders-in-chief. Princeps was 
tiie regular title of the emperor ; he received that of imperator 
only as commander-in-chief of the armies. Soldiers would use 
the term in its military sense. In suum cognomentum adsciaci =r 
guo cognomento vocari; in expressing, as often in Tacitus, an effect 
or result. 

Chap. XXXIT. — * Nee. . ibat. — ^** Nor did Caecina oppose them," 
as Blaesus opposed the Fannonian legions (c, 16. 18. 1^. 31). 

* PluriumzzHie majority. 

' Lymphati=.'Svfi<l>6\riwroi. — Properly, persons supposed to be 
driven mad by the water n3rmph, whose appearance in water was 
believed to terrify them and inspire them with a horror of that 

* Tum adolescens. — He was above thirty years old at this time. 
He is said to have been an old man when he slew Caligula 
{Suet. Calig. 56). 

Chap. Xxxin. — * iVep^ew.— Agrippina was the daughter of 
M. Agrippa and Julia, the daughter of Augustus. 

* Lihertatem redditurua. — Ann. ii. 82. Suet, Tib. 50 ; Claud, 1, 
' Civile. — " Such as became a citizen." Compare c. 54. 76. 

Chap. XXXIV. — * Sicresponstan. — ** They replied that they 
should hear better as they were." This is commonly translated:-— 
" They would thus hear his reply better." But the former inter- 
pretation agrees better with what follows, Germanicus, giving 
way to them on this point, orders, VexUla praeferri ut id scdten 
discerneret cohortes. 


' VexUla . . cohortes, — See c. 18. Agr, 18, note. Smithes Diet 
Ant, pp. Qcyj. 1045. 

Chap. XXXV. — * Pretia vocatumum.— See c. 17. The centu- 
rions in the Roman army were yeij badly paid, and endeavoured 
to make up for that by exactions from the soldiers {Smithes Diet, 
Ant, p, ^04). 

* Materiae, — Timber, stakes for the raUom, etc Lignorum, 

' Si qua alia, — Making roads, bridges, canals, etc. See xL 30. 
xiii. 53. Liv. xxxix. a. 

* Adversua,—** As a remedy against.** 

^ Nett mortem., orabant — The ellipsis of the verb after neu 
mortem is not more violent than the instance in c. 7, ne laeti, and 
is softened by the introduction of orabanL Tacitus could 
scarcely have used any verb (as daret or sineret) which would 
have done equally well for the three nouns, mortem, finem, re- 

• JReposcerent, — Tacitus firequently uses compound verbs with- 
out there being any particular force in them, distinct from that 
of the simple verbs ; as, exoeculare (^) ; respicere for adspieere 
(xiii. 55. xiv. 8). Emunire {Agr, 31). 

^ Etf si vellet. . ostentavere, — Defuit qui contra rempublieam da- 
ceretj non qui ducerentur {VeU, ii 125). 

^ Promptos,, ostentavere. — Scil. «e. Similarly, aed paratos ad 
ultionem vi principis impediri teetarentur (^Ann, v. 5). Cicero 
would hardly have omitted the pronoun. 

• Deferehat.. ni. — See note on c. 23. Ni propere,, aberant^ 
JBlatam securim in caput dejecit {Liv. i. 40). 

^® Quidam singuli propius incedentes. — Coming up, one after 
the other, in a disorderly way. Singuli goes with incedentes. 

Chap. XXXVI. — } Ubiontm oppidum, — ^See notes on c. 31. 

* Galliarwn. — Gallia Belgica, and Gallia Lugdunensis. 

• Exauctorari. — The exauctoratio differed from missio, or regu- 
lar discharge, in being limited by certain conditions. It seems 
to have been introduced by Augustus {Smith's Diet, Ant, p, 


Chap. XXXVH — * In hibema cii/itfgue.— Till they each came 
to their winter quarters. 

* Non abscessercpersolverentttr, — Thej demanded immediate 
payment not only for themselyes, but for the first and twentieth 
legions also, as appears from what follows. 

' Ex viatico,— -Viaticum hero means, not the money allowed by 
the state to those who were going into any of the provinces, but 
the money which they had brought on their own account, to 
provide for the expenses of the journey. 

* Fiaci. . veherentur.—Jnst as money was frequently deposited 
in temples, in the army it was kept by the standards, which were 
looked upon as sacred. See c. 18. The aquila, representing an 
eagle crowned with laurel, was the standard of the whole legion; 
the siffna were those of the cohorts, and bore the number of each 
cohort ; and the uexiUa those of the maniples, or smaller divi- 
sions of the cohort (^Smith's Diet Ant p, 1045). 

Chap. XXX VUL — * In Chaucis . . vexiUarii, — See Germ, 35, 
note on Chaucorum gens. 

* FcoriffanV.— See Agr, 18, note. Smith's Diet Antp, 507. 

' Bono, .jure, — ^According to the regulation of Augustus, those 
only whom he had appointed as legati had the right of chastising 
the soldiers. It was afterwards extended to all the governors 
in the provinces, at least in the case of common soldiers. Qui 
exercitum accepit jus animadoertendi in milites ealigatos habet 
(^Dig, 48. tit 3. 8, 9). Bono exemph. — "' As a useful warning to 
the rest of the soldiers." Compare xii. ao. xiv. 44. 

* Baptum vexiUum, — He seizes the vexillum from the standard- 
bearer and marches towards the Bhine, lest the soldiers should 
halt and have time to mutiny. 

Chap. XXXIX. — * Regressum, — ^From the upper army (c. 37). 

^ Munatium Plancum, consulatu functum. — In A.i>. 13, with 
C. Silius. He was either the father or grandfather of Munatia 
Flandna, concerning whom, see ii. 43. 55. 71. iii.9.15.17. via6. 
Hor. Od. i. 7. 

* VexiUum. — This was the purple flag by which the signal for 
battle was given, and which was always in the keeping of the 
general When it was hung out, the soldiers were at liberty to 


make use of their arms {Agr, 18, note. Caes, B, G. ii. 20. Smithes 
Diet Antp, 1045). 

* Ccutra primae legionia. — This, probably, means only that part 
of the camp set apart for the first legion. 

' Signa. .amplexua,—Th&t their sanctity might protect him. 

" JPa/o/em.— Brought about by the special agency of the gods, 
and betokening their wrath. With fatalem rahiem we must un- 
derstand ease. Compare ImbeUea Aeduoa evincite (iii46). Agrip- 
pina libertam aemulam nurum anciUam (sc. esBGyfremere (xiii. 13). 
Increpana is equivalent to mcrepando dicens. Compare Increpa- 
bant inclementem dictatorem (Ztf . yiii 33). Jnsuper increpante 
qui tndneraverat, habere quaeetorem quod imperator eseet miUtibus 
minatus (Zw. iy. 50). 

Chap. XL.— ^ J^o in meiu. — "In this dangerous or 'critical 
state of afikirs, with these grounds for alarm." Compare Quae 
ne in metu quidem pericula nostra avertit (xiy. 43). Aurum quod 
in metu sacraverat (xy. 45). 

> Aspemantem. — Equivalent to detrectantem, or recusantem, 
Aspemantem uxorem is governed hjperpulit, 

* /jicce2e6a^— -Implies marching at a slow pace. 

Chap. ^U.-^* Neque suis.,vicia, — Understand the participle 
of the verb " to be," ovrocj agreeing with Caesaris, 

* Advertere, — npoarpivB^Oau Compare ii. 17. iv. si. 
' Non centurionem.,soliii, — Sc. habentes, 

* Treviros, — See note on Germ, a8. 

' Et extemae Jidei, — Sc. homines. *^ And those too only foreign 
allies." Fidei should be t^en as the genitive of quality. Some, 
however, consider it as the dative, used instead of ad with 
the accusative — ^*' for the purpose of obtaining foreign protec- 

' Infana in castris genitus, — Suetonius (Ca/l8) has a disserta- 
tion in which he attempts to disprove this assertion. Caligula 
was bom Aug. 31, a.d. 12, and was, at this time, two years old. 

^ CaJigulam. — Common soldiers, from their wearing the caliga^ 
were called caligati, CaHguIae cognomen castrenai joco traxit 
quia manipulario habitu inter militea educabatur (Suet Col. 9). 
Marina a caliga ad conaubUum pervenit {Sen, de Ben, y, 16). 


ThQ caliga was also worn by the officers, but then it was oni&* 
mented (Smith*s Diet- Ant p. QQ2), 

Chap. XLII. — * Quidquid isiuc scderis inminet. — "Whatever 
this guilt of yours be that threatens us." Istuc is frequently 
used as the neuter pronoun in Plautus, Terence, and Cicero, 
instead of istwL Non enm preces sunt istuc (ii. 38). NuUa adeo 
ex re istuc fit, ni ex nimio otio {Ter, Heaut.i. /.57). Emesti 
conjectured istinc, 

' Quod nomen. . dabo f — Compare a similar address of Scipio 
to his soldiers (JJv, xxviii 27). 

' Filium imperatoris, — 'Germanicus had been adopted by Tibe* 

* VaUo et armis circMnwerfwfw.— These words may either be 
used in a figurative sense, implying nothing more than ** treat- 
ing as an enemy;" or they may refer to what is spoken of 
inc. 39. 

^ Divus Julius.. Quirites vocando, — This took place B.c.47, 
when Caesar returned from Egypt to Rome. See Suet. JuL 
Caes. 70. Lucan v. 357. Plutarch^ Caes. 51. Dio, xlii. 53. Qui' 
riteSf which is said by some to be derived from quirts, th6 Sabine 
name for a spear, was the term usually employed in addressing 
Bomans in their civil capacity. The soldier would, of coarse, 
look upon the peaceable citizen with contempt. 

* Augustus vidtu . .exterruit, — When they demanded discharge 
and a bounty, at Brundisium, after the battle of Actium (^Sttet 
Oc, 17. Dio 11. 3.) 

^ Egregiam..gratiam. — Ironically. 

Chap. XLni. — ^Melius et amantius tile, — Sc, fecit. Com- 
pare Agr. 19, note on Nihil per libertos servosque reipublicae. 

* Exercitui meo conscius, — This is a Greek construction, cor- 
responding to T(} (rrpaTtf rf Ifiavrov avviMq. 

' Decus istud. — If istud is the right word here, it must have 
lost, by this time, its original meaning as a demonstrative of the 
second person. 

* Tua imago. — Imago may either be equivalent to anima, as in 
Et nunc magna mei sub terras ibit imago {Virg. Aen. iv. 654): or 
it may refer to the image of Drusus; since we learn, from the 


case of Sejanus (^Suet Tib, 48), that the statues of other persons 
beside the emperors were placed in the army • amongst the 
standards. The former harmonises mach better than the latter 
with the context. 

* Hanc maculam. — The disaster of Varus. Orelli, with less 
probability, applies the words to this sedition. 

Chap. XLIV. — * Excusavit — The original meaning of excuso 
was eripio causando,, — "by alleging as a reason:" then the accur 
sative should be a person: excusabat se oh morhum : and this use 
of it is veij common. It afterwards came to mean affero ex' 
cusandi causa; as excusare morhum^ "to allege disease as an 
excuse." A third meaning is, to excuse a fault. It is also used, 
as here, with an accusatire of the thing, for granting or procuring 
exemption from the. performance of anything. 

' Legatum legionis. Legati legionum were appointed by Julius 
Caesar. Augustus retained them, setting legati consulares over 
the whole army, and legati praetorii over each legion. Smith*s 
Diet Ant, p, 678. 

' Pro contione, — 'As if an assembly." Or contio may here 
denote the space in the centre of the camp where the tribunal 
was situated, and where the soldiers were assembled whenever 
the general wished to address them. Polyb, yi, aS, Ann,i,6y. 
Hist. iii. 13. Liv, vii. 12. Smith\s Diet, Ant, p. 252. 

* In suggestu. — See c. 18. 

* Centarumatum. . g^riY.— The word centurionatus is not found 
elsewhere. Several editors have, therefore, proposed to alter the 
reading. But from centurio we might have centurionari, just as 
eontionari from contio, Centurionatum agere would then mean, 
to hold an examination of centurions. This was done, because 
it was chiefly in consequence of the cruelty and avarice of the 
centurions tiiat the mutiny had arisen. 

* Dona mlitaria, — See Suet Aug, 8. 25. Tib, 32. Plin, vii. 28. 

Chap. XLV. — * Sexagesimum apud lapidem, — i,e. From the 
oppidum Uhiorum, Compare ii. 50. iii. 45. 

* Vetera. — A town of the Gugemi, on the banks of the Rhine, 
between the Ubii and Batavi, the name of which is retained in 
the modem village of Birten, near Xanten, In the Antonine 



Itinerary (p. 370), the distance between Vetera and Bonn is 
made sixty-three miles. 

Chap. XLVI. — * In lUyrico. — ^Properly, in Pannonia. See 
c. 16, foil. Germ, 1, notes. 

^ InvaUda et inermia, — The use of the neuter gender here is 
by some supposed to express contempt. 

^ Duorum adolescentium. — ^Drusus and Germanicus (c. 34. 31). 

* Principem. . summum, — Properly, the genitive in these expres- 
sions denotes some permanent quality; the ablative, some tem- 
porary state, or incidental characteristic. 

* Augustum, — Suet, Aug, 20. i)to, liv. 30. iv. 6. 

^ CavUlantem, — CavUlare is nearly equivalent to capture, 
^ Fomenta, — Palliatives. Hor, Ep, ^. 17. 

Chap. XLViL — ^ Immotum, ,fuit, — Compare Si mihi rum animo 
firum inmotumque sederet {Virg, Aen, iv. 15). 

^ Caput rerum, — Hist. ii. 3a. i. 84. Lucan. ii. Q55. 

' Ac ne postpositi, etc. — Ac is introduced better to distinguish 
the two grounds of anxiety; the difficulty of deciding, and the 
fear of the consequences that might ensue from that decision. 
Prom angebant we must supply two analogous verbs, duhitahat 
utri adeundi forent, metuebat ne postpositi dolerent. Other 
instances of a similar constructiop are Hist, iii. 46. iL 34. 

* Excusatum, — Sc. /ore. See note on c. 44. 

' Impedimenta, — Waggons and beasts of burthen. See Suet 
CaL 51. 

' Adomavit naves. — Ships might be employed either across 
the Mare superum, or from Ostia to Massilia, as in the Britannic 
expedition of Claudius (^Suet, Claud, 17). 

Chap. XLVUi. — * Si,.constderent, — "To see whether;?* or 
'*In case, or in hopes that" Compare, Exercitum ostendit si 
barbari prodium auderent (iv. 49). Eapi ignes, AntoniuSf tn- 
ferrique amoenissimis extra urbem aedijiciis jubet; si damno 
rerum suarum Cremonenses ad mutandamfidem traherentur (HisL 
iii. 30). 

' Becenti exemph, — i, e, of those at Ara Ubiorum, who had 
punished their mutineering comrades. 


* Quia finis, — ^Eraesti proposed to change quis into guts but 
there is no occasion for any alteration. 

Chap. XLIX. — * Puxculum Juroris, — Compare c.44. Words 
are frequently thus placed in apposition with a sentence, or part 
of a sentence. Compare Vinclwm et necessitas silendi (iii67); 
causeu beUo (ii. 64). 

* Jimctoque ponte, — Jungere pontem is "to place a bridge (of 
boats) as a yoke" across a river. Hist iii. 6. Ann. xiii. 7. The 
bridge was thrown across the Khine at Xanten, where the legions 
were stationed. 

' Quaram, — The relative refers to the cohorts as well as to the 
alae, for none of the socii had taken part in the mutiny. 

* Modestia, — Military discipline. 

Chap. L. — * Agitahant^^ThQ frequentative form of cu/ebdnt 
Compare c. 68. Germ. 7. 17. ig. e|c. 

* Silvern Caesiam, — Some geographers identify this with the 
modern Heserwald, between the Lippe and the Saale; others 
place it at the confluence of the Ruhr and Moenne, where the 
modem Neheim is situated. 

' Scindit — " Cuts his way lihrough." Compare, Aperit limites 
( Veil, ii. 120). Aiemanni perrupere Germaniae limites (^Ammian, 
xxvi. 5). This is an instance of the figure called zeugma. 
Scindit in its literal and physical meaning, is scarcely applicable 
to sUvam, When marching propero agmine, he would not have 
time to spend in felling trees; for which, moreover, a body of 
troops was usually sent in advance of the main body. Besides, 
the order of the words, silvam Caesiam limitemque.. scindit, shows 
that the SUra Caesia was within the limes, so that, in all pro- 
bability, roads would already have been cut through it. With 
silvam, therefore, the verb must be taken in the modified sense 
of " marches rapidly throng" 

* Latera.,munitus,—Thes» words are added, not for the sake 
of stating any new fact, but simply to describe the nature of the 
camp. The construction is a conomon one. 

' Saltus obscures, — These were manifestly beyond the Umes,'oa 
that they cannot be identical with the Silva Caesia, as some 
^ editors have supposed. 


* Breve et soUtum, — Along the Lnppia (Lippe) to the Chemsci. 
'' ImpediHus et intentatum. — Leading to the Amisia (Ems) 

and the country of the Marsi. 

* Incautum. — " Unguarded." Used passively, as in JLiv. xxv. 38. 
' Ohstantia silvantm, — Compare, Occulta scdtuum, and humido 

pallidum (c. 61). Aperta oceani (ii. 23). Augusta viarum (iii. 82). 
Aspera maris (^Agr, 6). Certa maris {Hist. iv. 81). 

w Marsorum, — As the Sigambri formerly, the Marsi were at 
this time, with the Cherusci and Chatti, the principal tribes in 
this district. The inhabitants of both sides of the Ems after- 
wards merged in the Franks and Salii. 

" Stratis is the Native after circumdatae, 

"PcM:../an^ida.— Arising from the languor and torjwr of 

^^ Soluta, — Without the restraints and precautions which are 
usual even in time of peace. 


Chap. LI. — * Avidas» — " Eager" to commence the onslaught. 

' In cuneos. — ^Beside its literal meaning (see Germ, 6, note), 
cuneus is applied generally to a body of troops drawn up in 

' Templum, — Although Tacitus elsewhere (^Germ, 9) denies 
that the Germans confiiled their gods within walls, it is evident 
from this passage that they used some kind of building for wor- 
ship, unless we suppose, with some editors, that a consecrated 
grove is here meant. 

* Tanfatiae, — This deity is not spoken of except in this 
passage, and in one inscription. There is nothing to guide us 
to the meaning or derivation of the name^ at which various 
guesses have been made, without arriving at any very probable 

* Sine vulnere milites, — Scjuere, 

® Bructeros,. Usipetes, — See Germ, c, 3a, 33. 

' Tuhantes, — Allies of the Cherusci. They lived in the southern 
part of the duchy of Westphalia, and the northern part of the 
county of Mark, on the southern side of the Luppia (Lippe). 

'® Quod gnarum ducu^-See note on c. 5. Gnarum id Caesari, 

* Itineri et proelio, — Sc. paratus. It is possible that pars has 
swallowed up the word paratus. 


** Atixiliariae cohortea, — Part of the allies, the others being de- 
noted by ceteri sociorum, who brought up the rear. 

" Donee porrigeretur, — Until it was stretched out, and so 
weakened. CivUis haud porrecto agminef sed cuneis adstitit 
iHisL V. 16). 

i> Leves cohortes. — Those whom he calls ceteri sociontm. 

*• Evasere sUvas, — So, Angustias Isthmi evadit (v. 10). Eva- 
surum juventam (yi.48). 

Chap. LEL— * Inteniior, — "With greater earnestness.** 

Chap. LIIT. — * Julia. — The daughter of Augustus; married 
successively to Agrippa and Tiberius. She died A.D. 14, about 
three months after her father. 

* Pandateria. — So in xiv. 63. Dio, Iv. 10. In Strabo and else- 
where the name is written Pandataria. It is an island in the 
Gulf of Puteoli (Plin, iii. 12), now called Vandotena. 

' Rhegium (modern Eeggio), — Originally a colony from Chalcis 
in Euboea. 

* Ut imparem. — In point of family. Livy (vi. 34), speaking of 
Fabia the younger daughter of Ambustus, who was married to a 
plebeian, says, Quod juncta itnpari esset Compare iL 43. Sttet, 
Tih.*], SallJug. 11, 

* Tam intima. — So, Tarn gravissimis judiciis (^Cic.PhU. xii. 5). 
Tarn maxime (Cic. Lael. 21). Tam extrema sora (^Suet CdL 35). 

* Cur Rhodum abscederet — See c. 4. 
' Post. . Agrippam. — See c, 4. 5. 6. 

^ Exsilii longinquitate, — Exile in a distant place. Longinqui- 
tas does not here relate to time. Julia was banished b.c. 3. 

' Amoius Cercinam, — In b.c. 3. At the same time with Quinc- 
tins Crispinus, Appius Claudius, Scipio, and others of less note 
(D/o, Iv. 10). Cercina (now Kerkine, or Zerhi), an island near 
the lesser Syrtis, on the coast of Africa. 

*^ In prominenti. — Hitter remarks that if Tacitus had used an 
adjective ending in o, he would have omitted in, as in c. 61, medio 
campi ; c. 65, luhrico pcUudum, medio . . sita, Agr. 24, and other 

" L. Asprenate^—This appears to have been a cognomen of 
the Nonia gens. See Plin, xxx. 7. Suet Aug, 43. He had been 
consul A.D. 6. 


Chap. LIV. — * Idem annus., accepit. — Tacitus is fond of tMs 
mode of expression. Compare Quos simul vescentis dies, simvl 
quietoa nox fiabuerat (c. 49). 

' Sodaliutn Augustalium. — Dio (lyi. 46, and lyiii. 13) calls them 
Toi)g Tov Avyoturrov Oiaoutrac^ and (lix. 6) Tovg iepkag Airyov- 
trniovg, Comp. Suet Claud, 6. Galb, 8. Lucan. L 60a. Smi^'s 
Diet of Ant p. 180. 

' Ut quondam , . instituerat — Elsewhere Tacitns says : Qwiod 
sacerdotium, ut Romvlu8 Tatio regt, ita Caesar Juliae genti so- 
cravit (^Hist ii. 95); but this may only mean, that Romulns after 
the death of Tatius sanctioned the institution of his late col- 
league. The Sabine king, Titus Tatius, was a mythical person- 
age; and these priests represented the second tribe of the Roman 
people, the Titienais or Tities, i.e. the Sabines, who after their 
nnion with the Romans or Latins, continued to perform their 
own ancient Sabine sacra. See Smith's Diet Ant, p. 1134. 

* Diseordia ex certamine,'^DiOt Ivi. 47. 

' Indulserat , Augustus.^-We do not hear of pantomimic actors 
before his time (^Suet Oct, 45. X>io, liv. 17. Juv, vL 63). — * Druso Caesar e, C, Norbano Coss, — May a6, 
A.D. 15. Ann, ii. 41. 
' Manente beUo, — This was contrary to ancient custom. 

* Praecepit — i.e. Matiiriui' fecit 

* Di8sidere,,Segestem, — X>to, Ivi. 19. VeU, ii. 118. Dissidere. 
Present for future. So, Abire se et eedere urbe (ii. 34). Durare 
. . ac videre ominabaiur {Agr, 44). Arminivu is commonly thought 
to be the Latin form of the name Hermann, 

* Crimina et innoxios discernere, — ^''To distinguish true charges 
from false ones.'' 

^ FUiam ejus, — Thusnelda. 

^ Gener invisus, inimiei soeeri, — As rex and regina are called 
reges; JUius andfilioj fiH; so here soeeri is used to denote both 
father and mother-in-law. Walther makes inimiei soeeri a 
genitive dependent upon gener invisus, which is very forced. 


Chap. LVI.^-* Germanorum cis JRhenum eolentium, — The Ubii, 
Sigambri, and others brought over by Augustus. To these we 


may add some of the Suevi and Chenisci, led over the Ehine by 
Drusus and Tiberius (^Suet Oct, 21. Tib. g. Dio, Iv. 6). 

* Positoque casteUo. . in monte Tauno, — Compare ii. 7. Agr, xiv. 
22. This fort, first erected by Drusus, and rebuilt by Germani- 
cus, was not that on the Fulda (now Cassel), but was in the 
territory of Mattium, and some remains are still to be seen near 

' Chatt08, — Germ. 30. 

* Fluminum auctus. — Fluminvm inundatio; auctus being in the 
singular, and consequently metuebatur is used because it was not 
so much the rains that were feared, as the flood caused by them. 
Though there were several rivers, there might be only one flood. 
Pliny (xix. 3. 13) h&sjluminum exundatione. 

* Flumen Adranam. — The Eder, in Hesse; which runs into the 

^ Arcebant agrees logically, rather than grammatically, with 

Chap. LVII. — * Quoniam. — It is doubtful whether qtiando or 
quoniam is the right reading ; since, in the MS. the word is 
written quo, which may be a contraction of either quando or 
quoniam. There is a similar uncertainty in many passages of 
Cicero's letters. Quando is frequently used for since, as in i. 44. 
59; iL26. Germ. 33. 

^ Quanto..promptu8,tantomagitfidu8., potior. Compare Quanto 
inopina tanto majora (c. 68). Quanto dites, tanto magis imbellea 
(iii. 46). Quanto intentus, tanto occuliior (iv. 67). Quantumque 
hebes, tanto promptior (^Hist. ii. 99). 

» Annq.,de8civere, — ^A.D.9. This revolt was followed by the 
disaster at Varus. 

* Germaniae. — Several tribes of Germany. Ann. ii. 26. Agr, 15. 

* Pretiumfuit, — That is, Operae pretiumfuit Ann, n. 25* 

* Clientium. — See Germ. 13. 14. Hist. iii. 6. 

' Intra sinum.—^ Within the folds of her dress." 

Chap. LVIII.— * Bonae societatis. — The alliance which he had 
faithfully maintained. 

* Conducere. .probabam,—^S[\lih conducerewe sjxp^lj judicabam 
from probabam, which includes the notion of judging and de- 



ciding. See Germ, 13. 18. The omission of magis before quam 
is common in Tacitus. Compare c. 81. Germ. 8. 
' lUa nox, — t.e. the night of the banquet, c, 55. 

* Dqfleri. .possunt. — Sc. a Germanis, 

' Et inject . ,perpes9U8 sum, — This is sapposed to be figoratiTe 

® Conciliator, — Of peace and alliance with the Romans. 

^ Utrum praevalent..genita est — t.e. whether she shall find 
favour as the daughter of a faithful ally or be treated as the wife 
of an enemy. 

* Vetere in proumcia.— That is, in Germania inferior or supe- 
rior. It is called GaUica ripa in c. 57, and victa ripa in c. 59. 
The nova provincia would be the country between the Rhine 
and the Visurgis, which, although it had not been reduced into 
the form of a province, was occupied in some parts by Roman 

^ Educatus . .memorabo, — The account of this would be con- 
tained in the lost books. 

Chap. LIX. — * Ut quibusque,. erat, — See note on BeUum volen- 
tihus erat, Agr, 18. 

* Totidem legatos, — These were Varus, Caelius, and Vala Nu- 

^ Redderet..excu8aturos. — The common reading is, Beddertt 
fUio sacerdotium ; hominem Germanos nunquam satis excusaturos, 
etc. But here hominem (meaning Segestes) is in its wrong place. 
Several alterations have been proposed, but that of Wolf's, which 
is adopted in the text, is by far the best: it improves both sen- 
tences. Arminius speaks with contempt of a Roman priesthood 
being bestowed upon a Cheruscan chief. 

* Aliis gent'ibtts..tributa. — He means to say, that other tribes 
who, through their ignorance of the character of the Roman do- 
minion, do not make a strenuous resistance, may be more easily 
excused than those who have experienced it, and do not make 
every eflfort to escape from it. 

* Ignorantia. — Compare Peritia morum (c. 69). 

* Nescia, — " Unknown." So, Nesciuia habere (xvL 14). 

^ De/ecto«.— Selected by Augustus as his heir and successor. 

* Parentes. — ^It is doubtful whether this is the noun, or the par- 


ticiple of the verb pareo. Patriam and parentett (noun) are fre- 
quently found thus together, as in ScUl Cat. 6. HisLy. 17. On 
the other hand^ in this passage, parentes seems to be opposed to 

* Novas. — This is said, with reference to the old colonies 
planted by the Bomans, for the purpose of protecting the con- 
quered territory,- which had been destroyed after the victory of 

There is a little irregularity in the tenses of this chapter. 
Cderetf redderet, paveacerent, etc., would require, strictly, sus- 
pendissetf vidissent, exuisaentf diacessisset. 

Chap. LX. — * Non tnodo Cherusci, sed conterminae gentes, — 
Etiam is frequently thus omitted after aed, Non conaulihua modo, 
aed plerisque aenatoribua (^SaU. Cat 18). Sometimes we find the 
aed omitted, as in Nan modo Itbertaa^ etiam libido impunita (iv. 
35). Compare c. 77. iii. 1. 27. 44, 

' Quadraginta cohortibua Romania, — i,e, the fdur legions of 
Germania inferior, the first, the fifth, the twentieth, and the 
twenty-first. They are called Romania, to distinguish them from 
the allied troops, who remained to defend the winter quarters. 

' Bructeroa. — See Germ, 33. 

* Amiaia, — Amiaiua (^Plin. iv. 28). Now called Ems. 

* Pedo, — ^Probably C. Pedo Albinovanus, of whose poetry we 
have a fragment remaining on the voyage of Germanicus down 
the Amisia to the ocean (ii. 23, foil. Ovid ex Panto, iv. 10. 16). 

* Finibua, — ie. Per finea, as in c. 63, litore Oceani peter e 
Rhenum, and c. 8, ut porta triumphcUi duceretur funua. 

^ Friaiorum, — See Germ, 34. 

* Lacua, — These were afterwards absorbed in the Zuyderzee. 

* Lupia, — The sources of which are not far from those of the 

'® Amnea inter, — ^Prepositions are not unfrequently thus placed 
after the nouns they govern, cc, 65 and 75. 

" Haudprocul, etc — ^For an account of the disaster of Varus 
(which happened a*d. 9), see i.51. 61; ii 7. VeU, ii. 105. 116 — 
120. Dio, Ivi 18-24. As the ultimi Bi^terarum dwelt between 
the sources of the Lippe and the Ems, and as the forest of 
Oanegge or Oaning, between Lippapringe and Hauatenbechj occu- 

Q 5 


pies this position, it may be regarded the Teutoburgiensis 

Chap. LXL — * Principiis. — The central part of the camp ronnd 
the tribunal, where stood the auguratoriwn^ Ute praetorium, or 
general's tent, the eagle, standards, and the tents of the legati and 
tribuni. Smithes Diet, Ant p. 252. 

* Trium. . ostentabant — " Showed that the hands of three legions 
had been employed upon it;" i.e. Showed that when this camp 
was formed, the three legions wer^ still entire. 

^ Dein. — This refers to some spot distinct from that just spoken 
of. This second camp was made on the second day, on some hill 
or other (^Dio, Ivi. 21). 

* Medio campi, — The space between the first and second 

^ Antefixa era, — Grimm supposes these to be the heads of 
horses, but if this were the meaning^ we should have had capita. 
There can be little doubt that human skulls are intended. 

® Scrohes, — It is thought that these were used, not for burying 
the dead, many of whom were evidently left unburied, but the 
living, who were most hateful to the Germans. Germ, 12. 

Chap. LXII. — * Imperatorem. .praeditum, — Germanicus was 
both flamen and augur. Neve quia flamen aut augur in locwn 
Germanici nisi geniis Juliae crearetur (ii. 83). 

3 Attrectare feralia, — Augurs and priests were not allowed to 
do so, that they might not be polluted. 

Chap. LXIII. — * Campumque.,eripu — This is a phrase bor- 
rowed from the circus. When four chariots started from the 
carceres, if that which came through the first doorway won the 
prize, they said occupavii et vicit; if that which came through the 
second, successit et vicit; if that which came through the third, 
eripuit (campum praecedentibus) et vicit Tene, Astur, certante 
feret quisquam aequore paJmam Erepto f {Sil. xvi. 390). 

' Trudehanturque, etc. — See c, 23. 35. 

' Gnaram vincentihus. — See c. 5. Gnarum id Caesari, 

* Manihus acquis abscessum. — So, Aequa manu (Salt Cat 39). 
From what follows, however, it appears that the Romans were, 
at all events, compelled to retire with some loss. 


* Littore oceani. — So, Finihus Frisiorum (c. 60). 

® Suum militem. — The legions of Germania inferior, which he 
usually commanded. ' See c. 31. 

^ Pontes hmgos, . Angustus is trames. — These pontes longi were 
discovered in 1818, beneath the marshy soil in the province of 
Drenthe, not far from Coevorda and Valthe, running from the 
forest of Weerding to Ter-Haar. They consist of gravel heaped 
up and held together by stakes and beams on each side. The 
stakes have been worn away at the extremities by age, but still 
exist beneath the surface. 

® L, Domitio. — Grandfather of the emperor Nero (^Ann, iv. 44. 
Suet, Nerl 4). 

* Tenacia gravi coeno, — That is, the feet of those who stepped 
upon it stuck in the clay. 

*® Ut opus, et aJii proelium inciperent — The omission of the first 
alii is rather violent. Compare Virgis caedi, alii securi suhjici 
(^Liv, iii. 37). Helvetii . . navibus junctis . . alii vadis Rhodani . . si 
perrumpere possent, conati {C<ies, B, G, i. 8). Primvan is omitted 
in a similar manner in Ut hi, mox, pedes, etc. (c. 67). 

Chap. LXIV. — ^ Lacessunt,.occursant, — Lacessunt is opposed 
to circumgrediuntur, occursant. They first harassed the out- 
posts and those engaged in fortifying the camp; they then 
attacked the rear and the front {circumgrediuwtur occursant). 

' Pi7a.— These are mentioned because Caecina's men were all 
Boman legionaries. The allies were armed with spears and 
broad-swords. n 

' Inclinantes jam, — The MS. has torn ; which is changed by 
some editors into turn; but Wolf's correction, jam, gives a much 
clearer sense. Compare Germ, 8. Accisaejam (i. 61). 

* Dvplicatus. .labor, — That is, they had to do all their work 
over again. 

^ Quadragesimum.,sHpendium, — See ilL 33, and notes on i. 17. 

* Vdvens.-^Sc, mjinte, animo. Other instances of volvere used 
absolutely, as here, occur (^Ann. iii. 38. Hist i. 54. 64). So, 
duxissent for dux. sorts (iii. 58); affecit for aff, cahmitate (iv. 64); 
turbantem for turb. res {Hist i. 7). 

^ Pateretur, — So, Duri loci proelium hand patiebantur (xii. 55), 


Chap. LXV. — * InvaJidi ignes. — The watch-fires. Vigilum 
ignis male pervigil (^Stat Theb, viii. aSS). 

• Interruptae voces. — The cries of the sentinels. VigUes flagi- 
tium suum ducts dedecore excusabant, tamquam jussi sUere, ne 
quietem ejus turbarent; ita intermisso signo et vocibus, se quoque 
in somnum lapses {Hist. t. 23). The signum was given with the 
trumpet. JEssent is understood after interruptae. 

^ Atque ipsi. — This refers to the soldiers in general, as distin- 
guished from the sentinels. 

• Quies. — A dream or sleep. 

• Intendentis. — Sc. Fort, to drag Caecina along with him. 

• Sibi quisque properus. — ^Each in a hurry to save himself by 

^ Vinctae. — Prevented from flight. Clausos quodammodo et 
vinctos dii nobis tradiderunt {Agr, 33). Velut vincti caedebantur 
{Hist i. 79. Liv. V. 44). 

® SimuL haec. — Sc. dixit. Compare Simul haec, et crassum 
sanguine telum Jam redit {Stat. Theb. ii. 6^9). Simul coeptus 
dies et aderant {AnnaL iv. 35). There is no necessity, therefore, 
for striking out et, as has been proposed. 

• Aggerem petere. — To seek for earth and turf to make a ram- 
part. See ii. 81. Qui paub longius aggeris petendi causa pro^ 
cesserant {Caes. B. G. ii.30). 

'® Funestos. — Portending death. 

Chap. LXVI. — * Decumana porta.—This was the largest gate 
of the camp, and was placed on the side most distant from the 
enemy, whence it is frequently called aversa porta. See Liv. x. 
34. xxii. 34. Smith's Diet. Ant. p. 353. It took its name from 
the form of the camp, the two principal streets of which crossed 
each other at right angles, and so made the letter X (decern). 
The other gates were the porta praetoria^ so called from the 
praetorium, which stood near it, on the side opposite the porta 
decumana ; and the principals dextra and sinistra, by which the 
tents of the principes stood. The decuman gate was sometimes 
called quaestoria, from the tent of the quaestor being anciently 
situated near it ; and the praetorian gate extraordinaria, from 
the extraordinariiy consisting of a third part of the cavalry, and 
a fifth of the infantry, of the allies, who pitched their tents near 


Chap. LXVII. — * Contractos in principia. — In this part of the 
camp was the tribunal, near which the standards were deposited. 
Statins (T^^.x. 130) calls it ConcilU penetrate domumque veren^ 
dam (c.6i). 

' Donee expugnandi. . succederent — ^Tacitus has other instances 
of a similar transposition. Compare Ereptumjtts legatis ducendi 
in hostem (xiii. 54). Ardore retinendae Agrippinam potentiae 
(xiv. 3). Ministros temptare arduum videhatur mulieris (xiy. 3). 

' Quae in cattris Aone<to.— Military marks of honour, and also 
the standards. 

* Ambitione, — ^Partiality. 

Chap. LXVIIL — * Agebat — This is simply equivalent to erat. 
Compare Germ, 7. 17. 19. 29. 

' Proruunt».crate8, — In order to get into the camp, the Grer- 
mans filled up the trench with earth from the outer brink, and 
this not being sufScient, they threw hurdles over it. Tacitus 
uses proruere, in the sense of overthrowing {Ann. xiv. 61. Hist 
iii. 33. 33). 

Chap. LXIX. — * Impositum Bheno pontem. — This was the 
bridge at Vetera. 

^ Munia duds. . induit, — ^Fulfilled the duties, or performed the 
part, of a general. Tacitus uses induere in this sense (Ann, xii. 
40. XY. 45. xvi. 38* Hist iv. 38. 57) ; and exuere in the contrary 
sense (^nn.ii.73. Hist,!,^, iii. 43. iv.70). 

* C.Plinius. — Sc. major. He wrote twenty books on the 
German wars ; thirty-one of the history of his own times, from 
the point at which the narrative of Aufidius Bassus ceased; and 
several other works (P/i'n. Ep, iii. 5). Another work of his is 
mentioned' elsewhere (^Ann, xiii. 30. xv. 53. Hist iii. 38). The 
only work of his which has come down to us, is his natural 
history, in thirty-seven books. 

* Non simplices eas euros, — ** That there was some sinister 
design in all this anxiety." 

* Odia..jaciens,—A metaphor from sowing seed. 

Chap. LXX. — * Qwis navibus vexerat^{c. 60). There were 
four of these legions. On the return, he left two with Yitellius, 


to go by land along the shore; the other two he embarked, and 
conveyed to the Ems, where he meant to await the arrival of 

' Beciproco. — At the return of the ebb-tide. So, Mare red- 
procum {Plin,y.4). Amnis reciprocus (Id. ix. ^y). Off this part 
of the coast the sea retires to a great distance irom the shore. 

' Sidere aequinoctiu — That is, the autumnal equinox. Com- 
pare Caes. B, G. iv. 38. The ancients imagined that the constel- 
lations influenced the tide. 

* Eadem. , fades, — From this and several passages, it is clear 
that the coast was not then, as now, protected by banks of sand 
from the incursions of the sea. 

* Subtracto solo. — That is, they got out of their depth. 

* Sapiens ah rudi. — The MS. has a prudenti. Hence some 
have conjectured ab imprudenti; others, tJisciens a prudenti. Ah 
rudi is the simplest and best correction — ab rudi might easily be 
corrupted to a prudi, and that to a prudenti, 

^ Utensilibus. — Literally, the word merely implies " things for 
use : " here it may mean, either cooking utensils or provisions. 
It is used in the former sense by Livy (xxvi. 33); in the latter, 
by Tacitus (ii. 60. iii. 52. xv. 39). 

^ Ad amnem Amisiam. — There is some difficulty in this pas- 
sage. The MS. has Visurginiy where there is evidently some 
error. I have adopted Bitter's correction, ad Amisiam^ which he 
thus explains. In the words mox reducto ad Amisiam exercitu 
(t. e, the army which Germanicus led, not that under Caecina 
also) legumes classe, ut advexerat, reportat (c, 63), Tacitus briefly 
comprehends and describes the return of Germanicus from the 
expedition to the Visurgis (Weser). But he was prevented 
from stating how the return was eflected, by the long acconnt of 
Caecina's army (cc. 63-6^). In this chapter he resumes the 
thread of his story, and explains how the four legions were con- 
veyed back — first to the Ems, and thence to the Rhine. Two 
legions sailed to the Ems with Germanicus,. and the other two, 
under Vitellius, went by land from the mouth of the Weser to 
the same place, and all were then conveyed in vessels to the 

Chap. LXXT. — ^ Segimerum. — Velleius (ii. 118) is the only 



one who says Armimus was the brother of Sigimerus. This 
Segimenis is a different person, though the name is probably a 
Tariation of the same. 

Chap. LXXII. — * Triumpkalia insignia, — The sella curulisy 
the ivory sceptre, the fotemost seat at the games, the right of 
wearing the laurel chaplet, the toga puita, and the tunica palmata, 
Statuae honor et quicquid pro triumpho daiur {Agr. 40). They 
are also called triumpkalia omamenta. After the time of Augus- 
tus, very few wore honoured with the triumph itself (Smithes Diet, 
Ant, p. 1167). 

* In acta ««a jwrori.— See note on c. 7. 

' Legem majestatis. — The crime of majestas nearly corresponds 
to treason in the English law. On the enactments upon this 
subject, see Smith's Diet Antp, 724. 

* Impune erant, — ^A similar use of this adverb is found, Ann. 
iL52. iii. 28. Germ. 25. 

* Primus Augustus cognitionem, — Die Ivi. 27. Suet Aug, 55. 
Smith's Diet. Ant. p. 702. 

* Cassii Severi. — Ann. iv. 21. Quintil. vi. 1. 43. x. 1. 22. 116. 
xi. 1. 57. 

^ Lihidine. — Libido, in Tacitus, is libertas carried too far. Non 
attingo Graecos, quorum non modo libertas etiam libido impunita 
(iv. 35). It is equivalent to licentia, or {jfipig, 

® An judieia. . redderentur. — ^** Whether the old laws of treason 
should be revived " (^Suet Tib, 58). The praetor was Raid judieia 
reddere or dare, when he gave authority for a trial and appointed 
jiidices {Smith's Diet Ant. pp,i 1.646), The meaning here is, 
the restoration or appointment of concilia judieum (t. e. bodies of 
judices acting as assessors to the praetor), for trying persons 
charged with majestas (^Smith's Diet Ant. p. 648). 

' Carmina.,vulgata, — These verses are still extant in Suet, 

Chap. LXXin. — ^ Modicts equitibus, — That is, in point of 
fortune. The equites iUustres were those who had the privilege 
of wearing the latiis ctavus. To them belonged the sons of, the 
senators before they obtained any offices, and those who pos- 
sessed the fortune of a senator, and to whom, in consequence, 


tlie road to the offices of the state was open. The tquilet omt 
gusticlavii were those who were not sprung from senators, and 
who, from not possessing more than the ordinary fortune of an 
eques, were precladed from hearing the offices of the state. See 
Dio Iv. 3. Smithes Diet Ant p. 474. 

' Quibus initiis. — i.e. Bj the passing of the lex Papia Pappaea, 
and hj offering rewards to informers. 

' Dein repressum sit — By Vespasian and Titos {HisU It. 30. 
44), as afterwards hj Trajan {PUn. Pan. 34). 

* Po8tre7no..corripuerit — Under Domitian (^^.2.45. SueL 
Bom. 10. 11). 

^ Qui..habebantur. — He means that colleges of snch priests 
or worshippers were commonly found in the houses of private 

' Viotatum . numen Augusti. — Numen is a conjectural alteration 
for nrnnenj which is the MS. reading. Compare Hor. Ep. iL 1. 15. 
Jugjurandum neque sanctius sibi neque crebrius institttit qvam per 
Auguatum (^Suet Claud. 11). 

^ Ludia, — Afterwards called ludi Palatini, from the place where 
they were held. They appear to have consisted of scenic exhi- 
bitions (Joseph. Ant Jud. xix. 1. Suet, CcU. 56. 2>tb IvL 46). 

Chap. LXXIV.— » Praetorem Biih^iae.'-Yrom Dio (liiL 12) 
we learn that Bithynia was one of the provinces to which the 
governors were appointed by the senate and people ; and from 
Strabo (zvii.j9.840) it appears, that Bithynia was a praetorian 
province. Dio Qm. 14) informs us, that the emperor appointed, ' 
as governors of the provinces of which he had the direction, 
indifferently persons who had filled the office of consul, or those 
who had been praetors ; but that, by the senate, men of consular 
rank were sent to the consular provinces, and men of praetorian 
rank to the praetorian provinces. So that, as far as the nature 
of the province is concerned, Marccllus might have been called 
praetorem. But, in xvi. 18, Tacitus speaks of the proconsul of 
Bithynia; and Pliny (£[p. x.65. 109.113, and elsewhere) calls 
the governors of Bithynia proconsuls, never praetors or proprae- 
tors. This is explained by Dio (liil. 13), who tells us that 
Augustus directed the governors sent out by the senate, whether 
of consular or praetorian rank, to be caiRQd proconsuks, but those 


sent oat by himself to be styled legati and propraetores, even 
though of consular rank. So that it would appear that, in this 
passage of Tacitus, either the word praetorem has been substi- 
tuted for proconsulem by some copyist, who found that Bithynia 
was a praetorian province, or else that Marcellus is called praetor 
for some reason which is unknown. Possibly he was appointed 
irregularly by the emperor instead of by the senate, and sent 
with an army to Bithynia. Emestl defends praetorem on the 
ground that the word may be applied to any governor of a pro- 
vince or commander of an army ; but Tacitus never uses it in 
this general way. In ii 56. 77. iv. 15, where jut praetoria and 
vhpraetoris occur, the lieutenants of the emperor are referred to. 
Tacitus carefully distinguishes ihQ proconsules sent by the senate 
(L53. ii.53. xiii. 1, etc) fiom the propraetores sent by the em- 
peror (iv. 73. xii. 40, etc.) 

' Majestatis poetulavit — By bringing a chaise of treason 
against him. (See the end of the chapter.) Postulare is fre- 
quently used in reference, both to private and public trials. In 
the former^ it properly means to ask the praetor's permission for 
bringing an action against any one; in the latter, to ask his 
permission to impeach any one. From this it came to be equi- 
valent to accvsare. In tl\is sense it is joined with the ablative in 
poatulaverat repeiuhdis (iiL 38) ; but in other passages with the 
genitive, like accusare (vi. 19), arguere (vi. 10), abaolvere (iv. 13), 
damnare (ii. 55) (fimith*8 Diet Ant p. 649). 

' Subscribente Romano Hiapone. — Subscribere is applied to 
both the principal and the secondary accuser, from their signing 
their names at the bottom of the indictment 

* Qui formam vitae iniit — That is, Crispinus, not Hispo, as 
appears from what follows: — Marcdlum infiimulabdt..addidit 
Hispo. Compare Sulla cum Hispanos et GaUos donaret, credo 
huHC petentem repudiasset: quern (sc. SuUam) noSy etc. (^Cicpro 
Arch, 10.) The ablative subscribente Hispone forms a paren- 

* Poatremum, — So, xL 2. Commonly adpostremum ; as in xiii. 
46. Hist i. 39. 

^ Alia in statua. . inditam. Compare Suet Tib. 58. This was 
common enough in the time of Pliny : — Surdo figurarum discri- 
mine capita permutantur (xxxv. 2). 


^ Ad quod exarsit, etc — This was an indignitj offered to 
tyrants ; and Marcellos, by this act, seemed to charge Aognstits 
with being snch. In addition to which, as Angostos was a god, 
it was an act of impiety. 

* Laturum. — On the various modes in which Tiberius was ac- 
customed to administer justice, and the sentences he passed, see 
Dtolyii.7. .^ljiii.iY.31. In grave cases it was customary for 
the senate and princeps to deliver judgment on oath (^Amh. 

iv. 30- 

' Quantoque, etc. — ^Emesti conjectured quandoque. The alter- 
ation is unnecessary. Properly, we should have had a compara- 
tive in the second member as well as the first ; but Tacitus is 
very lax in the use of such phrases. Compare QiioiUo qma ser- 
vitio proniptior opibus extoUerentur (c.s). Quo plus virium ae 
roboriSf tarditas e fiducia inerat (Hist ii. 11). Ut quis distrietior 
accusator, velut sacrosanctus erat (iv. 316). Compare e. 57. 

10 Efferverat. — Some editors read efferhuerat Both forms of 
the perfect occur. In Virgil, fervere is always a verb of the 
third conjugation. 

" Paenitentia patiens. — Paenitentia is here equivalent to a 
participle, and patiens to patienter. 

*' Absolvi reum, — Suetonius (Tt&. 58) mentions a case in which 
a person charged with this offence was condemned. 

^^ Ad recuperatores, — Commissioners for estimating and re- 
covering the damages and making restitution to those who had 
been injured. The cause was tried in the senate, and not before 
the praetor, in compliance with the recommendation of Maecenas 
to Augustus, that all charges against senators, or their wives 
and children, should be brought before the senate ( Dio lii. 31). 
Bespecting the leges repetundarum, see SnUth^s Diet Ant p.g/SS. 

Chap. LXXV.— * In comu tribunalis. — A comer, probably on 
the right of the front part of the tribunal (^Suet Tib. 33). 

' VeritatL — That is, Ut ex vero statuerent (iv. 43). 

' Senator, — This is added to denote that he was not of con- 
sular or praetorian rank. 

* Mole publicae viae. — 1. e. The immense stones which were 
used for making the public roads ; the carrying which through 
the city was accustomed, as we learn from Pliny, to shake the 


honses. Ncn, ut anUy mmanatm transvectione saxorum urbts 
tecta quatiuniur : stant securae domus, nee jam templa nutantia 

' JDvciuque aquamm. — Many works of this kind were under- 
taken under the direction of Augustus ; as, the aqua Jviiaj the 
aqua Virgo, the aqua Augusta {Frontm. de Aquaed). 

* Aerarii praetarUms. — ^This is a new term ; but there is no 
reason to suspect say error. Augustus transferred the charge 
of the treasury from the city quaestors to the praetors, or persons 
of praetorian rank (^Suet. Oct 36}. Claudius restored the charge 
to the quaestors. But Nero, a second time, placed it in the 
hands of officers who had passed thix>ugh the praetorship, and 
bore the title of praefects. They appear then to have held office 
for two years ; at least this was the case under Trajan (P/tn. 
Pan. 91). See xiiL 28. ag. HisL iv. 9. Suet Claud, g. 04. Dio Hii. 9. 

^ JErogandae, — Erogare is a word specially connected with the 
treasury. It perhaps signified, originally, to ask for a grant of 
public money; but is usually used in the sense of expending 
such money. 

* Veidam ordinis. — Permission to retire from the rank of 

Chap. LXXVI. — * Auctus. . atagnaverat — Compare Plin. Ep, 
▼iii. 17. Dio Ivii. 14. These inundations were always consi- 
dered ill-omened (P/t'n. iii. 5). To prevent them, Augustus 
widened the bed of the river. Trajan dug a canal frx>m the 
Milvian bridge through the VaUe deW Inferno^ to draw ofp its 
waters. Anrelian secured the banks of the river with strong 
walls from the city to Ostia. The- best plan was that of 
J. Caesar, which his death prevented him from carrying into 
effect — ^to drain the Pontine marshes, and cause the Tiber to 
empty itself into the sea, by a broad and deep canal dug froTo. 
the city to Terracina {Suet. Jul, 44). 

' Lihri SibyUini. — See vi. 12. 

* Renuit — So, in SuetCaes.Qy. Plin.Ep.hy. Benuere is 
used of a superior, a6ntt€re of an equal 

* Eemedium.,mandatum. — The curatores alvei Tiberini {Suet 
Aug. 37) seem only to have had the charge of cleansing the bed 
of the river. 


^ Achaiam. — The Romans then applied this term to the whole 
of Greece. The partition of the provinces between the emperor 
and the senate was made by Angastos in his sixth consulate. 
He very wisely took upon himself the management of the frontier 
provinces. From many causes, the provinces under the direction 
of the senate were in a much worse condition than those nnder 
the direction of the emperor. They had to furnish all that was 
required by thb proconsul and the quaestor, with their nu- 
merous train of attendants ; from which burdens Achaia and 
Macedonia were now relieved by being transferred to the pro- 
praetor of Moesia (c. 86). As the main object of the senators 
was to share the spoil as equally as possible, the governors sent 
out by them were changed every year, and were appointed by 
lot; those sent out by the emperor were selected for their ability, 
and retained their command for several years — sometimes having 
more than one province united under their jurisdiction. Again, 
if a governor misconducted himself, redress was more easily 
obtained from the emperor than from the senate, when they were 
liable to all the uncertainties and corruption of a trial (see c. a); 
and the legati of the emperor, having greater authority, were 
better able to repress disorder in their troops or attendants. 
Tiberius, on several occasions, displayed his concern for the 
interests of the provinces (iv. 15). See Sttet Tib. 32. Smith*s 
Diet Ant. p. 967. 

* Tradique Caesari, — See c. 80. Annal. v. 10. Hence Strabo, 
who lived in the middle of the reign of Tiberius, enumerates 
(xvii. 840) Achaia and Macedonia amongst the provinces of the 
emperor; Dio (liii. 12), amongst those of the people. Claudius 
restored them to the people {Suet Claud. 25. Dio, Ix. 24). 

^ Trahebant — Compare c. 62. 

Chap. LXXVH. — ' Proximo. — Eitter suspects the genuineness 
of the reading, maintaining that there is no more need for the 
insertion of prior e here, than in proximae seditionis male consvUa, 
c. 78, and nocte proxima inglutavity c. 22. 

^ PraeUyriae cohortis. — It woi^ld appear from this, that the 
praetorian cohort was in attendance at the theatre to prevent 
disorder. Ann. xiii. 24. 

3 Quia divus Augustus. . responderat — CoSrcitionem in histrioMS 


magistratibus in omni tempore et loco lege vetere permissam ademit, 
praeterquam ludis et scena (^Suet Aug. 45). That is, except during 
the games, and on the stage. Exile and imprisonment were the 
modes of punishment which he allowed. 

* De modo lucaris, — Lucar, property fees paid to those who 
took part in the religious services celebrated in groves. Here it 
means the pay of the actors. Theatrical games were considered 
partly of a religious character. The pay varied at different 
times: sometimes it was five, sometimes seven, denarii per day. 
M. Antoninus (apud Capitol. 11) temperavit scenicas donationes^ 

jubens ut quinos aureoa scenici acciperent; ita tamen ut nuUus 
editor decern aureoa egrederetur. He is speaking, probably, of the 
pay per month. Suet Tib. 34. 

* Fautorum. — ^Persons hired to applaud some actors and hiss 
others, like the French claqueurs of the present day. 

' Ne domoa..cingerent. — Ostendam nobilissimos juvenes mancipia 
pantomimorum (^Seneca Ep. 47). Actores . . quibus viri aninms, 
Jeminae autem etiam corpora sua substemunt {TertuO,. de Spect, 

Chap. LXXVlll. — * Templum, etc. — This was still standing 
in the age of Hadrian. Tarracone ' hiemavitf ubi sumptu suo 
aedem Augusti restituit (Spart Hadr. 13). 

^ Rerum Venalium. — ^At auctions, whence Ducentesima auc- 
tionum {Suet. Cal, 16). 

' Post bella civilia institutam. — 'By Augustus in a.d. 6, together 
with the militare aerariumy and a tax of five per cent, on in- 
heritances (Dio, Iv. 25. Suet. Aug. 49). When Cappadocia was 
reduced to the form of a province, the tax was reduced by one- 
half (ii. 42); but after the death of Sejanus, Tiberius again raised 
it to its former amount (J>to, Iviii. 16). From some coins and 
medals, it appears, that in ▲.ix 38, Caligula, in place of the tax 
of one per cent which Dio (lix. 9) says he abolished, exacted 
one-half of that amount, which, in the following year, was re- 
mitted (Suet. Cal. 16). 

* Imparem..dimitterentur. — The sooner they were disbanded, 
the oftener would the state have to discharge its debts due to 

' Sedecim stipendiorumfinem, — That is, the termination of the 
service at the end of sixteen years. 


* Abolita in posterum. — Those who served in Italy, however, 
were still disbanded at the end of sixteen years (^Dio, Ivii. 6). 

Chap. LXXES. — * Flumina. — The Clanis, Amus, Nar, Tinia 
Fabaris, Allia, Cremera, Anio. 

' Clanis. — Now called La Chiana. It rises near Arretium 
(Arrezzo)f and flows partly into the Amo and partly into the 
Tiber. It is not the whole river that is here spoken of, but the 
lake, whence it flows with an increased stream not far from Lake 

' Amua, — ^Now the Amo. 

* Interamnates. — Now Temi, Nar. — ^Now the Neri. 

* Reate. — Now JRieti^ on the Lacus Velinus, now the Lago di 

* Patriis. — Here, " belonging to one's patria*' So, Ovid. Met 
iv. 392. Virg. Aen. ix. 672. According to Emesti, however, it 
means, " worshipped by one's forefathers." 

Chap. LXXX. — * Poppaeo Sabino. — He was consul in a.d. 9. 
Modicua originis, principum amicitia consulatum ac triumphah 
decus adeptus, maximisque provinciis per quattuor et viginti annos 
imposituSf nullam oh eximiam artem, aed quod par negotiis neque 
supra erat (v. 10. vi. 39. xiii. 45). 

* Continuare imperia. — Suet. Tib. 41. 

® Jurisdictionibus. — This refers to those provinces in which no 
army was kept up, but which were governed by procuratores. 

* Causae variae traduntur.^Josephua (^Ant. Jud, xviii. 8) at- 
tributes it to his desire to spare the provinces. See c. 76. Dio, 
Iviii. 23. Suetonius {Tib. 41), to indolence and neglect. But 
this refers rather to the latter years of his life. 

^ Ut mandaverit.. possums. — Dio, Iviii 19. See Suet Tib.G^, 
Aelius Lamia administrandae Syriae imagine exsolutus (vL 27). 

Chap. LXXXI, — * Turn primum. — In the second year of the 

reign of Tiberius. 2>emc6p».^-During the remaining years of 

his reign. See Dio, Iviii. 20. 




As the relations of the members of the Augustan family are 
exceedingly mtricate, and a knowledge of them is essential for 
understanding many parts of the First. Book of the Annals, a 
stemma of the family is subjoined, drawn up by Lipsius. 

C. OctaA^us, the father of Augustus, was married twice. . By 
his first wife, Ancharia, he had Octavia the elder ; by his second 
wife, Atia (the daughter of Atius Balbus and Julia, the sister of 
Julius Caesar), he had Octavia the younger, and C. Octavius, 
afterwards Augustus. It is doubtful from which of the daughters 
the following progeny springs. 



L Ogtavia was married twice, and had-* 

^1. M. JVaroeKiis, in.-(l) Poinpeia» dr. of Sexttis Pompeios, and (2) 
Julia, dr. of Auguatua— had no progeny. Died in hia Utli 
year, B.a 23. 

a. By C. Mar- ^ 

2. MareeUet, the elder, m. twice, and had-r- 

a. By M.VipfiaDius ) Children of names unknown (Suet. Aug. 
Agrippa. J 63). 

b. By M. An- 


Triumvir. (. 
8. MareeQa, the younger. 

Antonia* the elder. 
By L. Domitius 


''l. DomUia, m. Oispus Passienus? 
2. J>omiHa Lepida. 

a. By M. Valeriua) ^^^^^^^r^^^'Z 
fiarbatus Mes- > ™- Claudius, the 

0.11. I emperor. 

«^** J (SeJbelow.) 


2. On. JXmiHf^ by) ^^' q^^ 
^VP^ j PopiSr 


2. ^nfoniatheyoung- A. Germanicus, adopted by Tiberius, 
er. By Aflrrippina. dr. ) a^^ k^i„™ 

By Drusus, brother 
of Tiberius.: 

By Agrippina, 

i See below. 



2. Livict, or livilla. 
m. C. Caesar, and afterwards Drusus, son 
of Tib^us, betrothed to Sejanus 
{AntuU. iv. 40). 

{1. Drumt. 
2. Claudia. 
^Antonia. , 

6. ByAellaPetina.] SiiJ^»^I^S"udfu; 

(^ and Faustus Buliii. 

1. Octavia. 
Betrothed to L 

e. By Valeria Mes-; ^f^'^e^W 


2. Clatuiius Briton- 


* Tacitus makes Antonia the younger wife of Domitius {Armal. iv. 41. zii. 64). 



IT. AuousTUS had no children by his other wives; by Scribonia, daugh- 
ter of L. ScriboniuB Libo, he had one daughter, Julia. Julia Was 
married three times. 

nius Agrippa. 

a- By M. liaroeUoa, son Of C. Maroellus and Octaviar— had no progeny. 

/ 1. Caiui Caetar. adopted by Aogostus, m. Livia, sister of Oer- 
b. By M. Vipsa- manicua^ died a.d. 4. 

2. Lueiiu Oaaar, adopted by Augustus, betrothed to Aemilia 
Lepida, died a.d. 2. 

' 1. M. Aemilitu Lqndiu, m. Drusilla, dr. of 

2. Aemilia Lepida. 

a. Betrothed to Claudius. 

b. By Ap. Junius /I. L. SUantu. 
Silanus. I Betrothed to Octa- 

I via, dr. of Glau- 
J dius. 
^ 2. M. SiUmut. 

Proconsul of Asia. 
3. Jtmia Colvina. 
m. son of Vitel- 

3. Jfdia, 
By L. AemiliuB 
the Censor. 


:. By Drusus, son ] ^ 
of Germanicus? 3^°^®- 

f 1. Nero. m. Julia, dr. of Drusus, son of Ti- 
berius (Anmal. vi. 27). 
2. Drusu8, m. Aemilia Lepida (AwnaL vi. 

8. Caius Calioula. 

By Cn. DomitiuB. j Nsbo. 

6. DnuiUoy m. L. Cassius and H. Aemilius 

6. Livia, or lavilla, m. M. Vicinius and 

Quinctilius Varus. 

5. Agrippa Fostumus; adopted 1^ Augustus^ put to death by 
, Tib< 

4. Affriji^pina. J 
By Germanicu8.A 

iberius a.d. 14. 

c. By Tiberius, had none. 


m. AnonsTUS, after divorciDg his former wife, Scribonia, married 
Livia Dmsilla, by whom he had no children. Livia, however, had 
been previously married to Tiberius Claadias Nero, by whom she had 
two sons, Tiberins, afterwards emperor, and Drosns, who was born 
three months after her marriage with Aagostos. 

1. TiBKBiXTB Kkbo^ adopted by Aagostos. 

a. By Vipsania Agrip- f 

pina, gr. dr. of At- J Drtmu, 


b. By JifHa, dr. of 

\ Byliivia^ sister 
I of Oermani 




1. 71 Oemdlus, killed by Caligula 

(Sua. CaU 25). 

2. -> GemOLua {Annal. ii. 84. iv. 15)l 

3. Jvlia. 

a. By Nero, ") 

son of (tor- > None. 

manioos. ) 
h. ByRobel- ) Rvbdliut 

lios Blan- f Plavtiu 

dos (^9^|(^nmai.xvL 

2. Dbusub. 

By Antonia the 

See above. 


Which are quoted or referred to in Botticher's Remarks on 

his Style. 











Chap. Page. 





, 61, 62. - 































, 5i» 53. 






















46, 52. 











' 35. 




















46, 50- 
























69 (bis). 
























42 (bis). 




37, 49. 








33, 62, 67. 






33» 47. 




III. ADOCSTue, after divoicing hb former wife, SciibDmi, n 
LiTia Dnuilla, by wb<Hn he hod no children. liria, bontnij 
been previonsl/ married to Tiberins Claadina If era, by whom it 
two BOM, Tibering, afterwarda emperor, and Dnisas, whrnwl 
three monttiE after her mairiage witii Aogiutas. ' 

L. TiBxuuH Nebo, adopted bj Aagaatax. 

-'- - gt.ii.otitr \ Dtmhu, [ 

Bylirta, rirtsr) 

Ti. ScnuUui, kOM br 01 

(&«(. cm. ss). 


UUB B\aa-1Flaiaa 
diu (^B- f (.fiwal. iii. . 

?"• !«. 























23. 40- 


50, 63. 




38, 46. 










59 (note). 






27, 28. 




39 (bis). 








. ^^* 


41, 61. 


,33 (note). 
































24, 26. 








19, 64. 








46, 70. 
















































28, 38. 


























29» 37. 







17 (note). 










27, 64. 








29, 47- 








20, 41. 




















51, 67. 


' 64. 



45, 61. 























Chap. Page. 




31. 43. 















61, 64. 












24» 31. 37. . 







51 (bis). 


















24, 25, 60. 













36, 39- 

































. 20. 








36, 61. 





















46, 60. 










26, 40. 



































































46, 49. 



















Chap. Page. 



17 42. 





18 44, 47, 65. 

52 61, 



3i» 68. 

19 5i» 63. 

55 ' 




22 34, 42, 69 (bis). 



33 33 (note), 54, 

25 64, 67. 




33 5J- 




24, 38, 40. 

35 52. 





41 69. 



43 25. 

















3 64. 

AftpTrrvTA 1 

5 64. 

6 31. 




33 (note). 

10 65. 



33 (note). 

18 18 (note), 22. 



21 34- 





22 18 (note), 44. 





25 45. 





29 38. 





31 3i» 59. 





34 54. 





40 53. 





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